# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Highland Dance Theory
From the 7th edition of the book, word-perfect definitions up to grade 4 level with examples
46
Fine Art
Not Applicable
03/16/2009

Term
 Line of Direction
Definition
 The line of direction is an imaginary line on the ground, passing from front to back between the heels of the dancer while standing in first position. The angles of basic foot positions are measured from this line. To ensure a correct line of travel while executing steps which travel sideways towards second position (e.g. the second and eigth Seann Truibhas steps), the working foot should be placed slightly forward or backwards, as the case may be, from second position to commence the travel
Term
 First position of the feet
Definition
 The heels are together, with the weight of the body equally distributed on both feet, which are turned out to form an angle of 90 degrees (each foot being at an angle of 45 degrees from the line of direction). The dancer may be standing with both feet flat on the ground, or may be poised on the balls of both feet. OR (not word-perfect, an interpretation) The heels are together and the toes are turned out at an angle of 45 degrees from the line of direction or 90 degrees from eachother. The weight is equally distributed on either the flat feet or the balls of both feet.
Term
 Second position of the feet
Definition
 The working foot is extended directly to the side at an angle of 90 degrees from the line of direction, the toe and heel of the working foot being in line with the heel of the supporting foot. The working foot may be placed on the toe, half point, ball, or heel.
Term
 Second aerial position
Definition
 The working leg is extended to thhe side as in second position, but raised at the required level: low, normal, or high.
Term
 Third Position of the feet
Definition
 The working foot, which may be placed on the toe, half point, ball, or heel, touches the hollow of the supporting foot. When placed on the toe, half point, or heel, the working foot is turned out at an angle of 90 degrees from the line of direction. When the weight of the body is equally distributed on the balls of both feet, the sole of the front foot is directly over the instep of the rear foot, both feet equally turned out at an angle of not less than 45 degrees from the line of direction.
Term
 Third Aerial
Definition
 With the knee of the working pressed well back, the outside edge of the working foot is placed in contact with the supporting leg. To give normal level with the heel slightly below the level of the knee cap of the supporting leg, low level with the toe in line with the ankle of the supporting leg or very low level with the foot slightly off the ground above third position
Term
 Third Rear
Definition
 When placed on the toe, the hollow of the working foot touches the heel of the supporting foot. The working foot turned outwards at an angle of 90 degrees from the line of direction. When placed on ball the weight is equally distributed on the balls of both feet. The sole of the front foot in directly over the instep of the rear foot, both feet equally turned out at an angle of not less than 45 degrees from the line of direction.
Term
 Third rear aerial position
Definition
 The working foot is placed behind the supported leg at the same height as in third aerial position normal level, the inside edge of the foot being in contact with the calf of the supporting leg. The knee of the working leg is held well back, no part of the working foot being visible from the front.
Term
 Third Crossed
Definition
 The working leg is crossed in front of the supporting leg with the half point or ball of the working foot, placed near the outside edge of the instep of the supporting foot.
Term
 Fourth Position of the Feet
Definition
 The working leg is extended to the front with both heels in line with the line of direction. The working foot, which is placed only on the toe or half point, is turned out at an angle of 45 degrees from the line of direction.
Term
 Fourth Aerial
Definition
 The working leg is extended to the front as in fourth position, but raised to normal level.
Term
 Fourth Rear
Definition
 As in fourth position but the working foot is taken to the rear, and is placed on the ball or flat.
Term
 Mid-Fourth
Definition
 The working leg is extended to the front, midway between fourth position and fourth intermediate position and is placed on the toe.
Term
 Mid-Fourth Aerial
Definition
 Extended to the front as for mid-fourth position and raised to low aerial.
Term
 Fourth Intermediate Position
Definition
 The working leg is extended diagonally forward at an angle of 45 degrees from the line of direction with the working foot placed on the toe, half point or ball.
Term
 Fourth Intermediate Aerial Position
Definition
 The working leg is extended as in fourth intermediate position, but raised to the required level, low or normal.
Term
 Fourth Intermediate Rear Position
Definition
 As in fourth intermediate position, but the working leg is extended to the rear and is placed only on the ball
Term
 Fourth Intermediate Rear Aerial Position
Definition
 As in fourth intermediate rear position, but with the working leg raised to a normal level
Term
 Fourth-Opposite-Fifth Position
Definition
 The working leg is extended to the front, but with the toe of the working foot in line with the heel of the supporting foot and with a slight relaxation of the knee of the working leg. The working foot may be placed on the toe, half point or heel and, in the latter case, the heel is placed in line with the toe joint of the supporting foot.
Term
 Fourth-Opposite-Fifth Position
Definition
 This is the position of the rear foot when the front foot is placed in fourth-opposite-fifth position.
Term
 Fifth Position of the Feet
Definition
 The working foot is placed in contact with the big toe joint of the supporting foot, and may be placed on the toe, half point, ball or heel. When placed on the toe, half point, or heel, the working foot faces outwards at an angle of 90 degrees from the line of direction. When the weight of the body is equally distributed on the balls of both feet, the sole of the front foot is directly over the toes of the rear foot, both feet equally turned out at an angle of 45 degrees from the line of direction.
Term
 Fifth Rear Position
Definition
 This is the position of the rear foot when it is placed on the ball and the front foot is in fifth position
Term
 Grouping of the Fingers
Definition
 In all positions except first position, the fingers are lightly grouped and the thumb is in contact with the first joint of the middle finger.
