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History 3rd Test
Undergraduate 1

Additional Archaeology Flashcards




Battle of the Bulge
In the winter of 1944 The German’s attempted one last big attempt to retake Belgium. For a time Germany was bushing back the middle of the American line, creating a bulge in the line. Eventually the Americans did defeat the Germans. After this battle the German moral was gone.
Lend/Lease Act
Because the US didn’t want to get directly involved in WWII in January 1941 the Lend/Lease Act was created. It allows the president to lend, lease, trade, or sell military equipment to any country deemed vital for defense of USA.
Berlin Airdrops
In 1948 Stalin is fed up with Western countries in Berlin, so he cuts off everything from the western side of Berlin. Nothing goes in, nothing goes out. He even turns the power off. Harry Truman starts what is known today as the Berlin Airdrops. For 3 moths, 24/7 food, medicine and supplies is dropped on Berlin. Over all there was 13,000 lbs dropped. In 1949 Stalin turns back on the power to West Berlin and the air drops stop.
The United Nations
The UN is made up of 2 groups, the General Assembly and the Security Council. The Security Council is made up of 11 members, 5 o f which are permanent. These are the US, Britain, France, China and Russia. The other 6 get voted in and out. The UN’s first real issue was War Crime Trials after WWII. German war trials were held in Nuremberg and 21 Nazis were put on trial. Of which 11 were executed, 3 were acquitted and the rest were put in jail. The UN also put 25 Japanese on trail. Of which 16 were executed, 7 were acquitted and the rest thrown in prison.
House Unamerican Activities Committee
Formed in 1938 to investigate subversives in the government; best-known investigations were of Hollywood notables and of former State Department official Alger Hiss, who was accused in 1948 of espionage and Communist party membership.
Is the idea of threatening war to get what you want, specifically nuclear attack. This is a very new idea in warfare. Before you would just attack your enemy. But now that both sides have Nukes, neither side wants to make the other too angry. So just threatening to use a nuke is better than actually using one.
William Levitt created Levittowns in the 1950s. He took the American principal of factories, assembly lines, and applied it to housing. Every house in Levittown had one design. These towns were very popular, there were 40,000 houses in the first Levittown. They were most likely popular because they were only $50 a moth, which was what most people were paying to live in an apartment. This was the beginning of home owner’s associations and the idea that families needed two cars. Because the town was so big, you needed a car just to get to the grocery store. The father would drive one car to work, and the mother would have one car for chores and errands. How ever these towns did not allow blacks and further drew a line between the two races.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
Because of Rosa Parks refusal to stand up for a white man on a bus MLK decides to start the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955. Most people that rode the bus were African Americans, because by this time most whites had moved to suburban life. This peaceful protest was purely just blacks refusing to ride the bus. They would either walk or carpool. Because of this bus companies began to go bankrupt and begged the government to remove the segregation laws on buses, but the city refused. However they eventually did give in in 1956.
Brown v. the Board of Education
Earl Warren was a very a very liberal judge who opened the doors to cilvil rights. He was the very first judge to take a case from NAACP. The one he took is now called Brown VS. the Board of Education. In 1954 Earl decided that separate is not equal and it was made a law that separating black and white children in schools was no longer legal. Of course this created a lot of defiance, but every school that didn’t follow the new law was taken to court and forced to get rid of segregation.
The Bay of Pigs
Upon taking office, Kennedy learned that a secret CIA operation was training 1,500 anti-Castro Cubans for an invasion of their homeland. The Joint Chiefs of Staff assured the inexperienced Kennedy that the plan was feasible in theory; CIA analysts predicted that the invasion would inspire Cubans to rebel against Castro and his Communist regime. But the scheme, poorly planned and poorly executed, had little chance of succeeding. When the ragtag invasion force landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba on April 17, 1961, it was brutally subdued in two days; more than 1,100 men were captured.
Servicemen’s Readjustment Act
