Shared Flashcard Set


Religious Studies
Undergraduate 3

Additional Religious Studies Flashcards




Post-contact revitalization
some resisted changes and attempted to revitalize ancestral ways.1680: Pope, Puelo Shaman in New Mexico rebellion against Spanish colonizers
"Delaware prophet" Neolin sparked Chief Pontiac's 1763 uprising
"Shawnee prophet" Tenskatawa
"Winnebago prophet" White Cloud inspired Black Hawk's armed resistance
later movements intertribal, shared racial and spriritual identity among Indians
Post-contact accomodation/revitalization
1889, visionary Paiute Wovoka revived and transformed into "Ghost Dance" which was a combination of visions, ritual dance, supernatural tokens and Christian eschatology.
"Ghost Dance" ramifications
spread eastward, to Lakota Sioux, added Ghost shirts: danced aroused misunderstanding and fear among whites generating tensions that culminated in the 1890 massacre of Indians at Wounded Knee
accomodation to white culture
1800, Handsome Lake proposed way of life called Gaiwiio to Iroquois. He blended apocalyptic prophecy with Protestant ethics, proved attractive
accomodation to white culture, religion
Peyote religion, ritual ingestion of peyote, a hallucinogenic cactus of southern Texas and northern Mexico, 1000CE
accomodation; Comanche chief
Quannah Parker, Peyote religion appealing means of non-violent accomodation. Blended Christian and indigenous traditions into the Peyote Way a combinative ritual
1944 Native American Church
Zuni infant ritual
orients itself toward the sun, which is understood as the source of all life.
Surrounds the child's entry into the world.
8th day, infant's head is washed by his "aunts"(women of his father's clan, most important ceremonial relatives)
Corn meal placed in hand, taken outdoors, facing the east at the moment of sunrise.
Cornmeal is sprinkled to the rising sun with prayer spoken by the paternal grandmother, begins "now this is the day." ends with "to this end: May you help us all to finish our roads."
Chinook puberty rituals
When chief's daughter menstruates for first time, hidden from view of people.
Other aspects:
1. only an old woman cares for her
2. cedar bark is tied to her arms, legs, and around the waist
3. she fasts from 4 to 10 days
4. people invited, potlatch is made for her
5. then is hidden for 5 more days
6. strings tied around her and dentaha strings and buckskin strap tied around her
7. remains 100 days, then old woman washes her face
8. another paints her face, another combs her hair
9. hidden again, separate door does not eat fresh food for 50 days
10. can not look at people, the sky, or pick berries
11. after 100 days she may eat fresh food, pick berries and warm herself
12. if they move she is carried in a canoe, she can not paddle
13. cannot step into salt water
14. bathes at night and must rise earlier than the birds.
15. if birds rise before her, she will not live long
16. if she does everything in the right way, she will get old before she dies
Chinook childbirth rituals
others must lie down in certain positions when near her, when at at creek, she must jump across twice, does not lie down outside of the house, does not where necklace (so navel-string won't wrap around child's neck), doesn't look at anything that is dead, rotten at racoons or at otters, does not blow up seal bladder or eat anything that is found.
Her husband: does not eat anything found, kill raccoons, singe seals, shoot birds, look at a corpse, kill otters or raccoons lest the child would obtain sickness by sympathy
Chinook childbirth rituals, death
recently dead may need to be sacrificed to or even threatened in order that they not return to haunt or otherwise harm those that remain.
Ceremony is first to forestall death, then insulate, to control or limit damage it may do. When child takes last breath, parents take best clothing and put in on child. Then mother kicks dead child 4 times. 1st time "Don't turn your back to me" then 2nd "Don't come back again", 3rd "just go straight ahead", 4th "only protect me and your father from sickness" Then she leaves him.
Cherokee creation myth
possibly influenced by biblical accounts introduced via Christian missionaries)
they describe life on earth and under the earth
earth is island, floating is a sea of water, suspended by cord hanging down from sky vault.
When world grows old and is worn out, people will die and cords will break and let earth sink down into the ocean.
When all was water: animals lived above it. "Beaver's grandchild" the waterbeetle offered to go and see what was under the water, found soft mud which grew and formed what we call earth.
There is another world just like ours in everything, under us except the seasons are different.
