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Additional English Flashcards




contradict /ˌkɒn.trəˈdɪkt/ /ˌːn-/ verb [ I or T ]


(of people) to state the opposite of what someone else has said, or (of one fact or statement) to be so different from another fact or statement that one of them must be wrong
If you're both going to lie, at least stick to the same story and don't contradict each other!
[ R ] He kept contradicting him self when we were arguing - I think he was a bit confused.
How dare you contradict (me)!
Recent evidence has tended to contradict established theories on this subject.
contraindication /ˌkɒn.trəˌɪn.dɪˈkeɪ.ʃ ə n/ /ˌːn-/ noun [ C ] specialized




a sign that someone should not continue with a particular medicine or treatment because it is or might be harmful

intuit /ɪnˈtjuː.ɪt/ /ɪnˈtuː-/ verb [ T ] formal


to know or understand something because of a feeling that you have rather than because of facts or what someone has told you
[ + that ] He intuited that I was worried about the situation.


falsehood /ˈfɒls.hʊd/ /ˈːls-/ noun formal

1. [ U ] lying
She doesn't seem to understand the difference between truth and falsehood.
2. [ C ] a lie or a statement which is not correct
criticize , UK usually criticise /ˈkrɪt.ɪ.saɪz/ /ˈkrɪt ̬-/ verb


1. [ I T often passive ] to express disapproval of someone or something

The government is being widely criticized in the press for fail ing to limit air pollution.

We'll get nowhere if all you can do is criticize.

2. [ T ] to give an opinion or judgment about a book, film, etc.

We're a group of artists who meet to discuss things and criticize each other's work.


peruse /pəˈruːz/ verb [ T ] formal

(is type of) Examine-See

Flip-Leaf-Riff-Riffle-Thumb-Flick (is type of peruse)

to read through something, especially in order to find the part you are interested in

He opened a newspaper and began to peruse the personal ads.

perusal /pəˈruː.z ə l/ noun [ S or U ] formal

a brief perusal (= a quick read)
He sent a copy of the report to the governors for their perusal (= for them to read) .


*anomaly ˈnɒm.ə.li/ /-ˈː.mə-/ noun [ C or U ] formal

a person or thing that is different from what is usual, or not in agreement with something else and therefore not satisfactory

Statistical anomalies can make it difficult to compare economic data from one year to the next.

The anomaly of the social security system is that you sometimes have more money without a job.

anomalous ˈnɒm.ə.ləs/ /-ˈː.mə-/ adjective

In a multicultural society is it not anomalous to have a blasphemy law which only protects one religious faith?

anomalously ˈnɒm.ə.lə.sli/ /-ˈː.mə-/ adverb


*equivocal ˈkwɪv.ə.k ə l/ adjective formal

not clear and seeming to have two opposing meanings, or confusing and able to be understood in two different ways

His words to the press were deliberately equivocal - he didn't deny the reports but neither did he confirm them.

Opposite unequivocal

equivocally ˈkwɪv.ə.kli/ adverb


*lucid /ˈluː.sɪd/ adjective

clearly expressed and easy to understand or (of a person) thinking or speaking clearly

She gave a clear and lucid account of her plans for the company's future.

The drugs she's taking make her drowsy and confused, but there are times when she's quite lucid.

lucidity /luːˈsɪd.ɪ.ti/ /-ə.t ̬i/ noun [ U ] ( also lucidness )

lucidly /ˈluː.sɪ adverb


*precipitate /prɪˈsɪp.ɪ.teɪt/ verb

verb MAKE HAPPEN 1. [ T ] formal to make something happen suddenly or sooner than expected

An invasion would certainly precipitate a political crisis.

Fear of losing her job precipitated (= suddenly forced) her into action.

verb THROW 2. [ T usually + adverb or preposition ] formal to throw someone or something from a height with great force

verb CHEMISTRY 3. [ I or T ] specialized If a liquid precipitates, substances in it become solid and separate from the liquid

Cooling the beaker helps precipitate the compound.

If any organic salt is formed, it will precipitate (out) immediately.


