# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

GIS FInal Exam!!!!
Study cards for GIS Final Exam, Spring 2012, McGlinn
31
Geography
Undergraduate 1
05/10/2012

## Cards Return to Set Details

Term
 What is Raw Value in Spatial Analysis?
Definition
 -Simple amount like population of state. usually symbolized by a proportional symbol on a map>ex. 30 million people, 2 million barrels of oil production per year
Term
 What is Density in Spatial Analysis?
Definition
 -Raw value divided by unit area, usually symbolized by shading on a cloropleth map>ex. population per square mile
Term
 What is Dispersion is Spatial Analysis?
Definition
 -Things that are dispersed in a polygon on a map.
Term
 What is Concentration in Spatial Analysis?
Definition
 -Things that are more compacted together in a polygon on a map
Term
 What is Pattern in Spatial Analysis?
Definition
 -Geometric pattern, or simply a description, of the shape of a geographic distributionEx. Linear, Regular Pattern (On a grid), Donut Pattern (Where the suburbs are on the outside ring and the city is in the inner ring)
Term
 Define what makes up Structured Query Language(Also known as Boolean Algebra) is.
Definition
 AND= means both conditions, before and after the AND, must be met to be selected.Ex. to select cities that are both at least 25% hispanic and having a median income below \$50,000 : (pct_hispanic > 25) AND (med_income < 50000)OR= means either condition, before or after the OR must be met to select featuresEx.to select rivers that are either more than 100 miles long or with an avg yearly discharge of over 1000 cubic ft/second : (length > 100) OR (discharge > 1000)NOT= means yes for the condition before the NOT, but no for the condition after the NOTEx. I want to select houses in a town that were built before 1800, but that are not considered historical : (building_date < 1800) NOT (historical = “yes”)
Term
 What is Modifiable Area Unit Problem?
Definition
 This means that results of analyses using polygon data may differ depending on the size/scale of the units of analysis. you can get different results based on size and scaleEx.a recent study of hazardous waste sites in Metro Cleveland was done to see if there was a correlation between the location of minority residences and the location of hazardous waste producers or disposal facilitiesThe analysis was done at 3 scales: zip code, census tract, census block (finest scale)Results: Haz waste facilities were no more likely to be in heavily minority zip codes than in predominantly white zip codesResults 2 : Haz waste facilties were more likely to be in heavily minority census tracts than in heavily white census tractsResults 3 : Haz waste facilities were no more likely to be in heavily minority census blocks than in heavily white census blocks
Term
 Define Network Analysis?
Definition
 Network analysis is analysis of linear phenomena like streams or roadsApplications include:-Precise downstream flood forecasting 24 hrs ahead-Finding the optimum location for a new school to minimize travel time for future students, or to minimize crossing large roads-Real-time traffic congestion reports to suggest alternate routes for the LA fire department to get to emergencies
Term
 What is Ecological Fallacy?
Definition
 assuming that the average value of a population is like everyone in that population.Ex.The mean age for a city in Florida might be 45 yrs old, but I cannot assume the “average person” in that city is 45. In fact, the city might have nearly ½ of its population over 60 yrs old and nearly ½ of its population under 25 years old.Likewise, a moderate avg household income could mean many rich, many poor, few in between
Term
 What is Remote Sensing?
Definition
 Imagery from planes and satellites
Term
 What is Radial Terrain Distortion?
Definition
 When images appear to be slanted away from the center of the photo based on the satellites position
Term
 What are Orthophotos?
Definition
 photos that show map view
Term
 What are Stereophotos? (Think of a 3 speaker stereo)
Definition
 These photos show a 3-dimensional image
Term
 What are the Principles of Aerial Photography? (There are 7 of them)
Definition
 1. Shape <-Important!2. Size (You need to know what the Scale is)3. Relative Location <-Important!4. Pattern5. Texture6. Color 7. Absolute Location
Term
 What is Ground Truth?
Definition
 Checking from the ground for accuracy based on what is mapped out.
Term
 What does AVHRR photography display?
Definition
 Vegetation
Term
 What kind of images are in Panchromatic Images
Definition
 -Color Photos-Black and White Photos
Term
 When we take Aerial Photos, What are we measuring and how is it displayed by color??
Definition
 EnergyDisplayed in this order:UV, Blue, Green, Red, Inferred Blue- Usually hazeIR- Usually Vegetation visible light is between .4 micrometers(blue) and .7 micro meters(Red)
Term
 What is False-Color Imaging?
Definition
 This is when you take the Blue out of the spectrum in order to make the image less hazy. Remember that red means high vegetation!
Term
 What was LANDSAT first known as?
Definition
 ERTS 1, which was launched in 1972
Term
 What is the color spectrum for Multispectral Images?
Definition
 Blue, Green, Red, IR 1, IR 2
Term
 What does MSS stand for and what is its zoom capacity?
Definition
 -Multi-Spectral Scanner> 80m
Term
 Define LANDSAT 5
Definition
 Made in 1984 and is still working!
Term
 Define LANDSAT 6
Definition
 -30m-Thematic Mapper-Never made it into orbit :(
Term
 Define LANDSAT 7
Definition
 -Up in orbit but has some glitches-created in 1999-enhanced thematic mapper (ETM) 15 meter res.-All Landsats were altitude of orbit of 438
Term
 Define SPOT
Definition
 -French-Went up in 1986-Higher Resolution-Pan of 10m-Push-broom sensor-27 degrees off the nadir (point below satellite)
Term
 What is IKONOS?
Definition
 -Commercial earth observation satellite-First to collect publicly available high-resolution imagery -1 meter is PAN-4-meter resolution is MSS. -It offers multispectral (MS)and panchromatic(PAN)imagery.-Altitude of orbit- 423
Term
 What is GEOEYE?
Definition
 -Replaced IKONOS and Quick Bird-Has Panchromatic at .5 m-MSS 1.6m-Altitude of orbit- 423 miles
Term
 What is GOES?
Definition
 -Its a weather satellite -it moves with the earth, its geo synchronies, it spins with the earth This is a sensor of water vapor, temperature.
Term
 Spatial Resolution
Definition
 Distance on one side of a pixel in a satellite image or digital aerial photo.
Term
 Spectral Resolution
Definition
 Satellites with higher spectral resolution break up the electromagnetic spectrum more finely so that a user can distinguish features on the surface more precisely.
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