Shared Flashcard Set


Health Studies
Final exam study
Health Care
Undergraduate 3

Additional Health Care Flashcards





Health Education Definition


-A dimension of the required "caring" of the nurse

-recognizeses the patient as the best manager of their care

-a practice based on influence not control

-focused on behavioral changes

-a patient's right to know what is going on

Reasons for health education

-help people take responsibilty for their health

-decrease risk of critial incidents occuring

-individualized care (what they cannot do for themselves)

-a professional/legal duty of the nurse

-patients have a right to know

-to gain pt. partnership


Process of health education


Assessment-med/nursing diagnoses

Plan for care-teamwork, priorities, short/long term goals, specific/measurable objectives (pt. included)

Implementation-how the plan will be implemented, teaching targeted to meet mutually estabilished goals

Evaluation-how goals were met, med/nursing diagoses resolved or referred for continuing care, leads back to assessment


Why is health education an essential element of quality health care?

-seeks to care for the whole person

-seeks to make the individual the manager of their


-giving people what they do not have to then be able to function better

-decreases recovery time

-supports individuals right to know

-encourages pt. participation in care/decisions

-increase longterm wellbeing

-increase coping ability

-inform regarding financial responsiblities, what to expect

Four ways to include health education when time is limited?

-Set priorities

-Teach pt. about actions being done by health care provider during the action

-Provide material for the pt. to study but evaluate their understanding after

-Include multidisciplinary members to participate in teaching


Health Belief Model


To identify factors that influence complience and motivation, and how a pt. percieves their health problem

Six factors are considered:

1. Pt. perception of illness severity

2. Pt. perception of susceptibiltiy to illness and consequenses

3. Value of treatment benefits

4. Barriers to treatment

5. Costs of treatment physically and emotionally

6. Cues that stiumuate taking action toward treatment of illness (ie. media, previous experience, health pamphlets ect.)

Health Promotion Model

Inventor believed health was related to self-initiationed behaviors directed toward attaining hgihter levels of health.

The model assumes that people seek to create conditions of living through which they can express their unique human health potential. That people have the capacity for self awareness, value growth, try to achieve a balance between change and stablity, seek to regulate their own behavior, people interact with their environment progressively transforming the environment and being transformed overtime. Health care providers are part of this environment that influences and self initiated changes are essential to behavior change

Organized into 3 categories:

1. indivuidual characteristics and expreinces

2. behavior specfic cognitions and affect

3. behavioral outcome

Behavioral theory of learning

Conditioning or behavior modification        

Formation of stimulus-response linkages or response-stimulus reinforcements

Teacher centered with passive learners     


Increased probability of desired response and is useful for reinforcing desired behaviors in children 



Social Cognitive learning theories

Conceptual Model


Source: Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. 12-8-04.



Increased belief that one is capable of performing desired behavior and that the performace wil lead to expected outome

 Enhancement of self confidnence and self efficacy can lead to desired health behavior changes and maintencance of desired behavior

Cognitive learning theories

Gains or changes insights, outlooks or though    patterns

Reorganizes perceputal or cognitive fields.         Purposive involvement, problem solving/raising. 

Teacher-student centered with cooperative and    interactive inquiry

Information processing model consists of short & long term memory. Long term memory is banked and can be retrieved later for use by short term memory.


Leads to purposfully acquired insights, preinciplies, relationships, concepts, generalizations, rules, theories, or lawas with enhanced scientific outlook and instrumental thinking. Diagnostic reasoning


Applicable to affective learning. Useful when working with groups with common problems. Useful for building and connecting information

Behavioral learning theory
    1. Behavioral Learning Theory
    2. Key principle - behavior changes according to its immediate consequences
    • Key concepts - reinforcement, extinction, punishment, shaping, randomness
  • Term
    Cognitive learning theory
    1. Cognitive Learning Theory
    2. Key principle - learning is the development of insights that provide a guide for behavior
    • Key concepts - learner schemata, mental models, levels of learning
  • Term
    Social Cognitive learning theory
    1. Social Cognitive Theory
    2. Includes elements of behavioral and cognitive learning theory
    • Key principle - people respond primarily to cognitive representations of the environment rather than the environment itself
    • Key concepts - observation leads to learning, modeled action, cognitive rehearsals, expectations, extrinsic reward, self-evaluation
  • Term
    10 Ways a health care provider can design a learning environment that motivates learning

