# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Geology 1114 Lab Final
what it says above, idiots
138
Geology
12/04/2010

Term
 Contour Lines
Definition
 Lines of equal elevation on a topographic map
Term
 Planimetric Map
Definition
 Map representing only the horizontal features of a land surface. (2D)
Term
Definition
 Section of a topographic map that is bounded by lines of latitude and longitude
Term
 Latitude
Definition
 Imaginary lines measured from the equator (0) to the North Pole (90N) or the South Pole (90S). Can be subdivided into Minutes (') and Seconds (")
Term
 Longitude
Definition
 Imaginary lines measured from the Prime Meridian (0) to Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Can be subdivided into Minutes (') and Seconds (")
Term
 Two most common Quadrangle Map sizes
Definition
 15-minute and 7 1/2 minute
Term
 Declination
Definition
 Indication of the difference in degrees between True North and Magnetic North on a topographic map.
Term
 Index Contours
Definition
 Contour lines that have the elevation printed on them. (Darker Brown)
Term
 Contour Interval
Definition
 All contour lines are multiples of the contour intervals.
Term
 Benchmark
Definition
 (BM) A permanent marker (usually a metal plate) placed by the U.S. Geological Survey or Bureau of Land Management at the point indicated on the map.
Term
 Regional Relief
Definition
 The difference in elevation between the highest and the lowest points on a topographic map.
Term
Definition
 A measure of the steepness of a slope. Gradient = (Rise or fall between A and B)/(Distance between A and B)
Term
 Ratio Scale
Definition
 Indication of the relation between one unit of measurement on map A, and another unit of measurement on map B. (1:24,000)
Term
 Fractional Scale
Definition
 Indication between the fractional relationship of map A and map B. (1/24,000) (1 24,000 of its actual size)
Term
 Verbal Scale
Definition
 Scales expressed with words in terms of common distances. (1 in. = 6 2/3 football fields)
Term
 Graphic Bar Scales
Definition
 Rules for measuring distances on a map. (bottom of map)
Term
 U.S. Public Land Survey System
Definition
 (PLS) Classification of maps into Principal Meridians (North/South) and Base Lines (East/West). North-South: TownshipsEast-West: Ranges
Term
 Section
Definition
 Subdivision of townships into 36, 1 mile squares.
Term
 Global Positioning System
Definition
 (GPS) Most GPS receivers are 12 channel parallel receivers. (Capable of receiving/processing radio signals from as many as twelve satellites at the same time)
Term
 Datum
Definition
Term
 Universal Transverse Mercator System
Definition
 (UTM) A global military navigation/grid coordinate system developed by NIMA. (Rectangularly measured in meters)Zones: Easting/Northing
Term
 Bearing
Definition
 Compass Direction
Term
 Topographical Profile
Definition
 Cross section that shows the elevations and slopes along a given line.
Term
 Stereogram
Definition
 (Stereo Pair) 3D image developed by taking two air photos from slightly different perspectives
Term
 Structural Geology
Definition
 The study of how geologic units (bodies of rock/sediment) are arranged when first formed and how they are deformed afterward.
Term
 Strain
Definition
 Undergo deformation, such as a change in shape
Term
 Geologic Maps
Definition
 Flat (two dimensional) maps that use different colors/symbols to represent the different units of rock or sediment and their positions
Term
 Formations
Definition
 Mappable rock units:Subdivided into Members and Beds
Term
 Contact
Definition
 boundaries between geologic units
Term
 Geologic Cross Section
Definition
 A drawing of a vertical slice through the Earth, with the material in front of it removes. It shows the arrangement of formations and their contacts. Shows topography.
Term
 Block Diagram
Definition
 A combination of the geologic map and cross section. It looks like a solid block with a geologic map on top of it and a geologic cross section on each of its visible sides.
Term
 Three representations of the Earth used by Structural Geologists
Definition
 Geologic Map, Geologic Cross Section, and Block Diagram
Term
 Attitude
Definition
 The orientation of a rock unit or surface
Term
 Strike
Definition
 The compass bearing of a line formed by the intersection of a horizontal plane and an inclined layer of rock, fault, fracture, or other surface.
Term
 Dip
Definition
 The angle between a horizontal plane and the inclined (tilted) stratum, fault, or fracture.
Term
 Dip Direction
Definition
 Line that is always perpendicular to the line of strike
Term
 Dip Angle
Definition
 Angle between a horizontal plane and the inclined surface
Term
 Disconformity
Definition
 An unconformity between relatively parallel strata
Term
 Angular Unconformity
Definition
 An unconformity between nonparallel strata
Term
 Nonconformity
Definition
 As unconformity between sedimentary rock/sediment and non-sedimentary (igneous/metamorphic) rock
Term
 Fault
Definition
 Breaks in rock units along which movement has occurred
Term
 Surfaces of a fault
Definition
 Top: Hanging WallBottom: Footwall
Term
 Three types of Faults + Stress
Definition
 Normal, TensionReverse, Compression Thrust = Low-angleStrike-Slip (lateral), shear
Term
 Antiforms
Definition
 Folds in rock strataAnticline: Oldest rocks in the middleSyncline: Youngest rocks in the middle
Term
 Fold Axis
Definition
 (Hinge Line) Axis around which each stratum is bent in a fold. Positioned on the axial plane.