We do not know how the animals and plants were first made, they were told to watch and keep awake for 7 days, on the 7th night only the owl, panther and one or two others were still awake, so they were given the power to see in the night.
Only the cedar,pine, spruce, holly, and laurel were awake, so they could always stay green and not lose their hair in winter.
Men came next; only a brother and a sister, then he struck her with a fish and told her to multiply and so it was, every 7 days.
Zuni creation myth
More than one explanation is given for the origin of the world.
Our account may have been influenced by teachings of Spanish missionaries:
Maker and Container of All (All-father Father) solely had being. Awonawilona, by means of his own innate knowledge made himself into a person and form of the Sun, whom they hold to be their father.
Sun-father with the substance of his flesh formed the seed-stuff of twain worlds, impregnating the waters to form the "four-fold containing mother-earth and the all-covering Father-sky"
Mary Rowlandson
Indian captivity narrative, 1682 during King Phillip's war. Minister's wife in Lancaster MA captured with her 3 children. Her widely read narrative intended to show "the sovereignty and goodness of god, together with the faithfulness of his promises displayed."
Handsome Lake, The Revelation of Handsome Lake
Indian renewal movements:
Seneca prophet, 1799, urged his followers in the Iroquois nation to return to moral standards of living, retain as much as they could of traditional practices, and also to allow for the adoption of some elements of white culture. Introduced "Gaiwiiyo" or "good word"
His account is of the men of the tribe trading for strong drink and the negative effects. "the sick man" as they become addicted to the strong drink, then "the two ways he thinks" discusses the hopelessness and hopefulness that a man has that he will ever recover from his sickness, sick for 4 years, his name: Handsome Lake
Shawnee prophet, "the open door"1804.
speech to General William H. Harrison in 1808, with an accomodating tone, yet firm in his opinion that only by rejecting what the whites had brought including alcohol, could their culture be preserved...
"I now inform you that it is our intention to live in peace with our father and his people forever..." and "I have listened to what you have said to us. You have promised to assist us: I now request of you, in behalf of all red people, to use your exertions to prevent the sale of liquor to us. We are well pleased to hear you say that you will endeavor to promote our happiness. We give you every assurance that we will follow the dictates of the Great Spirit."
Natives in the Dakotas
Letter from David Stanley, Major General of the US Army to John Baptist Purcell, Archbishop of Cincinnatti:
regarding: Belgian Jesuit Pierre Jean De Smet whom the Sioux trusted, and he was repeatedly called upon to intercede with them. Known as "Black-Robe" and "Big Medicine Man", only white man without a forked tongue (who never lies to them). He met with principal chiefs Black Moon and Sitting Bull, adversaries to the whites for the last 4 years. They kept watch over him that he not be harmed. He was 68 years old and undertook the perilous journey. To "preserve some habitations to these savage children of the desert, to whose spiritual and temporal welfare he has consecrated a long live of labor and solicitude."
Sheldon Jackson
Presbyterian minister who crossed the Great Plains on behalf of the Indian, who also went to Alaska. Excerpt is from letter to Jackson form John Brady, another Presbyterian who made it to Alaska 3 years prior.
John Brady
Presbyterian minister who wrote to Sheldon Jackson in 1878 of the settling of the mission/school in Sitka Alaska. Stayed and served as Alaska's governor from 1897 to 1906. Due to their work, they dominated all missionary efforts in the last quarter of the 19th century in Alaska.
"Declaration of War Against Exploiters of Lakota Spirituality" 1993
Called for an end to the defilement of Native American religious practices by non Indians.
Produced at the 5th Lakota Summit in 1993 by 500 Lakota representing more than 40 tribes in the US and Canada.
aimed at : "New Age Shamans" "wannabees" hucksters, cultists, commercial profiteers, phony "sweatlodges" and "vision quest" programs, "sundances" etc.
Encouraged use of demonstrations, boycotts, press conferences and acts of direct intervention by the people, Lakota, Dakota and Nakota.
Etahdleuh Doanmoe
Kiowa who sketched drawings of experience in being held at Fort Marion in St. Augustine FL along with others for war crimes. He eventually is educated and becomes westernized. Wrote: "Because I Want To Be A Man" Brad Lookingbill.