Created by Harry Truman the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act was supposed to help men who served in WWII intergrade back into normal life. It offered free loans for college and housing loans. There was a slight fear that this would cause the us to slip back into depression, but that doesn’t happen because now the US is the richest country in the world.
In 1949 the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was created. It consisted of 12 countries that agreed that if one is attacked by an outside power, the rest will go to war against that outside power. In 1951 Russia made the Warsaw Pact which was made up of Russia’s ‘Puppet countries.” This was in response to NATO.
On October 4, 1957, the Soviets launched the first satellite, called Sputnik 1. Americans, until then complacent about their technical superiority, panicked. If the Soviets were so advanced in rocketry, then perhaps they could hit American cities with armed missiles. Soviet success with its Sputnik program prompted the United States to increase defense spending, offer NATO allies intermediate-range ballistic missiles pending development of long-range intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), set up a new agency to coordinate space efforts, and establish a crash program in science education and military research.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In the fall of 1962 Russia put missiles in Cuba to protect it from another American-backed invasion and to redress the strategic imbalance caused by the presence of U.S. missiles in Turkey aimed at the Soviet Union. On October 14, 1962, U.S. intelligence analysts discovered Soviet missile sites under construction in Cuba. From the beginning, even though the Soviet actions violated no law or treaty, the government decided that the weapons had to be destroyed. President Kennedy wisely opted for a blockade, which was carefully disguised by the euphemism quarantine, since a blockade was technically an act of war. A blockade offered the advantage of forcing the Soviets to shoot first, if matters came to that, and left open the options of stronger action. Thus, Monday, October 22, began the most perilous week in world history. On that day the president announced the discovery of the missile sites in Cuba and the naval quarantine of the island nation. The United States and the Soviet Union now headed toward their closest encounter with nuclear war. October 26th the Soviets offered to withdraw the missiles in return for a public pledge by the United States not to invade Cuba.
War on Poverty
In 1964 Lyndon Johnson declares a “war on Poverty.” The administration’s war on poverty was embodied in an economic opportunity bill that incorporated a wide range of programs: a Job Corps for inner-city youths aged sixteen to twenty-one, a Head Start program for disadvantaged preschoolers, work-study programs for college students, grants to farmers and rural businesses, loans to employers willing to hire the chronically unemployed, the Volunteers in Service to America (a domestic Peace Corps), and the Community Action Program, which would allow the poor “maximum feasible participation” in directing neighborhood programs designed for their benefit.
Tet Offensive
On January 31, 1968, the first day of the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), the Viet Cong defied a holiday truce to launch ferocious assaults on American and South Vietnamese forces throughout South Vietnam. The old capital city of Hue fell to the Communists, and Viet Cong units temporarily occupied the grounds of the U.S. embassy in Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam. While Viet Cong casualties were enormous, however, the impact of the surprise attacks on the American public was more telling. The scope and intensity of the offensive contradicted upbeat claims by U.S. commanders that the war was going well. Time and Newsweek magazines soon ran anti-war editorials urging withdrawal. Polls showed that Lyndon Johnson’s popularity had declined to 35 percent.
Ho Chi Minh
• Ho Chi Minh, a seasoned revolutionary and passionate Vietnamese nationalist obsessed by a single goal: independence for his country. At the end of the war, Ho’s followers controlled part of northern Vietnam
• He was the Vietnamese communist resistance leader who drove the French and the United States out of Vietnam. After the Geneva Accords divided the region into four countries, he controlled North Vietnam, and ultimately became the leader of all of Vietnam at the conclusion of the Vietnam War.
Ngo Diem Dinh
Following the Geneva Accords, the French, with the support of America, forced the Vietnamese emperor to accept Dinh Diem as the new premier of South Vietnam. President Eisenhower sent advisors to train Diem’s police and army. In return, the United States expected Diem to enact democratic reforms and distribute land to the peasants. Instead, he suppressed his political opponents, did little or no land distribution, and let corruption grow. In 1956, he refused to participate in elections to reunify Vietnam. Eventually, he ousted the emperor and declared himself president.