    1. Encourage the learner when they suceed

         2.  Feedforward information 

    3. Brainstorm opportunities with specific guidlines for participants

    4.    Adult-Adult interaction

    5. Written learning contracts

    6. Provide role models (peers)

    7. Group sessions or one on one interaction depending on learner need.

         8. Use of object lessons (ie. progression of lung changes in undermangaged COPD or heart the heart in undermanged heart disease)

    9. Opportunities to practice new skills taught

    10. Establish a climate of mutual trust and safety

    Identify ways to improve the learning environment

    -Assess learners learning styles

    -Explore one's own teaching styles

    -Motivate the learner to learn

    -Create an environment of motivation, encouragement and responsibility on the learner to learn

    Locations in which health teaching takes place








    Facilitating learning

    Providing information not known before

    Any practice that furnishes a person with skill or knowledge (RHD, 2002).


    -Tell me and I forget. Show me and I remember. Involve me and I understand.

    -ignorance to knowledge, indifference to understanding, inability to competence (change)

    The three domains of learning
    Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor
    Cognitive Domain

    Intellectual ability, mental capacity, thinking processes


    cognitive domain
     levelcategory or 'level'behaviour descriptions examples of activity to be trained, or demonstration and evidence to be measured 'key words' (verbs which describe the activity to be trained or measured at each level)
    1Knowledgerecall or recognise informationmultiple-choice test, recount facts or statistics, recall a process, rules, definitions; quote law or procedurearrange, define, describe, label, list, memorise, recognise, relate, reproduce, select, state
    2Comprehensionunderstand meaning, re-state data in one's own words, interpret, extrapolate, translate explain or interpret meaning from a given scenario or statement, suggest treatment, reaction or solution to given problem, create examples or metaphorsexplain, reiterate, reword, critique, classify, summarise, illustrate, translate, review, report, discuss, re-write, estimate, interpret, theorise, paraphrase, reference, example
    3Applicationuse or apply knowledge, put theory into practice, use knowledge in response to real circumstancesput a theory into practical effect, demonstrate, solve a problem, manage an activityuse, apply, discover, manage, execute, solve, produce, implement, construct, change, prepare, conduct, perform, react, respond, role-play
    4Analysisinterpret elements, organizational principles, structure, construction, internal relationships; quality, reliability of individual componentsidentify constituent parts and functions of a process or concept, or de-construct a methodology or process, making qualitative assessment of elements, relationships, values and effects; measure requirements or needsanalyse, break down, catalogue, compare, quantify, measure, test, examine, experiment, relate, graph, diagram, plot, extrapolate, value, divide
    5Synthesis (create/build)develop new unique structures, systems, models, approaches, ideas; creative thinking, operationsdevelop plans or procedures, design solutions, integrate methods, resources, ideas, parts; create teams or new approaches, write protocols or contingenciesdevelop, plan, build, create, design, organise, revise, formulate, propose, establish, assemble, integrate, re-arrange, modify
    6Evaluationassess effectiveness of whole concepts, in relation to values, outputs, efficacy, viability; critical thinking, strategic comparison and review; judgement relating to external criteriareview strategic options or plans in terms of efficacy, return on investment or cost-effectiveness, practicability; assess sustainability; perform a SWOT analysis in relation to alternatives; produce a financial justification for a proposition or venture, calculate the effects of a plan or strategy; perform a detailed and costed risk analysis with recommendations and justificationsreview, justify, assess, present a case for, defend, report on, investigate, direct, appraise, argue, project-manage

    Conversation advantages and disadvantages


    More relaxed, personal, can be one on one

    Allows opportunity to explore more than one area of teaching need



    Can be more time consuming

    May allow participants to go off track more

    Affective Domain

    Feelings, attitudes, values

    affective domain
     levelcategory or 'level'behaviour descriptions examples of experience, or demonstration and evidence to be measured 'key words' (verbs which describe the activity to be trained or measured at each level)
    1Receiveopen to experience, willing to hearlisten to teacher or trainer, take interest in session or learning experience, take notes, turn up, make time for learning experience, participate passivelyask, listen, focus, attend, take part, discuss, acknowledge, hear, be open to, retain, follow, concentrate, read, do, feel
    2Respondreact and participate activelyparticipate actively in group discussion, active participation in activity, interest in outcomes, enthusiasm for action, question and probe ideas, suggest interpretationreact, respond, seek clarification, interpret, clarify, provide other references and examples, contribute, question, present, cite, become animated or excited, help team, write, perform
    3Valueattach values and express personal opinionsdecide worth and relevance of ideas, experiences; accept or commit to particular stance or actionargue, challenge, debate, refute, confront, justify, persuade, criticise,
    4Organise or Conceptualize valuesreconcile internal conflicts; develop value system qualify and quantify personal views, state personal position and reasons, state beliefsbuild, develop, formulate, defend, modify, relate, prioritise, reconcile, contrast, arrange, compare
    5Internalize or characterise valuesadopt belief system and philosophy self-reliant; behave consistently with personal value setact, display, influence, solve, practice,

