# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

hearing science
test #2
33
Other
02/14/2012

Term
 displacement and velocity
Definition
 accurate description of particle displacement needs a vectoramount of particle displacement per unit of time unit of time= velocity (c)
Term
 intensity
Definition
 = amplitude=loudness
Term
 acceleration
Definition
 change in velocityvector= m/sex: car is going 65 mph then changes to 75 mph acceleration = 10 mph
Term
 Force (F)
Definition
 a push or a pullmass x accelerationor F=MAor A (accelration)A= F/MF=ForceM=mass
Term
 Force (F)
Definition
 measured in dynes or newtonswe use dynes100,000 dynes= 1 Newton
Term
 Pressure
Definition
 is created when force is applied to a surface areameasured in Pascals (Pa)dynes/cm2
Term
 what is the least amount of pressure a human ear can detect?
Definition
 .0002 dynes/cm2
Term
 what is the pain threshold of the human ear?
Definition
 200,000,000 dynes/ cm2
Term
 dynamic range of hearing
Definition
 the range between the least amount of pressure and the threshold of pain.0002 dynes/cm2 -> 200,000,000 dynes/cm2
Term
 power
Definition
 power is the capacity to exert energy of forcemeasured in horsepower or WATTS
Term
 Intensity
Definition
 is created when power is distributed over an area measured in watts/cm2
Term
 what is the lowest intensity a human ear can detect?
Definition
 1x10^-16 (exponent)watts/ cm2
Term
 what is the threshold of pain for intensity??
Definition
 1 x 10^-2 (exponent) watts/cm2
Term
 What is the relationship between intensity and pressure
Definition
 intensity = pressure squared
Term
 Logarithms
Definition
 helps the size of the larger numbers there are two types of logs-natural log (to the base 10)-common log (any other base)
Term
 a logarithm scale
Definition
 is the same as a ratio scale
Term
 Bel
Definition
 ratio between whatever sound is being measured and the softest sound a human can detect Pressure= X/.0002 dynes/ cm^2Intensity= X/1 x 10^(-16) -exponentwhere x is whatever sound you are measuring
Term
 bel->decibels
Definition
 decibel is 1/10 of a belto convert from bels to decibels multiply by 104.3 bels=43 decibels
Term
 complex waves
Definition
 any sound that is not sinusoidalcomposed of 2 or more sine wavesmost of what we listen to is complexgraphed on a spectrumwhen adding 2 sine waves add the instantaneous amplitudescomplex waves can be periodic or aperiodic
Term
 Fourier's Theorem
Definition
 -a complex is wave is any sound wave that is not sinusoidal-complex waves consist of a series of sinusoidal waves that can differ in amplitude, frequency and phasethis is called a Fourier series
Term
 Periodic waves
Definition
 repeats itself over timecomplex waves can be periodic
Term
 octave
Definition
 the doubling of frequencies its a ratio 2:1200:100
Term
 aperiodic complex waves
Definition
 combo of sounds not harmonically related-continuous
Term
 noise
Definition
 unwanted sounds-psychological definition
Term
 acoustical noise
Definition
 complex aperiodic sound-instantaneous amplitudes that vary over time
Term
 gaussian noise
Definition
 -a type of white noise that has random amplitudes but more in the middle of the spectrum -when graphed will have a bell curvecontains all freq and random phases
Term
 sawtooth noise
Definition
 high freq. emphsis
Term
 pink noise
Definition
 low freq emphasis
Term
 transients
Definition
 sounds- short duration-brief acoustic events-click (example)-
Term
 click
Definition
 a transient-shorter the duration of the click the more freq your going to find in the click-aperiodic-more freq in clicks the broader the spectrum
Term
 resonance
Definition
 resonant freq= fnatwhich is governed by the mass of the object and the stiffness -you can force something to vibrate NOT at its natural freq
Term
 The principal of resonance
Definition
 periodic force (ex:vibrating fork) is applied to an elastic system (ex: hard surface)-system is forced to vib at freq of applied force not the nat freq.the closer the freq of the applied force is to the fnat (nat freq) of the system the greater the amplitude of vibration (loudness increases)
Term
 filter
Definition
 is a frequency specific elastic system that allows the freq of the vibrating object to be modified(only allows in certain freq)
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