*precipitate /prɪˈsɪp.ɪ.teɪt/ noun adjective

noun [ C or U ] specialized

a solid substance which is produced from a liquid during a chemical process

After filtration, the precipitate was dried at 90°C.

adjective ( also precipitous ) formal

If an action is precipitate, it is done sooner or faster than expected and without enough thought or preparation

Don't be precipitate - think it through before you make a decision.

*assuage ˈsweɪdʒ/ verb [ T ] formal

to make unpleasant feelings less strong

The government has tried to assuage the public's fears.

*erudite /ˈer.ʊ.daɪt/ adjective formal

having or containing a lot of specialist knowledge

He's the author of an erudite book on Scottish history.

erudition /ˌer.ʊˈdɪʃ. ə n/ noun [ U ]

a work of great erudition

*opaque ʊ ˈpeɪk/ /oʊ-/ adjective





1. preventing light from travelling through, and therefore not transparent or translucent

opaque glass/tights

2. formal describes writing or speech that is difficult to understand

I find her poetry rather opaque.

opaquely ʊ ˈpeɪ.kli/ /oʊ-/ adverb

*prodigal /ˈprɒd.ɪ.g ə l/ /ˈprɑː.dɪ-/ adjective formal
wasteful with money; often spending large amounts without thinking of the future
There have been rumours that he has been prodigal with company funds.
prodigality /ˌprɒd.ɪˈgæl.ɪ.ti/ /ˌprɑː.dɪˈgæl.ə.t ̬i/ noun [ U ]

prodigally /ˈprɒd.ɪ.gli/ /ˈprɑː.dɪ-/ adverb

*enigma ˈnɪg.mə/ noun [ C ]

something that is mysterious and seems impossible to understand completely

She is a bit of an enigma.

The newspapers were full of stories about the enigma of Lord Lucan's disappearance.

*fervent /ˈː.v ə nt/ /ˈː-/ adjective ( also fervid ) formal

describes beliefs that are strongly and sincerely felt or people who have strong and sincere beliefs

a fervent supporter of the communist party

It is his fervent hope that a peaceful solution will soon be found.

fervently /ˈː.v ə /ˈː-/ adverb

The nationalists believe fervently in independence for their country.

fervour UK , US fervor /ˈː.və r / /ˈː.vɚ/ noun [ U ] ( also fervency ) formal

nationalist/religious fervour
*placate /pləˈkeɪt/ /ˈpleɪ.keɪt/ verb [ T ]

to stop someone from feeling angry

Outraged minority groups will not be placated by promises of future improvements.

*zeal /ziːl/ noun [ S or U ]

great enthusiasm or eagerness

reforming/missionary/religious zeal

a zeal for money-making

*abstain /æbˈsteɪn/ verb [ I ]


1. to not do something, especially something enjoyable that you think might be bad

He took a vow to abstain from alcohol/smoking/sex.


2. to decide not to use your vote

63 members voted in favour, 39 opposed and 5 abstained.

abstainer /æbˈsteɪ.nə r / /-nɚ/ noun [ C ]

*audacious ːˈdeɪ.ʃəs/ ː-/ adjective


showing a willingness to take risks or offend people

He described the plan as ambitious and audacious.

an audacious remark/suggestion

audaciously ːˈdeɪ.ʃə.sli/ ː-/ adverb

audaciousness ːˈdeɪ.ʃə.snəs/ ː-/ noun [ U ]


*desiccated /ˈdes.ɪ.keɪ.tɪd/ /-t ̬ɪd/ adjective

1. dried

100g of desiccated (= dried and broken into small pieces) coconut

2. disapproving not interesting or completely without imagination

All the party seems to have to offer is the same desiccated old ideas.

*gullible /ˈgʌl.ə.bl ̩/ adjective


easily deceived or tricked, and too willing to believe everything that other people say

There are any number of miracle cures on the market for people gullible enough to buy them.


