# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

HTH 408 Chapter 11 Descriptive Statistics
Health Research Methods
57
Health Care
02/03/2013

Term
 Descriptive statistics
Definition
 are simply describing what is or what the data shows.
Term
 Inferential statistics
Definition
 you are trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone (generalize).
Term
 Descriptive statistics are Are a means of organizing and summarizing data through
Definition
 TablesGraphsNumerical summary measures
Term
 Ordinal data focuses on
Definition
 Identity and magnitude
Term
 Interval focuses on
Definition
 identity, magnitude, and exponential
Term
 Ratio focuses on
Definition
 identity, magnitude, exponential, and true value
Term
 Two types of data
Definition
 categorical and scale/metrics
Term
 Two types of categorical data
Definition
 nominal and ordinal
Term
 Two types of scale data
Definition
 Ratio and interval
Term
 Nominal
Definition
 all subjects assigned a value, those with the same value are the same on that characteristic but categories are not necessarily the same.
Term
 Scale data can be converted into
Definition
 ordinal and nominal
Term
 Nominal
Definition
 Persons or objects with the same value are the same on some attribute.The values of the scale have no 'numeric' meaning
Term
 Ordinal
Definition
 People or objects with a higher scale value have more of some attribute.The intervals between adjacent scale values are indeterminate.Scale assignment is by the property of "greater than," "equal to," or "less than."
Term
 Scale
Definition
 Intervals between adjacent scale values are equal with respect the attribute being measured.
Term
 Using the wrong type of data may violate the assumptions of statistical tests which then makes interpreting your results __________/________
Definition
 difficult/impossible
Term
 What is a codebook?
Definition
 List of variables Assigned valuesLevel of measurement
Term
 What does a codebook do?
Definition
 Facilitates data entry into SPSS
Term
 two types of nonparametric data
Definition
 nominal and ordinal
Term
 Two types of parametric data
Definition
 interval and ratio
Term
 Population
Definition
 the set of elements we are planning study
Term
 Sample
Definition
 subset of population
Term
 Parameter
Definition
 population
Term
 Statistic
Definition
 sample
Term
 Frequency distribution
Definition
 Organizes ungrouped data by indicating the number of times (frequency) each score was obtained
Term
 Frequency distribution is ranked from
Definition
 highest to lowest
Term
 Frequency distribution, table of results that shows the
Definition
 number of times a characteristic comes up
Term
 Histogram
Definition
 A type of bar graph, in which lines or bars represent each score or set of scores rather than lines connecting the frequencies of each score
Term
 Methods shows
Definition
 who was in the sample
Term
 Skewness
Definition
 The degree to how the scores fall disproportionately to one end of the distribution
Term
 , , , , ,, ,
Definition
 normal, unimodal and symmetric
Term
 , , , , , , , ,, , , ,
Definition
 bimodal
Term
 ,, , ,,,,
Definition
 negative skew
Term
 ,, , ,,,,,
Definition
 positive skew
Term
 Three measures of central tendency
Definition
 mode median mean
Term
 Mode
Definition
 The score in the distribution that occurs most frequently
Term
 Median
Definition
 Middle score of the distribution that divides the distribution into halves containing an equal number of scores
Term
 Mean
Definition
 Arithmetic average of ALL the scores in the distributionAdd all the scores and divide by the number of scores
Term
 Central tendency for nominal data
Definition
 mode
Term
 Central tendency for ordinal data
Definition
 mode and median
Term
 Central tendency for scale data
Definition
 mode, median, and mean
Term
 Two measures of variability
Definition
 range and standard deviation
Term
 Range
Definition
 The numerical difference between the highest and lowest scores in the distribution (doesnâ€™t make sense for nominal data but works for ordinal and scale level data).
Term
 Standard deviation
Definition
 A statistic that indicates the average distance of the scores from the mean of the distribution (only works for scale level data).
Term
 Variation measure for ordinal data
Definition
 range
Term
 Variation measure for scale data
Definition
 range and standard deviation
Term
 Variation measure for nominal data
Definition
 none
Term
 Measure of relationship
Definition
 correlation
Term
 Correlation
Definition
 Degree to which the scores of TWO or more variables are RELATEDA measure of the relationship between two variables
Term
 Correlation indicates
Definition
 the DIRECTION and STRENGTH of a relationship between 2 variables
Term
 Two types of correlation tests
Definition
 Spearman Rank Order CorrelationPearson Product-Moment Correlation
Term
 Positive correlation
Definition
 Increase in one variable is accompanied by an increase in the other variable
Term
 Negative correlation
Definition
 As one variable increases, the other variable decreasesInverse relationship
Term
 Two aspects of correlation coefficient
Definition
 direction and strength/magnitude
Term
 To find direction look at
Definition
 the sign
Term
 to find magnitude look at
Definition
 the value
Term
 When do you use Spearman's
Definition
 ordinal data
Term
 When do you use Pearsons
Definition
 scale data
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