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GPH111 Geography Exam 1
Meow
61
Geography
02/14/2012

Term
 Map Projection
Definition
 a sphere on a flat surface
Term
 Three components of a map projection
Definition
 Shape (conformal projections)Distance (equidistant projections)Area (Equal area projections)
Term
 Three main classes of projections
Definition
 cylindricalconic planar
Term
 Characteristics of Mercator Projection
Definition
 Conformal Equatorial Cylindrical, preserves shapes, angles, and direction but not size of thing
Term
 Goode Projection does a job atAlso known as what?
Definition
 representing sizes, shapes, and areas relative to one another Interrupted homolsine projections but might not be that great for navigation with oceans
Term
 Latitude, degrees
Definition
 parallels, 90ºS-90ºN
Term
 Longitude, degrees
Definition
 meridians, 180ºE-180ºW
Term
 Equator = how many degrees?
Definition
 0º Latitude
Term
 Prime meridian= how many degrees?
Definition
 0º Longitude
Term
 International Date Line= º?
Definition
 180ºE=180ºW
Term
 What hemisphere is the United States in?
Definition
 Northern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere
Term
Definition
 do not penetrate well because they have long wavelengths
Term
 UV waves
Definition
 penetrate well because they have short wavelengths
Term
 Why is the sky blue?
Definition
 we have particles scatter blue wave length and comes in from all directions to our eyes
Term
 Albedo
Definition
 if shortwave radiation his a surface, (reflection by the surface)
Term
 white surface _____ all radiation, albedo is _____
Definition
 reflect, 1
Term
 black surface
Definition
 absorb all radiation, albedo is 0
Term
 Tropic of Cancer
Definition
Term
 Water Vapor
Definition
 =water + heat
Term
Definition
 drives winds from higher to lower pressure
Term
 Coriolis Effect
Definition
 Changes direction of motion, is nonexistent at the equator and maximum at the poles
Term
 pressure decreases rapidly with _______
Definition
 height
Term
 Spacial Scale V Map Scale
Definition
 We have already defined spatial scale as the size of an area/phenomenon while a map scale indicates what distance on a map would be on the earth’s surface
Term
 Three main ways to represent map scale
Definition
 verbal: 1 inch on map=1,000 miles on surface of earthfractional: 1:24,000graphical: a scale that depicts miles and km, 1:250,000
Term
 6 time zones
Definition
 Alaskan, Hawaiian, Pacific, Mountain, Central, Eastern
Term
 The international dateline is an example of a
Definition
 meridian
Term
 every millennium we need a leap day (because 0.241 rather than 0.240)
Definition
Term
 Aphelion
Definition
 earth is farthest from sun
Term
 Perihelion
Definition
 earth is closest to the sun
Term
 When does the Aphelion happen in Arizona?
Definition
 July 5
Term
 the cause of season is because
Definition
 the tilt of earth's axis
Term
 the subsolar point = ?º
Definition
 0º
Term
 Equinox
Definition
 all latitudes receive 12 hrs day & 12 hrs night. Equinox means "equal night"
Term
 Winter Solstice
Definition
 Dec. 21tropic of Capricorn, 23.5ºSarctic circle are in darkness all day 66ºN
Term
 Summer Solstice
Definition
Term
 North Hemisphere tilted ____ from the sun during Winter Solstice
Definition
 away
Term
 Summer Solstice
Definition
 June 21sun is over head 23.5ºN: Tropic of Cancerlatitudes North of 66.5ºN are in daylight the whole daylatitudes South of 66.5ºS (Antarctic Circle) are in darkness the whole day
Term
 Northern Hemisphere tilted ____ the sun during summer solstice
Definition
 TOWARD
Term
 Dew point is a measure of ________
Definition
 humidity
Term
 Three types of High Clouds
Definition
 Cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus
Term
 Two types of Middle Clouds
Definition
 altocumulus, altostratus
Term
 Four types of Low Clouds
Definition
 nimbostratus,stratus,stratocumulus, cumulonimbus
Term
 Fog
Definition
 is just cloud on the ground
Term
Definition
 caused by ground cooling air temperature down to dew point so condensation occurs-most common form of fog and normally occurs at night or in early morning
Term
Definition
 caused by warm air moving over cold surfaces
Term
 Orographic Fog
Definition
 Mountain fog, mountain in a cloud
Term
 Earth's Albedo is
Definition
 0.29
Term
 Moon's Albedo is
Definition
 0.15
Term
Definition
 If earth's climate is unchanging then incoming energy must be balanced by outgoing radiation
Term
Definition
 carbon dioxide, water vapor and a few other gases in the atmosphere absorb some of the terrestrial radiation emitted by earth and redirect it back to surface
Term
 Soil Heat Flux
Definition
 if ground is warmer than air then heat flows upward. If ground is colder than air than heat flows downward. So the average soil heat flux for the year is around 0
Term
 Elevation Angle and how do you find it
Definition
 Angle between the horizon and the sun at noonNeed to know the latitude you are at and the subsolar point (where the sun is overhead)
Term
 Elevation angle equation
Definition
Term
 If you're _____ of the ______ circle during Dec. or Jan., you're NOT going to get a lot of daylight
Definition
 North, Arctic
Term
 troposphere: ________ temperature with height
Definition
 decreases
Term
 stratosphere: temperature ________ with height
Definition
 increases
Term
 mesosphere: temperature _______ with height
Definition
 decreases
Term
 thermosphere: temperature _________ with height
Definition
 increases
Term
 What two elements cause global warming
Definition
 water vapor and carbon dioxide
Term