*laudable /ˈː.də.bl ̩/ /ˈː-/ adjective formal

(of actions and behaviour) deserving praise, even if there is little or no success

a laudable aim/ambition

The recycling programme is laudable, but does it save much money?

laudably /ˈː.də.bli/ /ˈː-/ adverb

*pedant /ˈped. ə nt/ noun [ C ] disapproving

a person who is too interested in formal rules and small details that are not important

pedantry /ˈped. ə n.tri/ noun [ U ]

There was a hint of pedantry in his elegant style of speaking.


*vacillate /ˈvæs.ɪ.leɪt/ verb [ I ] disapproving

to be uncertain what to do, or to change often between two opinions

Her mood vacillated between hope and despair.

vacillation /ˌvæs.ɪˈleɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ C or U ]

*adulterate ˈdʌl.tə.reɪt/ verb [ T always passive ]

to make food or drink weaker or to lower its quality, by adding something else

There were complaints that the beer had been adulterated with water.

adulterated ˈdʌl.tə.reɪ.tɪd/ /-t ̬ɪd/ adjective

adulterated drugs/food

adulteration ˌdʌl.təˈreɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ U ]

*capricious /kəˈprɪʃ.əs/ adjective literary

changing mood or behaviour suddenly and unexpectedly

a capricious child

He was a cruel and capricious tyrant.

capriciously /kəˈprɪʃ.ə.sli/ adverb

capriciousness /kəˈprɪʃ.ə.snəs/ noun [ U ]

*engender /ɪnˈdʒen.də r / /-dɚ/ verb [ T ] formal

to make people have a particular feeling or make a situation start to exist

Her latest book has engendered a lot of controversy.

The minister's speech did not engender confidence in his judgment.

*homogeneous /ˌhɒm.əˈdʒiː.ni.əs/ , /ˌhəʊ.mə-/ /ˌhoʊ.moʊˈdʒiː-/ adjective ( also homogenous )

consisting of parts or people which are similar to each other or are of the same type

a homogeneous group/society

The population of the village has remained remarkably homogeneous.

Compare heterogeneous

homogeneity /ˌhɒm.ə.dʒəˈneɪ.ɪ.ti/ /ˌː.mə.dʒəˈneɪ.ə.t ̬i/ noun [ U ]

cultural/racial homogeneity


*loquacious /lə ʊ ˈkweɪ.ʃəs/ /loʊˈkweɪ-/ adjective formal

describes someone who talks a lot

loquaciously /lə ʊ ˈkweɪ.ʃə.sli/ /loʊˈkweɪ-/ adverb

*pragmatic /prægˈmæt.ɪk/ /-ˈmæt ̬-/ adjective mainly approving

solving problems in a realistic way which suits the present conditions rather than obeying fixed theories, ideas or rules

In business, the pragmatic approach to problems is often more successful than an idealistic one.



*volatile /ˈvɒl.ə.taɪl/ /ˈː.lə.t ̬ ə l/ adjective




1. likely to change suddenly and unexpectedly or suddenly become violent or angry

Food and fuel prices are very volatile in a war situation.

The situation was made more volatile by the fact that people had been drinking a lot of alcohol.

He had a rather volatile temper and can't have been easy to live with.

2. A volatile liquid or solid substance will change easily into a gas.


volatility /ˌvɒl.əˈtɪl.ɪ.ti/ /ˌː.ləˈtɪl.ə.t ̬i/ noun [ U ]


*apathy /ˈæp.ə.θi/ noun [ U ]

when someone shows no interest or energy and is unwilling to take action, especially over something important

widespread apathy among students

voter apathy



*corroborate /kəˈrɒb.ə.reɪt/ /-ˈː.bə-/ verb [ T ] formal

to add proof to an account, statement, idea, etc. with new information

Recent research seems to corroborate his theory.

corroborating /kəˈrɒb. ə r.eɪ.tɪŋ/ /-ˈː.bə.reɪ.t ̬ɪŋ/ adjective (also corroborative ) corroborating evidence/reports

corroboration /kəˌrɒb.əˈreɪ.ʃ ə n/ /-ˌː.bə-/ noun [ U ]

Without corroboration from forensic tests, it will be difficult to prove that the suspect is guilty.