Term
 Plunging Fold
Definition
 When the fold axis plunges to the ground, instead of being horizontal
Term
 Plunge
Definition
 The angle between the fold axis and horizontal
Term
 Trend
Definition
 the bearing, measured in the direction of the plunge
Term
 Overturned Fold
Definition
 When a fold is tilted such that one limb is upside down.
Term
 Monocline
Definition
 A fold that has two axial planes, that separate two nearly horizontal limbs from a single, more inclined limb. (Domes/Basins)
Term
 Base Flow
Definition
 Groundwater that seeps into a stream via porous rocks, fractures, and springs.
Term
 Perennial Stream
Definition
 Stream that flows continuously throughout the year. (Blue Lines)
Term
 Intermittent Stream
Definition
 Stream that flows intermittently throughout the year. (Blue line segments separated by three blue dots)
Term
 Flood
Definition
 Overflow of banksResponsible for most damage in U.S. annually
Term
 Alluvium
Definition
 Transported/Deposited sediment
Term
 Stream Drainage Patterns
Definition
Term
 Dendritic
Definition
 Branching of a tree, common where streams cut into flat lying layers of rock or sediment, or homogeneous rock.
Term
 Rectangular
Definition
 A network of channels at right-angle bends, that develops over rocks that are fractured or faulted in two main directions that are perpendicular.
Term
Definition
 Channel flow outward from a central area, resembling the spokes of a wheel, that occurs on conical hills, such a as volcanoes/structural domes
Term
 Centripedal
Definition
 Drainage channels converge on a centripetal point,such as a closed basin.
Term
 Annular
Definition
 A set of incomplete, concentric rings of streams completed by short radial channels, that form on alternating folded layers of resistant and nonresistant rock
Term
 Trellis
Definition
 Resembles a vine trellis, that forms on parallel ridges of alternating resistant and non resistant rock.
Term
 Deranged
Definition
 a random pattern of stream channels that seem to have no relationship to underlying rock types or geologic structures
Term
 Drainage Basin
Definition
 The entire area of land that is drained by one stream
Term
 Divide
Definition
 The imaginary line that divides one drainage basin from another
Term
 Uplands
Definition
 Highest elevation points of a stream
Term
Definition
 Point of origin for a stream
Term
Definition
 Uphill Erosion
Term
 Mouth
Definition
 End of a river
Term
 Main factors in the formation of river valleys
Definition
Term
 Floodplains
Definition
 When alluvium develops landward of the river banks, during floods.
Term
 Yazoo Tributary
Definition
 Tributary that flows alongside a river for a significant distance, because it cannot get over the levee.
Term
 Levee
Definition
 Natural walls on the side of the river built of sediment
Term
 Stream Terraces
Definition
 Old floodplains
Term
 Delta
Definition
 Delta shaped deposition of material at the end of a river
Term
 Alluvial Fan
Definition
 Occurs where a steep gradient stream suddenly enters a flat, wide area.
Term
 Stages of river
Definition
 NormalBankfullFlood
Term
 Zone of aeration
Definition
 Underground zone above the water table
Term
 Zone of saturation
Definition
 Underground zone below the water table
Term
 Groundwater
Definition
 Water in the saturated zone
Term
 Aquifers
Definition
 Rock strata that conduct water
Term
 Confining Beds
Definition
 Impermeable bedrock materials that prevent the flow of water
Term
Definition
 The slope of the water table surfaceNormally higher uphill
Term
 Karst
Definition
 a distinctive topography that indicates dissolution of underlying soluble rock, generally limestone
Term
 Most common acid in rainwater
Definition
 Carbonic Acid = H2CO3
Term
 Typical indicators of Karst Topography
Definition
 SinkholesSolution ValleysSpringsDisappearing Streams
Term
 Sinkholes
Definition
 Surface depressions formed by the collapse of caves or other large underground void spaces
Term
 Solution Valleys
Definition
 Valley-like depressions formed by a linear series of sinkholes or collapse of the roof of a linear cave.
Term
 Springs
Definition
 Places where water flows naturally from the ground (from spaces between the bedrock)
Term
 Streams that terminate abruptly be seeping into the ground
Definition
Term
 Cave
Definition
 Underground cavity large enough for a person to enter
Term
 Stalactites
Definition
 Icicles of limestone hanging from the ceiling of caves
Term
 Stalagmites
Definition
 Calcite formations on the floor of a cave
Term
 Artesian Wells
Definition
 Wells where water flows naturally from the top
Term
 Potentionmetry
Definition
 Water-pressure
Term
 Recharging
Definition
 The refilling of an aquifer with water
Term
 Submergent Coastline
Definition
 Caused by a rising sea level, a submergent coastline is one that is flooding/receding.Transgression: Water level risingSubsidence: Land getting lower
Term
 Emergent Coastline
Definition
 Caused by a falling sea level, an emergent coastline is one that is being elevated above sea level and building out into the water.Regression: Water level fallingUplift: Land rising
Term
 Barrier Island
Definition
 A long, narrow island that parallels the mainland coastline and is separated from the mainland by a lagoon, tidal flat, or salt marsh.