Harry Truman
• President after FDR ; his vp
• Bomb Hiroshima
• Last president to never go to college
• Cold war
• Fighter
• Doesn’t like New Deal supporters
o Roosevelt’s supporters
• In charge of
o End of war
o Balancing power between US and Russia
o Getting soldiers back
• Fair Deal
o Extension of the new deal
o Universal health care
o Expansion of social security
• Truman goes to talk to the African American group leaders, horrified by how they have been treated
• United mine workers
o Strike 1976
o Wanted more pay
o Harry Sets up a board so the miners can talk with their bosses
o They get a raise but they didn’t think it was enough
• Went back on strike
o Harry said if they don’t go back to work he will draft them into the army
• Marshall Plan
• Berlin Airdrops
• Truman’s campaign
o 31,000 mile Whistle stop town
• Korean War
• Desegregates the army
• Desegregates the Federal Government
Joseph McCarthy
• Feb 1950 gives a very famous anti-communist speech. Claimed to have a list of all the communists working in the government
• Calls any one a communist who disagrees with him
Dwight Eisenhower
• Given the task of invading Berlin
• Initially wants nothing to do with civil rights
• Felt it would make people angrier and be damaging
• there was a law that was going to allow nine African American kids to go to Little Rock Central High School
o Orval Faubus (governor) rallies against this
o A huge mob surrounds the school so the kids cant go to school
o Eisenhower sends in the guard to break up the mob
• US builds up a massive nuclear arsenal
o Cheaper than maintaining conventional military forces
o National hero
o Led troops at D-Day
Richard Nixon
• Anti – communist
• Nixon just tells people what they want to hear
• Never the same person twice
• He is also very paranoid
 Promises to end the war in Vietnam with honor
 Promises a return to basic American values
Algier Hiss
• Department of Defense
• WWII state department
• Spy who told Russians what was going on
Julius Rosenberg
• Lost Alamos, NM
o Where Nukes were made
o Worked on Manhattan project
• Julius thinks that all these scientific info shouldn’t be hidden
o Gives info to the Russians
Ethel Rosenberg
• Gets charged with treason with her husband, even though she didn’t do anything
Lyndon B. Johnson
• Kennedy’s VP
• used his height to physically intimidate people
• threatens NASA that if they don’t hire more black people he would pull the program out of Houston
• Is a huge fan of FDR
• Wants to be the “greatest American president”
o Sees Civil Rights and Social programs as a way to do this
John F. Kennedy
• Has a great personality and is handsome
• Isn’t really interested in Civil Rights
• Very rich
• Comes off very well on TV
Robert Kennedy
• Attorney General
• John F. Kennedy’s brother
• liked MLK and once got him out of jail
Rosa Parks
• Inspired MLK’s Bus Boycott
Martin Luther King, Jr.
• Womanizer
• Great speaker against black injustice
• Bus Boycotts
• Peaceful protesting
• MLK marches down Birmingham to prove that whites are horrible, b/c he knows they will attack them
Malcolm X
• Argues that peaceful integration is impossible
• Says the whites have been too terrible for too long
• Focuses on urban black areas
Allen Freed
• Teenagers are listening to famous artists that are black and Latino
• Wants to sell it, but knows parents wont go for it
• Calls is “Rock and Roll”
William Levitt
• Levittown
• Takes the American principal of factories
o Assembly line
• Applies this to housing
• Every house in Levittown had one design
1. Was the advancement of Civil Rights more of a slow, steady process, or a series of leaps and bounds? Use events and information from the presidencies of Franklin Roosevelt through Lyndon Johnson, and the changes in civil rights policy and attitude during this time.
The road to equality has and always will be a bumpy road filled with leaps and bounds forward as well as full 180s in the wrong direction. The first present to start dealing with desegregation was Harry Truman who would meet with the leaders of different black groups and was horrified by the way they were treated. He desegregated the army and the federal government. But after his death Dwight Eisenhower re-segregated most things. Saying that civil rights would only cause unrest in the country and it wasn’t worth it. This could have been a huge jump backwards for civil rights if Eisenhower had made, according to him, the biggest mistake of his career; hiring Earl Warren as Chief Justice. He opened the doorway to civil rights. He was the first chief justice to take controversial cases, like Brown VS The Board of Education. In 1954 Earl Warren made segregation in schools illegal. Every school that refused was brought to court and made to desecrate.