*ephemeral ˈfem. ə r. ə l/ /-ɚ-/ adjective
lasting for only a short time
Fame in the world of rock and pop is largely ephemeral.
laconic /ləˈkɒn.ɪk/ /-ˈː.nɪk/ adjective formal


using very few words to express what you mean

She had a laconic wit.


laconically /ləˈkɒn.ɪ.kli/ /-ˈː.nɪ-/ adverb


*mitigate /ˈmɪt.ɪ.geɪt/ /ˈmɪt ̬-/ verb [ T ] formal

to make something less harmful, unpleasant or bad

It is unclear how to mitigate the effects of tourism on the island.

*propriety /prəˈpraɪə.ti/ /-t ̬i/ noun

1. [ U ] formal correct moral behaviour or actions

The director insisted that there was no question as to the propriety of how the funds were raised.

She was careful always to behave with propriety.

2. proprieties formal

the rules of polite social behaviour

They'd invited us to dinner so we thought we'd better observe the proprieties and invite them back.


*bewildering /bɪˈwɪl.d ə r.ɪŋ/ /-dɚ.ɪŋ/ adjective

1. confusing and difficult to understand

He gave me directions to his house, but I found them utterly bewildering.

2. making you feel confused because you cannot decide what you want

The college offers a bewildering range of courses.

exorbitant /ɪgˈː.bɪ.t ə nt/ /-ˈzːɔr.bə.t ̬ ə nt/ adjective

Exorbitant prices and demands, etc. are much too large

The bill for dinner was exorbitant.


flounder /ˈflaʊn.də r / /-dɚ/ verb [ I noun

verb  to experience great difficulties or be completely unable to decide what to do or say next

He lost the next page of his speech and floundered (about/around) for a few seconds.

Although his business was a success, his marriage was floundering.

In 1986 Richardson resigned as chairman, leaving the company floundering.

noun [ C or U ] plural flounder or flounders

a flat fish that lives in the sea, or its flesh eaten as food


fathom /ˈfæð.əm/ noun [ C ] verb [ T ]

noun  a unit for measuring the depth of water, equal to 1.8 metres or 6 feet

verb [ T ]

1. to discover the meaning of something

For years people have been trying to fathom (out) the mysteries of the whale's song.

2. to understand someone or why someone acts as they do

I can't fathom her at all.

apogee /ˈæp.ə.dʒiː/ noun [ S ] formal
the most successful, popular or powerful point
At their apogee, the novels of Spillane claimed worldwide sales of over 180 million.
epiphany ˈpɪf. ə n.i/ noun [ C or U ] literary


when you suddenly feel that you understand, or suddenly become conscious of, something that is very important to you or a powerful religious experience

impasse /æmˈpæs/ /ˈɪm.pæs/ noun [ U ]
a situation in which further development is impossible
The dispute had reached an impasse, as neither side would compromise.
capitulate /kəˈpɪt.jʊ.leɪt/ verb [ I ]

1. to accept military defeat
Their forces capitulated five hours after the Allied bombardment of the city began.
2. to accept something or agree to do something unwillingly
The sports minister today capitulated to calls for his resignation.

capitulation /kəˌpɪt.jʊˈleɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ C or U ]

regress /rɪˈgres/ verb [ I ] formal

to return to a previous and less advanced or worse state, condition or way of behaving
She suffered brain damage from the car accident and regressed to the mental age of a five-year-old.
Compare progress

regression /rɪˈgreʃ. ə n/ noun [ U ]

impugn /ɪmˈpjuːn/ verb [ T ] formal
to cause people to doubt someone's character, qualities or reputation by criticizing them
Are you impugning my competence as a professional designer?
acrimonious /ˌæk.rɪˈməʊ.ni.əs/ /-ˈmoʊ-/ adjective formal


full of anger, arguments and bad feeling
an acrimonious dispute
Their marriage ended eight years ago in an acrimonious divorce.