Spanish Catholicism in America
Colonized America and its peoples with religious and nationalistic zeal stemming from Spain's 1492 unification and subsequent expulsion of Muslims and Jews. Established in Puerto Rico by 1513 and by 1530's sending missionaries to Mexico. By early 19th century, New Spain encompassed what is now Latin Am and southern rim of the US. Used benevolent paternalism, creole language, occasional harsh punishment, they set up profitable agricultural communities and coaxed more than 21,000 Indians to a European "way of life". BUT, in 1833 newly independent Mexican govt dissolved the missions, sold the lands, and scattered the Indian communities. Wouldn't be revived until 20th century Hispanic immigration.
French Catholicism in America
Settled northeastern and central regions. Largely via St Lawrence river, Great Lakes region, and Mississippi River Valley. Established Quebec as fur-trading hub in 1608and by 1625 Jesuit missionaries working among the Huron of the Great Lakes. Missionaries adapted message and lifestyle to indigenous religions, languages and cultures, and their mild approach and economic and military benefits they offered kept Hurons open to their activities. Efforts continually threatened by Iroqois attack, Dutch and British traders, and largescale English movement to the area. Claimed LA territory by 1682. North of New Orleans, enduring pocket of French Catholic culture later 17th century, with arrival of Catholics from Acadia (Nova Scotia). Settled in French speaking southern LA, developed into culture we call "Cajun".Remains most pronounced (but generally weak) there now.
Catholicism in the British Colonies
Initial settlement St. Mary's on the Potomac River in 1634. New colony protected Catholicism by enacting religious toleration, and its landowning and officeholding elite was at first largely Catholic. Then migrating Puritans and other Protestants soon outnumbered Catholics (who constituted 25% of Maryland's population by 1641, then only 9% by 1708) and challenged Catholic rule.
Maryland still continued to be the center of American Catholicism well into the 19th century. Also, Pennsylvania's tolerance also attracted Catholics, and later New York cosmopolitan areas attracted multi-ethnic Catholics.
Growth of American Catholicism
1. Grew and at times suffered from attrition due to Protestant dominance.
2. At start of 19th century: 50,000
3. Appointed by Rome and dominated by English and French Catholics.
4. Trustee conflicts arose, esp Irish and German Catholics
5. Large growth and increasing diversity with growth of 19th century American Catholicism driven by massive waves of European immigration that lifted numbers to 3 MILLION by 1860 making it the largest denomination
6. Numbers reached 12 MILLION by 1900.
7. First wave was Irish because of Potato Famine, settled New York, Boston, and Philadelphia and confined to poverty in slums.Many sought status in the priesthood.
American Catholicism Modern
One-quarter of the nation's population.
Continues to grapple with challenges of Americanization and ethnic diversity
Post WWII, Catholics became more fully integrated into American life, and Rome remained and still remains, anxious about liberalizing trends in American Catholicism.
Pedro Menendez de Aviles and the Jesuits
Excerpt is a letter from Menendez to a Jesuit urging Jesuits of high character and firm dedication be sent to undertake the conversion of Indians to Christianity.
1. He was governor from 1565 to 1574
2. In 1565 moved against the French Protestants (the Huguenots) and drove them out.
3. Established a fortification, St Augustine, which was the oldest settlement of North America
4. "Some have let me make peace between them, and have taken down their idols, and asked me to give them crosses to worship." Says that he told them that help was coming and when it didn't they called him a liar, and chiefs who are enemies are laughing at them and me...This has done a great deal of damage, is requesting up to 6 companions to help in his mission.
Maryland, the Catholic Colony
1. Only one of 13 colonies to begin with a Roman Catholic proprietor.
2. Lord Baltimore (George Calvert), then his son Cecilius who actually served as proprietor when colony began in 1634.
3. Excerpt is a pamphlet written in 1633 on the proprietor's behalf and is an answer to the question:" why should England, a nation prevailingly anti-Catholic, grant land to a Catholic family, land that would likely become a Catholic refuge?
Isaac T. Hecker
Converted to Roman Catholicism in 1844, friend and correspondent of Brownson's.
He entered a monastic order, and founded his own the Paulist Fathers. Group's special mission to convert Protestants to Catholicism. Also wished to demonstrate the fundamental compatibility between Catholic ideology and American Liberty.