Term
 First Position of the Arms
Definition
 Both hands rest on the hips with the backs of the hands to the front, the knuckles facing the body with the wrists straight, and the elbows pointing directly out to the side.
Term
 Second Position of the Arms
Definition
 One arm is placed as in first position, the other is raised at the side, with the arm and wrist slightly curved, the hand slightly above and forward from the headline, the palm turned inwards. In this position the raised arm is always on the side opposite to the working leg, except in a propelled pivot turn.
Term
 Third Position of the Arms
Definition
 Both arms are placed as described for the raised arm in second position the palms facing inwards towards each other
Term
 Fourth Position of the Arms
Definition
 A closer and higher version of third position with the hands almost touching
Term
 Fifth Position of the Arms
Definition
 The arms are gently curved down in front of the body with the hands quite close to each other and the little fingers almost touching the kilt
Term
 Bonus: What is the note for the arms?
Definition
 When an arm is raised or lowered, there should be a minimum displacement of the elbow and no part of the arm or hand should come in front of the dancer's face. Exceptions are in the fourth bar of the introduction to the Seann Truibhas, where the hands come up in front of the face as the arms are raised in fron tof the body from fifth position, and also in the first and second Seann Truibhas steps when the arms are circled from first or fifth position.
Term
Definition
 The head faces front with the eyes level
Term
Definition
 The head is directed diagonally to the right or left, with the chin slightly raised. When the arms are in second position the head is turned away from the raised arm, except when otherwise stated
Term
 The Bow
Definition
 Stand with the feet and head in first position, arms by the side or in first position. Bow by inclining the body forward slowly, and return to the original position. If arms are by the sides, they should be taken to first position on the first count following the bow, unless otherwise stated. The depth of the bow must not be exaggerated, and the count varies according to the dance, as described in chapter 2.
Term
 Hop
Definition
 A movement of elevation begun on the ball of one foot and finished by landing on the ball of the same foot.
Term
 Spring
Definition
 As for hop, but landing on the ball of the other foot
Term
 Step
Definition
 A transfer of weight from one foot on to the ball of the other foot. Can be executed with or without travel and, where specially designated, the heel may be lowered to finish on the flat foot.
Term
 Assemble
Definition
 A movement of elevation begun on the ball of one foot and finished by landing simultaneously on the balls of both feet in third or fifth position.
Term
 Disassemble
Definition
 A movement of elevation begun in a closed position with the weight equally distributed on the flat or balls of both feet, and finished by landing on the ball of one foot with the other placed in, or raised to, a specified position. There is no travel on this movement, and, unless otherwise stated, during the elevation there is no extension of the foot upon which the dancer is to land.
Term
 Change
Definition
 A movement of elevation begun with the weight of the body on the balls of both feet in fifth position and finished by landing on the balls of both feet simultaneously in fifth position with the other foot in front. During the elevation there is not extension towards second aerial position. This movement may also be executed using third position.
Term
 Leap
Definition
 A movement of elevation begun from the balls of both feet in fifth position, extending both legs towards second aerial position, and finished by landing simultaneously on the balls of both feet in fifth position with or without change of the feet. On the extension during the elevation, both legs should be straightened.
Term
 Outwards Brush
Definition
 The half point of hte working foot lighty touches the ground in its progress from third aerial position very low through third to an open aerial position, or from a rear position, through first position to fourth aerial position. When an outwards brush is executed in conjunction with a spring or hop, the working foot touches the ground almost simultaneously on landing.
Term
 Inwards Brush
Definition
 The half point of the working foot lightly touches the ground in its progress from an open aerial position to an accepted closed position (as in a shuffle)  or to third aerial position low (as in hop-brush-beat-beat)
Term
 Seann Truibhas Shake
Definition
 A shake is always executed in conjunction with a hop The working foot is progressively extended by two or more subsidiary movements (called shake actions) from third or fifth position to second aerial position high. The shake actions come from the knee controlled by the thigh and they should be started while flexing the knee of the supporting leg in preparation for the hop, simultaneously on landing from which, the working foot arrives at its highest point. Counting: "and and a 1"
Term
 Highland Fling Shake
Definition
 A shake is always executed in conjunction with a hop The movement is always preceded by a placing of the working foot in third or fifth position from where it is extended to fourth intermediate aerial position using only one subsidiary movement. Thus, the actual shake action consists of two shake actions, the first finishedwith the working foot in fourth intermediate aerial position low and the second with that foot arriving at fourth intermediate aerial position simultaneously on landing from the accompanying hop. Counting: (Including the preceding placing of the working foot) '1 and [and] a 2' or '1 [and] and a 2'
Term
 Pas de Basque
Definition
 Preparing with an extension of the working foot to secon aerial position low; spring to that side, bringing the new working foot to third or fifth position, placing it on the half point, then beat (without exaggeration) the ball of the other other foot in third or fifth rear position, at the same time sharply extending the front, if required, to begin the next movement. The same position, third or fifth, must be used throughout the movement. When a turn, or part of a turn, is executed using two Pas de Basques, there is no extension to finish the first Pas de Basques, and the second is danced with little or no travel. This movement may also be danced with other than lateral travel, in which case the extension of the starting foot is along the required line of travel, generally towards fourth intermediate position. Counting for 2 Pas de Basques: Sword: 1& 2 3& 4 All other dances: 1 & 2 3&4
Term
 Open Pas de Basques
Definition
 As in Pas de Basques, except that the front foot is placed in fourth-opposite-fifth position, and there is no extension at the finish. This movement is used only in the Sword dance, and in the quick steps is also executed using fourth position, fourth intermediate position and second position.
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