Term
 Beach
Definition
 A gently sloping deposit of sand or gravel along the edge of a shoreline
Term
 Berm Crest
Definition
 The highest part of a beach; it separates the foreshore (seaward part of the shoreline) from the backshore (landward part of the shoreline)
Term
 Washover Fan
Definition
 A fan-shaped deposit of sand or gravel transported and deposited landward of the beach during a storm or very high tide
Term
 Estuary
Definition
 A river valley flooded by a rise in the level of an ocean or lake. (a flooded glacial valley is called a fjord)
Term
 Longshore Current
Definition
 A water current in the surf zone (zone where waves break). It flows slowly parallel to shoreline, driven by waves that were caused by wind.
Term
 Delta
Definition
 A sediment deposit at the mouth of a river where it enters an ocean or lake
Term
Definition
 Projection of land that extends into an ocean or lake and generally has cliffs along its water boundary
Term
 Spit
Definition
 A sand bar extending from the end of a beach into the mouth of an adjacent bay
Term
 Tidal Flat
Definition
 Muddy or sandy area that is covered with water at high tide and exposed at low tide
Term
 Saltmarsh
Definition
 A marsh that is flooded by ocean water at high tide
Term
 Wave-cut cliff
Definition
 (sea cliff) Seaward-facing cliff along a steep shoreline, produced by wave erosion
Term
 Wave-cut Platform
Definition
 A bench or shelf at sea level (or lake level) along a steep shore, and formed by wave erosion
Term
 Marine Terrace
Definition
 An elevated platform that is bounded on its seaward side by a cliff or steep slope (and formed when a wave-cut platform is elevated by uplift or regression).
Term
 Stack
Definition
 An isolated rocky island near a headland cliff
Term
 Tombolo
Definition
 A sand bar that connects an island with the mainland or another island
Term
 Tied Island
Definition
 An island connected to the main land or another island by a tombolo
Term
 Sea Wall
Definition
 An embankment of boulders, reinforced concrete, or other material constructed against a shoreline to prevent erosion by waves
Term
 Breakwater
Definition
 An offshore wall constructed parallel to a shoreline to break waves.
Term
 Groin
Definition
 (groyne) A short wall constructed perpendicular to shoreline in order to trap sand and make or build up a beach. Sand accumulates on the up-current side of the groin in relation to the longshore current
Term
 Jetties
Definition
 Long walls extending from shore at the mouths of harbors and used to protect the harbor entrance from filling with sand or being eroded by waves and currents. (Boulders)
Term
 Storm Surge
Definition
 Bulge of water pushed landward by abnormally high winds and/or low atmospheric pressure associated with storms. (2-24ft, but most are 2-3ft.)
Term
 Epicenter
Definition
 Point on map above the focus
Term
 Focus
Definition
 Underground origin of earthquake
Term
 Seismic waves
Definition
 (Earthquake Waves) Elastic waves of vibration and shaking.
Term
 Mitigate
Definition
 Decrease the probability of
Term
 Seismogram
Definition
 A record of seismic wave motion
Term
 Seismograph
Definition
 Instruments used to detect seismic waves
Term
 Body Waves
Definition
 Waves that travel through the Earth's surface:P-waves=PrimaryS-Waves=Secondary
Term
 Surface Waves
Definition
 (L-Waves)
Term
 Active Fault
Definition
 Can move/produce and earthquake at the present
Term
 First Motion
Definition
 The initial pen motion of a seismograph which represents the RX of the P-Wave to dilation (pulling rocks apart) or compression (squeezing rocks together).First Up: CompressionFirst Down: Dilation
Term
 Blind Faults
Definition
 Faults that do not break the earth's surface
Term
 Science
Definition
 Gathering EvidenceRunning TestsEngaging in DiscourseMaking Inferences
Term
 Spatial Scale of Observation
Definition
 GlobalRegionalLocalHand SampleMicroscopicAtomic
Term
 Geologic Time Scale
Definition
 Index to the book of geologic history
Term
 Working Hypothesis
Definition
 Tentative ideas to investigate and test
Term
 Investigation
Definition
 Activity planned and conducted to test hypotheses, gather and record data, make measurements, or control and explore variables.
Term
 Bands
Definition
 Parts of the EM spectrum that are defined and named according to their wavelength
Term
 True Color v False Color
Definition
 True color: way thins appear to human eyeFalse color: normally invisible bands of EM radiation
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