Excerpt 1 shows stance via Hecker's stance vis a vis the protestantism he had left behind.
2. portion of correspondence between Hecker and Brownson, treats problems of the soul the church and the nation.
Hecker's stance on Protestantism
the heart condemns it because the supreme want of the heart is peace which can be gained only from the unerring and divine authority (that the Catholic church provides...)
"The Claims of Reason"
Anti-Catholicm: Monk and the Know-Nothings
Most scandalous anti-Catholic book: Awful Disclosures of Maria Monk. Purporting to give "true confessions" of a young woman who lived in a nunnery, but...weren't facts at all.
Know-Nothings:1850's political nativism most dramatic expression in the "American" or "Know-Nothing" Party.
Purpose: to resist the encroachment of "popery" and call attention to potential subversions of American Liberty.
"The American Society to Promote the Principles of the Protestant Reformation" Excerpt is the constitution on June 24, 1840 in The American Protestant Vindicator.
Ethnic diversity among Catholic immigrants
3 documents
1. defense by James Cardinal Gibbons of the heavy Irish emigration to America
2. an 1886 memorial of a Milwaukee priest P.M.Abbelen on behalf of Catholic Germans
3. recollection of the early twentieth century problems plaguing Catholic Italians
James Cardinal Gibbons
In defense of Irish immigration..
they have been a people of missionaries longer than any other race
On behalf of German Catholics
"told by way of narrative and as matters of facts, that it be made clear how vastly one differs from another" and that it is necessary that each should have its own priests and churches co-ordinate and independent.
Problems of Catholic Italians
The lack of concern by the church for the immigrants and the cultural differences between the Italian and the Irish Catholics responsible for the movement of Italians out of the church towards Protestantism. Had there been an Italian Catholic clergy, it would have made a difference.
Formation of the NCWC in 1919
Excerpt is from Pastoral Letter of 1919, addressed the scope and structure of the revised organization...from the National Catholic WAR Council (to supervise recruitment and training of military chaplains) TO the National Catholic WELFARE Council
1.depts established were the Dept of Education, the Department of Social Welfare, the Department of Press and Literature and the Department of Societies and Lay Activities
Advice to Catholic Girls
Popular guide, over 30 editions published, Paulist priest George Deshon stressed the importance of good thoughts, good books, and the Good Book
1. a "book" that can be read by anyone...the Crucifix
2. another, the Rosary
3. if you can read...the Holy Bible
4. specifically, the Catholic Bible with notes and explanations
Al Smith, presidential candidate in 1928
Context: Nativism has a specific target: a Roman Catholic had for the first time in history won the nomination of a major political party and was running for president.
1. Methodists of Ohio heard Mabel Walker Willebrandt plead for his defeat
2. Candidate Smith on the campaign trail responded to the Klan, Mrs. Willebrandt and to all who would divide voters along religious lines
Special to the New York Times, Willebrandt's speech
Unalterably opposed to the election of then governor Smith. Described candidacy as a result of an alliance between Tammany Hall and wealthy anti-prohibitionists. Bootlegging has risen. "You have a chance to prove by electing Herbert Hoover that obedience to law can be secured and that America does not retreat before organized crime."
Al Smith speech during presidential race
forefathers made it clear in constitution that no religious test shall ever be applied for public office
To the Grand Dragon of the Realm of Arkansas: nothing is so out of line with the spirit of America (than what the KKK breathe into the hearts and souls of their members, hatred of millions of their fellow countrymen)
"I emphatically declare that I do not wish any member of my faith in any part of the U.S. to vote for me on religious grounds."
Roman Catholicism, tensions within Catholicism dramatically revealed in the antagonism between John Ireland and Bernard McQuaid...tempermentally different and philosophically opposed contested for the minds of America's Catholics and for the ear of the Vatican.
John Ireland, Archbishop of St. Paul Minnesota
Politically progressive, urban reform, in "Americanizing" the church, in democratic reform, and public education in better relations with all races and religions.
Excerpt 1: preface that he wrote for a biography of Isaac Hecker
Bernard McQuaid, Bishop of Rochester New York
politically conservative and a strict disciplinarian, opposed the liberalizing tendencies within his church, resisted the founding of Catholic University of America, and vigorously supported the parochial school system as the only means of assuring a faithful constituency for generations to come.
