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HHB Unit 1.2
DNA
26
Biology
Not Applicable
05/26/2017

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Term
DNA
Definition
deoxyribonucleic acid; molecule that holds the genetic code in organisms
Term
double helix
Definition
three-dimensional shape of a DNA molecule
Term
nucleotides
Definition
subunit of DNA consisting of deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group and a base
Term
deoxyribose sugar
Definition
pentose sugar that is a component of DNA molecules
Term
phosphate
Definition
component of DNA molecule (makes the backbone along with sugar)
Term
base
Definition
nitrogenous substance that is a component of DNA
Term
Adenine (A)
Definition
base that pairs with thymine
Term
Thymine (T)
Definition
base that pairs with adenine
Term
Guanine (G)
Definition
base that pairs with cytosine
Term
Cytosine (C)
Definition
base that pairs with guanine
Term
sugar phosphate backbone
Definition
strongly bonded strand of DNA
Term
3’-5’
Definition
strand of nucleic acid running from a sugar to a phosphate
Term
hydrogen bonds
Definition
weak chemical link joining complementary base pairs in DNA
Term
antiparallel
Definition
parallel strands in DNA that run in opposite directions
Term
replication
Definition
formation of copies of DNA molecules
Term
template strands
Definition
DNA strand on which a complementary strand is made
Term
DNA polymerase
Definition
enzyme that unwinds and unzips DNA, adds free nucleotides during DNA replication
Term
primers
Definition
short complementary strand of DNA
Term
lead strand
Definition
DNA strand that is replicated continuously
Term
lagging strand
Definition
DNA strand that is replicated in fragments
Term
ligase
Definition
enzyme that joins DNA fragments
Term
ligase
Definition
enzyme that joins DNA fragments
Term
PCR
Definition
Polymerase chain reaction – used to amplify DNA samples
Term
heating to 92-98 degrees
Definition
Separates the two DNA strands in PCR
Term
cooling to 50-65 degrees
Definition
Allows primers to bind to two ends of target sequence in PCR
Term
heating to 70-80 degrees
Definition
Allows DNA replication with heat tolerant DNA polymerase in PCR
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