# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

HTH 408 Chapter 12 Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Health Research Methods
23
Health Care
02/03/2013

Term
 Inferential statistics
Definition
 Conclusions about the population are inferred from the information obtained about the sampleGeneralizations from the sample to the populationExtrapolate findings from sample to population
Term
 Point estimate
Definition
 Uses sample data to calculate a single number (statistic) to estimate the parameter of interest (for example a mean)
Term
 Point estimate does not include
Definition
 information about the variability between samples (uncertainty)
Term
 Interval estimate
Definition
 Provides a range of reasonable values that are intended to include the parameter of interest Establishes degree of confidence
Term
 Confidence Interval
Definition
 The range of values used in an interval estimation Influenced by the standard deviation and sample size
Term
 From the mean and standard deviation of a sample, we can predict the
Definition
 intervals within which 68, 95 and 99% of our cases would be expected to fall
Term
 Acceptance or rejection of a hypothesis is based upon a
Definition
 level of significance (alpha level)
Term
 Type 1 error
Definition
 Rejection of a null hypothesis when it in fact is true
Term
 What determines the probability of type 1 error?
Definition
 alpha level
Term
 Type 2 error
Definition
 If the null hypothesis is accepted when in fact it is false
Term
 Five tests of parametric data
Definition
 Pearson correlationIndependent Sample t-testDependent Sample t-testOne-way ANOVACorrelated F ratio
Term
 Five tests of non-parametric data
Definition
 Spearmanâ€™s rChi-Square testMann-Whitney U testKruskal-Wallis testWilcoxon Signed test
Term
 Independent Sample t-test
Definition
 Used to compare the average (MEAN) in one group with the average in another group
Term
 Dependent Sample t-test
Definition
 Compare the average for measurements made twice within the same person BEFORE and AFTERUsed to compare a treatment group AND a matched control group
Term
 One-way anova
Definition
 Used to compare more than two means from independent groups
Term
 Chi Square
Definition
 Used in causal comparative studiesData are in frequency counts Compares observed and expected (theoretical) frequencies Typically used in a 2 X 2 tableChi square = sum [(observed-expected)^2/expected]
Term
 Mann-whitney U-test
Definition
 Non-parametric equivalent of independent t-test
Term
 Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test
Definition
 Nonparametric equivalent of the paired t-test
Term
 Kruskal-Wallis Test
Definition
 Non-parametric equivalent of One-way ANOVA
Term
 Three types of regression
Definition
 Simple linear regressionlogistic regressionMultiple regression
Term
 Simple linear regression
Definition
 Used to assess how one continuous variable can be used to predict a second continuous outcome variable
Term
 Logistic regression
Definition
 Used to assess the predictive value of one or more variables on an outcome that is dichotomous
Term
 Multiple regression
Definition
 A multivariate technique that determines the correlation between a criterion variable (dependent variable) and a combination of two or more predictor variables (independent variables) An extension of simple linear regression to investigate the relationships among a number of different variables
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