acrimoniously /ˌæk.rɪˈməʊ.ni.ə.sli/ /-ˈmoʊ-/ adverb
In 1967, he separated acrimoniously from his wife.

acrimony /ˈæk.rɪ.mə.ni/ /ˈæk.rəˌmoʊ.ni/ noun [ U ]

The acrimony of the dispute has shocked a lot of people.


sinecure /ˈsɪn.ɪ.kjʊə r / /ˈsaɪ.nə.kjʊr/ noun [ C ] disapproving


a position which involves little work, but for which the person is paid

gainsay /ˌgeɪnˈseɪ/ verb [ T often in negatives ] gainsaid , gainsaid formal
to refuse to accept something as the truth
Certainly there's no gainsaying (= It is not possible to doubt) the technical brilliance of his performance.
elusive ˈluː.sɪv/ adjective
difficult to describe, find, achieve or remember
The answers to these questions remain as elusive as ever.
Success, however, remained elusive for her.
elusive memories


elusively ˈluː.sɪ adverb

elusiveness ˈluː.sɪv.nəs/ noun [ U ]

dilapidated /dɪˈlæp.ɪ.deɪ.tɪd/ /-t ̬ɪd/ adjective


describes something old and in poor condition
The hotel we stayed in was really dilapidated.
a dilapidated old car/shed

dilapidation /dɪˌlæp.ɪˈdeɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ U ]

The farmhouse fell into a state of dilapidation.


diminutive /dɪˈmɪn.jʊ.tɪv/ /-t ̬ɪv/ adjective
very small
He's a diminutive figure, less than five feet tall.
ostentatious /ˌɒs.tenˈteɪ.ʃəs/ /ˌɑː.stən-/ adjective disapproving
too obviously showing your money, possessions or power, in an attempt to make other people notice and admire you
They criticized the ostentatious lifestyle of their leaders.
an ostentatious gesture/manner

ostentatiously /ˌɒs.tenˈteɪ.ʃə.sli/ /ˌɑː.stən-/ adverb disapproving

The room was ostentatiously decorated in white and silver.
He took out his gold watch and laid it ostentatiously (= very obviously so everyone would notice) on the table in front of him.


impassioned /ɪmˈpæʃ. ə nd/ adjective
describes speech or writing that is full of strongly felt and strongly expressed emotion
Relatives of the dead made an impassioned plea for the bodies to be flown back to this country.
orator /ˈɒr.ə.tə r / /ˈɔːr.ə.t ̬ɚ/ noun [ C ]
someone who is good at public speaking
a skilled orator
miscreant /ˈmɪs.kri.ənt/ noun [ C ] formal
someone who behaves badly or does not obey rules
We need tougher penalties to discourage miscreants.
interloper /ˈɪn.təˌləʊ.pə r / /-t ̬ɚˌloʊ.pɚ/ noun [ C ] disapproving
someone who becomes involved in an activity or a social group without being asked, or enters a place without permission
Security did not prevent an interloper from getting onto the stage at the opening ceremony.
despair /dɪˈspeə r / /-ˈsper/ noun [ U ]
1. the feeling that there is no hope and that you can do nothing to improve a difficult or worrying situation
a mood/sense of despair
They're in (the depths of) despair over/about the money they've lost.
To her teacher's despair, Nicole never does the work that she's told to do.
Their fourth year without rain drove many farmers to (= caused them to feel) despair.
2. be the despair of sb
to cause someone such difficulties that they do not know how to deal with you
He's the despair of his parents because he shows no interest in getting a job.



despair /dɪˈspeə r / /-ˈsper/ verb [ I ]




to feel despair about something or someone

Don't despair! We'll find a way out!
I despair at/over the policies of this government.
They began to despair of ever be ing rescued.
despairing /dɪˈspeə.rɪŋ/ /-ˈsper.ɪŋ/ adjective
a despairing glance/cry

despairingly /dɪˈspeə.rɪŋ.li/ /-ˈsper.ɪŋ-/ adverb

He rubbed his hand despairingly over his face.