Excerpt 2: angry remarks, denounces Ireland publicly not only for being wrong on nearly everything but also for being wrong in McQuaid's own territory.
Condemnation of Modernism by Pope Pius X
Pope made clear what was objectionable in the new philosophy, history, psychology, science, and biblical study.
Agnosticism, Evolution of Dogma, the Modernist as Believer, the Modernist complex
Letters to his Holiness
A strong American reply in 1910. Published anonymously but written by W.L. Sullivan priest and Paulist father until leaving the Church in 1909. Sullivan spoke without gentleness or restraint, or effect.
last line: "let the whole endeavor of the Church and hierarchy be to promote the Christ-ideal on earth.
Trappist Thomas Merton
Excerpt: hints at both problems and possibilities regarding reforms being made to the Catholic mass.
1. liturgical renewal?
2. one year after the "new Mass"changes are pointing in the right direction
3. best thing, altar facing the people, more of a sense of communication on both sides.
4. translation into English, hymn singing, new spirit of openness
Robert Baird
1856, from Religion in America
Presbyterian, spent 28 years in Europe on behalf of Protestant cause, where they were eager for info and perspective on America's exciting proliferating religions
Distinguished religion found in America as that found anywhere else in the world, with "much promise for the future of Christianity."
Robert Baird's "General Remarks"
In book, Religion in America, introduced the idea that diversity was not limited to ecclesiastical institutions, it extended as well to theological convictions.
To rescue the Evangelical Empire from hopeless relativism, distinguished between:
1. "evangelical denominations": the vital or essential points

2. and "unevangelical sects"
a. Roman Catholics "who have buried the truth amid a heap of corruptions of heathenish origin"
and dropping all the way down to...
b. "down to the Mormons" "the grossest of all delusions
Discussed the causes and influences to which the diversity of religious doctrines can be traced.
a. origin and ancestry
b.ministers can't extend direct influence over other churches than their own, "as might make the exercise of brotherly love ..."
c. freedom allowed in the U.S to all sorts of discussion and inquiry leads to a diversity of opinion, differences of denomination and within denominations
d. provincial peculiarities, east, west, north, south...
Robert Baird: conclusion
among vital and essential points there is little disputation (Evangelical Communions) in doctrine and practice they all take the Bible as their inspired and sole authoritative guide
the other sects have few elements of stability...pervert the scriptures, appeal to prejudices of their hearers, misrepresent and ridicule the doctrines of their opponents
Fundamentalist-Modernist debate
Machen v Mathews
1924 1923
publications describing their views
Machen= pro Fundamentalism (Christianity)
Mathews=pro Modernism
(not a denomination or theology, uses methods of modern science to find state and use the permanent and central values of inherited orthodoxy in meeting the needs of the modern world.
refutes the stereotype of fundamentalism as the religion of the illiterate and untrained
No "peace without victory" in the intellectual battle
2 lines of criticism with respect to liberal attempt at reconciling science and Christianity:
a. one the ground that it is un-Christian
b. on the ground that it is unscientific
Shailer Mathews
"the Dogmatist starts with doctrines, the Modernist with the religion that gave rise to the doctrines."
"they don't vote in convention and do not enforce beliefs by discipline. Modernism has no Confession"
"The Dogmatist relies on conformity through group authority; the Modernist upon inductive method and action in accord with group loyalty..."
"every man will shape his own credo"
"the final test of such generic Christianity is the ability of the Christian movement to meet human needs"
Frederick Douglas
Black abolitionist, Maryland slave that escaped to freedom
Denounced Christianity along with slavery as he felt that it tolerated it
From the Frederick Douglas papers 1817-1895 Excerpts from 2 speeches
1. Boston 1842, Faneuil Hall, spoke to 4000 persons
2. London, May 22, 1846 at Finsbury Chapel
Addressed audiences in America and the British Isles, when asked why he labored so long in England... he said that slavery was "a system of such gigantic evil, so strong, so overwhelming in its power, that no one nation is equal to its removal. It requires the humanity of Christianity, the morality of the world, to remove it."
When discussing the relationship between slavery and churches...
"We have men sold to build churches, women sold to support missionaries, and babies sold to buy bibles and communion services for the churches"
Elijah Lovejoy
Presbyterian minister and newspaper editor, published an abolitionist newspaper in St. Louis from 1833 to 1836.