    Psychomotor Domain
    Motor skills
    Are the three domains of learning mutually exclusive? Why or why not

    The three domains of learning are not mutually exclusive since it is possible for teaching to occur in more than one domain at the same time (ie. coaching a pt. through an insulin injection -both cognitive and psychomotor domains.


    side note: often necessary to address one domain before being able to address another (ie. affective domain regarding insulin need for a pt. with IDDM and using cognitive domain to work with affective domain to ultimately teach an injection in the psycomotor domain.)

    Assessment phase

    1. Gathering data

    2. Sorting and categorizing data

    3. Writing a summary statment (Includes medical/nursing diagnoses)


    Patient and family should be included in the process. Assessment is a continual process since new information can come up at anytime.

    Planning phase

    Identify the actual/potential functional problems of the pt. what survival skills are necessary

    Ask the learning their view on the issues.

    Short/long term goals negotiated

    Learning readiness must be assesses

    Maslow's heirarchy of needs

    Patients need to know why they are there (diagnosis)

    Lecture advantages and disadvantages


    Can cover lots of content in smaller amount of time

    Good for larger groups

    Can be helpful for auditory learners




    Can be too quick for some learners

    Does not offer as much opportunity for participation by learner

    Demonstration advantages and disadvantages


    Provides a visual image for pt. to see and replicate better

    More personal than a lecture

    Can incorporate cognitive and psycomotor domains



    Does not work as well with large groups

     Can be time consuming

    Not necessarily directly interactive

    Types of teaching
    Gives directionSuggests alternativesElicits student ideasElicits student feelings
    Asks direct questionsOffers opinionsExplores student ideasOffers feelings
    Gives informationRelates personal experiencesInvites personal experiencesEncourages/ Uses silence

    1. Quirk ME. How to learn and teach in medical school: a learner-centered approach. New York: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, 1994.

    Self efficacy theory
    Also called social learning theory. The confidence that one can carry out a behavior to reach a desired goal. Four ways health care providers can help people believe this change is possible: 1. personal mastery 2. vicarious expereinces 3. verbal persuasion 4. physiological feedback (result of sucess at the behavior)
    Mind mapping

    A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks, or other items linked to and arranged radially around a central key word or idea. Mind maps are used to generate, visualize, structure, and classify ideas, and as an aid in study, organization, problem solving, decision making, and writing.

    Informed consent
    Providing a patient with the benefits and risks to a certain treatment and giving the information in a way that they can understand it so as to be able to make a desision with the proper knowledge of the information

    Behavioral objective criteria


    1 Performance (what learner will do)


    2 Conditions (what constraints will be included in performance)


    3 Criteria (how teacher and learner will know if goal has been accomplished)

    Prochaska's Transtheoretical Model of Motivation and Change

    Precontemplation-6 mo., little intent to change, resistant to change, defensive

    Contemplation- 6 mo. to yrs, more serious to change behavior, unsure about costs and benefits of changing behavior

    Preparation- variable time period, prelimiary healthy behavior attempts such as brief attempts

    Action-up to 6 mo., action interspersed with recidivism and relapse

    Maintenance- 6 mo. after successful behavior change in action phase, may last for yrs if successful, relapse may occur but less common than during action stage


    Identify at least 5 methods of measurement of learning outcomes


    Direct observation


    Patient records










    Critical incidents


    Length of Stay




    Demonstration, involvement, cartoons, models, posters, stories, lectures, transparencies, discussions, computers, audiotapes, handouts


    What are the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies?

    What are the 4 levels of Evaluation?

    Level A: Pt. and family involvement during intervention did they like it


    Level B: Pt. performance immediately after learning experience did they learn it


    Level C: Patient performance at home did they use it


    Level D: Patient's overall self-care adn health management was teaching worth it in the long run

    When can the degree of the sucess of patient education be measured?

    1. During the intervention


    2. Performance after learning


    3. Performance at home


    4. Overall self-care and maintenance

    How is evaluation conducted?
    Evaluation is conducted using the behavior objectives set in the planning phase

    Who is evaluated in the Evaluation step of the education process?


    The teacher and learner


     In this phase the educator needs to measure behavior, look critically at patient care, identify problems that have prevented learning and if their are still current learning needs

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