duress /djʊˈres/ /duː-/ noun [ U ] formal
threats used to force a person to do something
He claimed that he signed the confession under duress.
ebullient /ɪbˈʊl.i. ə nt/ adjective

very energetic, positive and happy

He wasn't his usual ebullient self.

ebullience ˈbʊl.i. ə n t  s/ noun [ U ]

ebulliently /ɪbˈʊl.i. ə adverb


indifferent /ɪnˈdɪf. ə r. ə nt/ , /-rənt/ /-ɚ-/ adjective

NOT INTERESTED 1. not thinking about or interested in someone or something

Why don't you vote - how can you be so indifferent ( to what is going on)!
He found it very hard teaching a class full of indifferent teenagers.
NOT GOOD 2. not good, but not very bad
We didn't like the restaurant much - the food was indifferent and the service rather slow.
indifferently /ɪnˈdɪf. ə r. ə , /-rənt-/ /-ɚ-/ adverb
She shrugged indifferently.
courageous /kəˈreɪ.dʒəs/ adjective
having or showing courage
It was a courageous decision to resign in protest at the company's pollution record.
It was courageous of her to challenge the managing director's decision.

courageously /kəˈreɪ.dʒə.sli/ adverb

virtuous /ˈː.tju.əs/ /ˈː-/ adjective
1. having good moral qualities and behaviour
He described them as a virtuous and hard-working people.
2. disapproving describes a person who thinks himself or herself morally better than other people
I'm convinced he only does that charity work so he can feel virtuous.

virtuously /ˈː.tju.ə.sli/ /ˈː-/

ignoble /ɪgˈnəʊ.bl ̩/ /-ˈnoʊ-/ adjective formal
morally bad and making you feel ashamed
an ignoble action/idea

ignobly /ɪgˈnəʊ.bli/ /-ˈnoʊ-/ adverb literary

precarious /prɪˈkeə.ri.əs/ /-ˈker.i-/ adjective
1. in a dangerous state because not safe or firmly fixed
The lorry was lodged in a very precarious way, with its front wheels hanging over the cliff.
2. A precarious situation is likely to get worse
Many borrowers now find themselves caught in a precarious financial position.

precariousness /prɪˈkeə.ri.ə.snəs/ /-ˈker.i-/ noun [ U ]

facetious /fəˈsiː.ʃəs/ adjective disapproving
not serious about a serious subject, in an attempt to be funny or to appear clever
facetious remarks
He's just being facetious.


facetiously /fəˈsiː.ʃə.sli/ adverb

facetiousness /fəˈsiː.ʃə.snəs/ noun [ U ]

dare /deə r / /der/ verb

BE BRAVE/RUDE 1. [ I not continuous ] to be brave enough to do something difficult or dangerous, or to be rude or silly enough to do something that you have no right to do

I was going to ask if his dog was any better, but I didn't dare in case it had died.
[ + ( to ) infinitive ] Everyone in the office complains that he smells awful, but nobody dares (to) mention it to him.
Do you dare (to) tell him the news?
[ + infinitive without to ] I wouldn't dare have a party in my flat in case the neighbours complained.
Dare you tell him the news?
I daren't/don't dare think how much it's going to cost.
I'd never dare (to) talk to my mother the way Ben talks to his.
[ + to infinitive ] He was under attack for daring to criticize the Prime Minister.
See also daresay


dare /deə r / /der/ verb


ASK 2. [ T ] to ask someone to do something which involves risk

Wear the low-cut blouse with your pink shorts - go on, I dare you!
[ + to infinitive ] I dare you to ask him to dance.


don't you dare mainly humorous used to tell someone angrily not to do something
"I think I'll just walk my dirty shoes over your nice clean floor." "Don't you dare!"
Don't you dare go without me!
How dare she/you, etc.! used to express anger about something someone has done
How dare you use my car without asking!
How dare he tell me what to do!

dare /deə r / /der/ noun [ C ]

something you do because someone dares you to
He jumped in the river at twelve o'clock last night UK as/for / US on a dare.


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