Shot and killed in 1837, a martyr to two causes: freedom of the press and freedom for blacks.
Excerpts are:
1. his sentiments with respect to slavery
2. his futile plea shortly before his death for some assistance in the protection of his life and property
"I have remain at Alton, and here insist on protection in the exercise of my rights. If the civil authorities refuse to protect me, I must look to God; and if I die, I have determined to make my grave in Alton."
Elijah Lovejoy sentiments, slavery
"his former habits of thought and action, and partly, and chiefly, form the strange and astonishingly perverted representations given of leading men and their principles"
"For truth is eternal, unchanging, through circumstances may, and do operate to give a different colour to it, in our view, at different times."
Elijah Lovejoy, First Principles
1. "all men are created equal.....colour of their skin.....extend alike to every individual of the human family."
2. "it is not possible that one man can convert another into a piece of property" (now 2.5 million of our fellow-men in this precise condition)
3.American slavery is wrong, "a legalized system of inconceivable injustice, and a SIN"
"And as whatever is morally wrong can never be politically right..."
4.All who hold slaves should immediately cease to do so"
5. All men are born free...refers to a tariff statement made by Calhoun delivered in the Senate, calling the practice of making profit off the work of another man "robbery". Abolitionists echo...that slavery is just that.
White apologists
Henry Clay
John England
Henry Clay
American Colonization Society, goal of exporting blacks "back" to Africa...1817...mixed motives and results, sent 6000 blacks to Liberia between 1821 and 1867...contrasting voices were heard.
A reporter at a meeting summarized his remarks:
On the topic of the "colonizing of the free people of color in the United States" "they could never amalgamate with the free whites of this country"
He'd decided on the coast of Africa, Sierra Leone.
He would not discuss in the slightest degree the "delicate question connected with another portion of the coloured population of our country..."
John England
Letters to the nation's Sec. of State from John England, defending slavery as found in the South.
"Domestic slavery" distinguished from the "compulsory slavery of an invaded people", as well as from the slave trade which had indeed been condemned by Pope Gregory XVI in 1839. Says that the pope : "when established by human legislation" and "when the dominion of the slave is justly acquired by the master" is lawful , humans and heaven...
Closes with" Hence I have known many freedmen who regretted their manumission"
3 Forms of American Judaism
1. Reform Judaism, led by Isaac Mayer Wise...extremely left.
2. Conservative Judaism, led by Solomon Schechter, loyal to uniquely Jewish but avoided "moribund rationalism" and took cognizance of an American environment and a modern world.
3. Orthodox Judaism, faith of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and maintained it without alteration or compromise. Were the last to meet the challenge of the American scene.
Reformed Judaism
1871, essay on reformed Judaism
"acknowledges no necessary stability of the form, but also no change of the principle" no retrogression, maintains that all forms ...developed and crystallized were necessarily benefecial for each respective time and locality. And, as civilization progresses, Judaism will always develop new forms in correspondence.
"progressive" Judaism would be a better designation than reformed.
Conservative Judaism
Altar Building in America 1904
Solomon Schecter
American Orthodoxy
Constantly replenished with thousands of immigrants from abroad.
Contributions many and significant.
Not content to be second-class citizens in the U.S.
Confirmed in a George Washington letter to an orthodox congregation in Newport, Rhode Island
Emil Fackenheim
Rabbi and professor of philosophy at the Univ of Toronto. Excerpt from "the Commanding Voice of Auschwitz"
1. the camp at Auschwitz came to symbolize the depravity of the events, an event unique in "the whole history of human depravity"
Unique in history due to it being "evil for evil's sake" alone
References the via dolorosa, the walk that Jewish believers should feel obliged to trace and retrace that led one-third of his people to the human sacrifice in the Nazi gas chambers.
