# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Hemodynamics of the Peripheral Circulation
Physiology Test 3: Ch16
61
Physiology
10/26/2011

## Additional Physiology Flashcards

Term
 Hydrostatics
Definition
 fluids at rest
Term
 Hyraulics
Definition
 Fluids in motion
Term
 Fluid
Definition
 a substance that responds to shearing force by changes in shape
Term
 Are incompressible
Definition
 Fluids
Term
 Viscosity
Definition
 an internal resistance to flow or deformation
Term
 Fluid pressure
Definition
 force exerted per unit area
Term
 dyne
Definition
 the most common unit for force
Term
 Give the name for these laws: 1. Pressure in a confined fluid is transmitted equally in all direction throughout the mass of that fluid. 2. Thre pressures at points lying in the same horizontal plane in a column of fluid are equal 3. In a fluid at rest, hydrostatic pressure increases in direction proportion to the depth below the free surface
Definition
 Pascal
Term
 Pressure really only varies with __
Definition
 height
Term
 U-shapped tube application
Definition
 a pressure is aplied to one side amounts to the net difference in the levels of two columns of mercury, saline, or water measured directly in millimeters or centimeters
Term
 1 mm Hg of mercury = __ of water
Definition
 1.36cm
Term
 1mm Hg of mercury = ___ of blood
Definition
 1.29cm
Term
 __ is often used to measure high pressures
Definition
 mercury
Term
 Newtonian fluid
Definition
 viscosity remains constant when the velocity of flow chages
Term
 Non-Newtonian fluid exhibits
Definition
 anomalous viscosity
Term
 T/F Blood is a non-Newtonian fluid
Definition
 T
Term
 In the cardiovascular system, blood behaves as though it were a ___
Definition
 Newtonian fluid
Term
 Pressure in a blood vessel is a combination of hydraulic pressure and __
Definition
 hydrostatic pressure
Term
 ___ produces hydraulic pressure
Definition
 heart
Term
 The Poiseuille-Hagen Equation show relationship between all of the following except: A. Flow B. Volume C. Pressure D. Resistance
Definition
 B
Term
 I = E/R
Definition
 Poiseuille Law
Term
 According to the Poiseuille's law, the volume of liquid flowing through a system per unit time is directly proportional to the difference between  __ at the opposite ends of the system
Definition
 pressures
Term
 radius is proportional to __ in the Poiseuille-Hagen equation
Definition
 4th power
Term
 Length has what kind of effect on flow?
Definition
 inverse
Term
 Viscosity and length are directly proportional to __
Definition
 resistance
Term
 resistance is inversley proportional to __
Definition
 fourth power of the radius
Term
 peripheral resistance units is calculated by ___
Definition
 dividing the total driving pressure by flow
Term
 When is the total resistance in the circuit equal to the sum of the individual resistances?
Definition
 resistors in a series
Term
 In resistors in a series, the higher the resistance of a particular element, the __ the voltage drop across that element.
Definition
 greater
Term
 voltage divider
Definition
 total voltage drop is divided among the resistances
Term
 In parallel resistances, the toatl amount of current that flow is the __ of the individual currents
Definition
 sum
Term
 current divider circuit
Definition
 the total current is divided among the individual resistors in inverse proportion to their resistance
Term
 T/F In a parallel resistance circuit, the total resistance of the circuit is greater than the resistance of any one element alone
Definition
 F
Term
 capacitance and __ are inversley related A. flow B. height C. resistance D. pressure
Definition
 C
Term
 There is a __ in blood pressure from arteries to veins
Definition
 decline
Term
 Which of these does not command a larger portion of the cardiac output? A. adrenal glands B. Liver C. GI D. Kidneys
Definition
 A
Term
 Which set has the higest rate of blood flow? A. Heart, brain, GI, muscles B. GI, brain, heart, pancreas C. Spleen, liver, GI, kidneys D. kidneys, liver, heart, bain
Definition
 D
Term
 Pick the following that have the highest & second highest relative flow rates: A. Carotid bodies B. Brain C. Thyroid D. Kidneys
Definition
 A & C
Term
 Maximum __ is reached along the central axis of a tube with blood flowing through it.
Definition
 velocity
Term
 Resistance in a fluid system depends heavily upon ___
Definition
 viscosity
Term
 In a severe anamenia, the viscsity of the blood is low showing the relationship between viscosity and __
Definition
 hematocrit
Term
 A rise in hematocrit that will increase the viscosity (from 40% to 70%) twofold is seen in ___
Definition
 polythemia
Term
 True/False When the radius is smaller, the tension will be less
Definition
 True
Term
 A failing heart chamber (large radius) mus try to create a larger tension to balance the pressure so the heart chamber will get larger. This creates a __ cycle.
Definition
 positive-feedback
Term
 Streamline
Definition
 laminar blood flow in a vessel
Term
 The velocity of blood in the ascending portions of the canine aorta is about ___ cm/sec and will decrease in subsequent segments of the CV tree.
Definition
 150
Term
 When a fliud first enters a tube, flow is __
Definition
 equal at all radial distances from the center of the tube
Term
 Flow becomes more laminar as what happends?
Definition
 flluid moves down a tube
Term
 When is flow no longer streamlined?
Definition
 critical velocity
Term
 At flow rates above critical velocity stramline no longer exhists, but __ will.
Definition
 turbulent flow
Term
 True/False In turbulent flwo, the pressure energy is used chiefly to overcome the viscosity of the fluid
Definition
 False -streamline flow would make the statement true
Term
 Cross section area increases from arteries to __
Definition
 capillaries
Term
 Why wold we want lower velocity in capillaries?
Definition
 for gas exchange to occur
Term
 What are more likely to occue with turbulent flow? A. murmurs B. stenosis C. tachycardia D. blod clots
Definition
 A & D
Term
 Osborne Raynold's law
Definition
 law that determines how the fluid behaves at flow rates above the critical velocity
Term
 Laplace's law relates to (name all that are correct): A. pressure B. tension C. velocity D. radius
Definition
 A, B, & D
Term
 T = Pr
Definition
 Laplace's law
Term
 The greater the contractile activity of the __, the smaller the diameter
Definition
 smooth muscle of the ateroile
Term
 critical closing pressure
Definition
 the point where blood flow ceases becuse the vessel is closed
Term
 In __ the tissues already ischemic due to low flow and are further threatened with sudden complete cessation of flow to certain capillary beds
Definition
 shock
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