Martin Luther King was one of the biggest influences of civil rights. He peacefully protested against inequality. In 1961 blacks boycotted busses, sat in at white restaurants, kneeled in at white churches and waded in at white pools. Making their stance known. Separate was not equal. In 1963 Martin Luther King protested in Birmingham, Alabama, one of the most racist cities in America. He knew that protesting here would create a huge back lash, and that was what he was aiming for. He knew if he could show the cruelty African Americans faced, people would be more inclined to feel bad for them and listen. At Birmingham they were attacked with tear gas, attack dogs and high pressure water hoses that blew them off their feet. All of this was caught on television and they were nationally condemned for it. Afterward Alabama starts to desegregate things jus to save face.

Another huge influence in civil rights was Lyndon B Johnson. He wanted to be the “greatest American President” and he was civil rights as a way to do this. He threaten NASA that if they didn’t hire more black people he would pull the program out of Houston. And most importantly of them all he created the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965. The Civil Rights act made segregation illegal and the voting rights act made voting tests, such as literacy tests, illegal. The Civil Rights bill passed in the House in February 1964. In the Senate, however, southern legislators launched a filibuster that lasted two months. Johnson finally prevailed, and the bill became law on July 2.
How did World War II shape U.S. involvement in the world after? What changed from before the war, and what new situations did the United States have to deal with emerging as a World power from the War?
The United States emerged from World War II the pre-eminent military and economic power in the world. America enjoyed a commanding position in international trade and was the only nation in possession of the atomic bomb. While much of Europe and Asia struggled to recover from the horrific physical devastation of the war, the United States was virtually unscathed, its economic infrastructure intact and operating at peak efficiency. Jobs that had been scarce in the 1930s were now available for the taking. By 1955 the United States, with only 6 percent of the world’s population, was producing half of the world’s goods. American capitalism not only demonstrated its economic strength but became a dominant cultural force as well. In Europe, Japan, and elsewhere, American products, forms of entertainment, and fashion attracted excited attention.
Yet the specter of a deepening “cold war” cast a pall over the buoyant revival of the American economy. The tense ideological contest with the Soviet Union and Communist China produced numerous foreign crises and sparked a domestic witch hunt for Communists in the United States that far surpassed earlier episodes of political and social repression in the nation’s history.
Both major political parties accepted the geopolitical assumptions embedded in the ideological cold war with international communism. Both Republican and Democratic presidents affirmed the need to “contain” the spread of Communist influence around the world. This bedrock assumption eventually embroiled the United States in a costly war in Southeast Asia, which destroyed Lyndon Johnson’s presidency and revived isolationist sentiments. The Vietnam War was also the catalyst for a countercultural movement in which young idealists of the “baby boom” generation provided energy for many overdue social reforms, including the reforms that were the focus of the civil rights, gay rights, feminist, and environmental movements. But the youth revolt also contributed to an array of social ills, from street riots to drug abuse to sexual license.
What factors shaped life in the 1950’s to be conformist? Discuss both international and domestic changes, and how they combined to create culture and lifestyle in the 50’s.
In the 1950s, social commentators mostly ignored people and cultures outside the middle-class mainstream. As evidenced in many of the new lookalike suburbs sprouting up across the land, much of middle-class social life during the two decades after the end of World War II exhibited an increasingly homogenized character. Suburban life encouraged uniformity. In new communities of strangers, people felt a need for companionship and a sense of belonging. Mass-produced suburban developments did exhibit a startling sameness. Levittown, for example, encouraged and even enforced uniformity. The houses all sold for the same price—$7,990—and featured the same floor plan and accessories. Each had a picture window, a living room, bathroom, kitchen, and two bedrooms. A tree was planted every twenty-eight feet. Homeowners were required to cut their grass once a week, fences were prohibited, and laundry could not be hung out on weekends.
By 1960, 38 percent of the workforce was employed by organizations with more than 500 employees. In such huge companies, as well as similarly large government agencies and universities, the working atmosphere promoted conformity rather than individualism. By 1960, 38 percent of the workforce was employed by organizations with more than 500 employees. In such huge companies, as well as similarly large government agencies and universities, the working atmosphere promoted conformity rather than individualism.
Increasing conformity in the middle-class workplace was mirrored in the middle-class home. A special issue of Life magazine in 1956 featured the “ideal” middle-class woman, a thirty-two-year-old “pretty and popular” white suburban housewife, mother of four, who had married at age sixteen. Americans also joined churches and synagogues in record numbers. The postwar era witnessed a massive renewal of religious participation. In 1940 less than half the adult population belonged to a church; by 1960 over 65 percent were official communicants. Sales of Bibles soared during the postwar era, and books, movies, and songs with religious themes were pervasive. Congress in 1954 added the phrase “under God” to the Pledge of Allegiance and in 1956 made the statement “In God We Trust” mandatory on all coins and currency. In 1956, Congress made “In God We Trust” the national motto. A godly nation, it was widely assumed, would better withstand the march of godless communism.
Nikitia Krushchev
• 1958
• New Sovian ruler
• Before he was a minor
• Initially promises to relax some of Stalin’s rules
• Creates tension between Russia and China
• Hates Kennedy
60’s Counter-culture
• American morale is gone
o Counter culture and protests
• 500,000 people protest in central park to protest war
o Hippies
• Balance out destruction with peace
o Conservative
• Want to go back to the 1950’s
• Support Richard Nixon
 Promises to end the war in Vietnam with honor
 Promises a return to basic American values
Douglas MacArthur
o Didn’t get along with Truman at all

o Truman gave MacArthur total control

o MacArthur wants to counter-attack and invade North Korea

· October – US forces enter Pyongong

· November

o Sends 250,000 soldiers into the Koreas

o China and North Korea launch suicidal attacks against American Forces

· MacArthur new plan

o Invasion of China

§ Backed up by Nationalist Taiwan

o Drop 33 nukes on China

o Make Yellow River radioactive

§ Block access to North Korea

o MacArthur goes to the media and complains about Truman

o Issues his own ultimatum to China

§ Surrender or get destroyed

· Truman force MacArthur to step down

US in an uprorar
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