Joseph Smith
The First Vision
The Book of Mormon published in 1830
Most successful New Movement
Organization, discipline, and sacrifice
Polygamy revelation in 1843
Hostility in 1844 led to Smith's death
Exodus from then-hostile Illinois to the Great Salt Lake Basin under the leadership of Brigham Young
First moves....New York to Ohio, Ohio to Missouri, Missouri to Illinois
8 excerpts of the turbulent years of the utopian experiment that stayed:
1. First Vision
2. Printing of the Book of Mormon
3. Revelation, July 12 1843 Plural Marriage
4. Joseph Smith's martyrdom
5. Brigham Young assumes leadership
6. Exodus Announced, Oct 8 1845
7. Requirements for the Journey, 1845
4-5 months, 2 thousand miles
8. Church authorities appeal to Iowa Gov, asking for protection as they pass through the Iowa territory
American Metaphysical Movements
Christian Science
Church of Christ, Scientist
"New Thought"
Thai and Chinese Buddhists
1990 census: 91,275 Thai Americans
Mostly in major cities in 5 states: California, Texas, New York, Illinois and Florida
Prominant religion:Thervada Buddhism
Thai saying:" To be Thai is to be Buddhist"
Thai Youth Club
Excerpt: Intergenerational tensions arose, Temple in Chicago completed in 1980. From the Thai Youth Journal
1. Youth invited to meeting, then told that the decision had already been made to not have a youth dance.
2. Thai parents expect too much from their kids....homework, music, commands to go to sleep, "what's a kid to do?"
Hsi Lai Temple
Hsi Lai = Coming to the west
Humanistic Buddhism is taught
on 15 acres in Hacienda Heights, an affluent suburb of Los Angeles, largest temple in the western hemisphere
$30 million, 20,000 members, Chinese immigrants from Taiwan
founded by Ven Master Hsing Yun, the founder Fo Kuang Shan Monastery
It's build a bridge between the cultures of the East and the West.
4 points to guide future developments
1. Dharma functions and chanting sessions conducted in English. Translation provided at all meetings.
2. To respect groups of all ethnic backgrounds, Hsi Lai Temple will hold international activities and strive to be "United Nation for Buddhism"
3. Emphasis placed on translating sutras and Dharma lectures. Expansion in TV and radio broadcasting, audio-visual library planned
4. Joint efforts of monastics and devotees to spread the Dharma, let the seeds of Buddhism grow, blossom and bear fruits in the West.
Hsi Lai University
Tremendous emphasis on education= "the Buddhist Harvard"
Vietnamese Home Temple Zoning Dispute 1996
Article from the Los Angeles Times describes a dispute that simmered for much of the 1990's between a Vietnamese Buddhist monk a the Lien Hoa Temple and his Garden Grove neighbors.
1.battle over using his home in a residential neighborhood as a place of worship
2. the monks didn't know what "zoning ordinances" were when they arrived
3. raised funds for a new temple being built, but will continue to hold services in home and "hide and continue them illegally"
Marie de Souza Canavarro 1925
Insight into the Far East, excerpt.
Sister Sanghamitta
2nd American and 1st woman of European descent to ritually declare her Buddhist allegiance on U.S. soil
Restless former Roman Catholic, moved from one tradition to the next seeking a broader and more inclusive faith, one that elevated women and reconciled religions.
Catholicism to Theosophy to Buddhism to Baha'i to Hinduism
Jack Kerouac
Dharma Bums 1958
Associated with the "beat generation"
Came to Buddhism through Thoreau's Walden
Found a fellow traveler in Zen poet Gary Snyder
Zen spontaneity and the affirmation of the Yogacara ("mind only")
Writes novel: Dharma Bums and names himself a character Ray Smith who only cared about "all life is suffering"
A Memo to American Muslims
Muqtedar Khan, Director of International Studies at Adrian College, Michigan offered an opportunity to unite strongly pro-American and strongly pro-Muslim opinions:
"It is time that we acknowledge that the freedoms we enjoy in the U.S. are more desirable to us than superficial solidarity with the Muslim World.... It is time that we faced these hypocritical practices and struggled to transcend them. It is time that American Muslim leaders fought to purify their own lot.
Malcolm X
Nation of Islam; rejected Christianity itself.
Initially, not so much an embrace of worldwide Islam as it was a thrusting away of a religion that was seen as only another instrument in the hands of whites for keeping blacks suppressed, dependent, and haunted by a sense of their own inferiority.
After 1963, began to moderate his rhetoric which was seen as a defection and he was assassinated in 1965.
Muslim Theology
Original Man was black in the continent called Africa
White man still living on all fours in caves
Devil white man murdered and kidnapped millions, greatest crime in human history
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