# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

geology 10
n/a
100
Geology
12/17/2008

Term
 shallow earth quakes, intermediate and deep earthquakes
Definition
 0-70 km, 70 to 300 km, 300 to 700 km
Term
 Benioff zone
Definition
 sees that the defines the downward plate tectonics of seduction
Term
 Elastic rebound model
Definition
 Rocks are being stress and as more stress cause the rocks to deform. Then at too much stress the rocks break at a rapid release of energy. (Like a bow breaking)
Term
 Fault
Definition
 is a point that the rocks have failed.- You have to have an earthquake to have a fault. - The fact the fault there means there was a stress at one time to break the rock could mean there could be stress still. - There are also dead faults where there is no longer stress.- Geometry of deformation tells you about the strain that caused it
Term
 - Stress-
Definition
 - force types of stresso Tension ← →o Compression →←o Shear →• ←
Term
 - Strain
Definition
 deformation
Term
 Phase change
Definition
 in a seduction zone- When hundred of cubic km of rock change from one crystal structure to another crystal structure in a instant through heat. - The changed element can take up a different volume and everything around it has to adjust - Happened in trenches a lot
Term
 o Plastic
Definition
 o Plastic- deform and stays the shape
Term
 o Elastic
Definition
 o Elastic- deforms and snaps back
Term
 Hypocenter/focus
Definition
 point where the energy radiates from in the earth. Point of breakage
Term
 Epicenter
Definition
 Epicenter- the point on land (the map quadrants) atop the hypocenter
Term
 1) Body , p-waves and s-waves
Definition
 1) Body – radiates from the point of hypocentera. P-waves- primary waves (1.5km to 8 km/sec depending on rock type)b. S-waves- shear waves (60 %- 70% of P wave velocity)
Term
 love waves
Definition
 essentially horizontally polarized shear waves (SH waves) guided by an elastic layer, which is "welded" to an elastic half space on one side while bordering a vacuum on the other side. surface seismic waves that cause horizontal shifting of the earth during an earthquake.
Term
 b. Rayleigh Wave-
Definition
Term
 3) Compressional waves
Definition
 3) Compressional waves- something pushes against something which pushes against something else. Sound wave
Term
 shear waves
Definition
 one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.The S-wave move as a shear or transverse wave, so motion is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation: S-waves, like waves in a rope, as opposed to waves moving through a slinky, the P-wave.
Term
 Seismograph
Definition
 - measures the shaking the of the earth - produces a recording the movement of the earth
Term
 granditic
Definition
 HiSiO2-high silica (70%)GloppyWet meltExtremely explosive
Term
 ardesitic
Definition
 moderate silica (60%)semi-gloppymoistmoderately explosive
Term
 basaltic
Definition
 low silica(50%)runnydry meltgentle rather than explosive
Term
 nuee ardent
Definition
 a type of explosive volcanic eruption characterized by a dense, very hot mass of ash, gasses, and volcanic material traveling down a volcanic slope at high velocity. A nuee ardent, also called a pyroclastic flow,
Term
 nuee ardent
Definition
 a type of explosive volcanic eruption characterized by a dense, very hot mass of ash, gasses, and volcanic material traveling down a volcanic slope at high velocity. A nuee ardent, also called a pyroclastic flow,
Term
 predicting a volcano
Definition
 1) earthquake swarms 2) harmonic tremors 3) ground tilting
Term
 Igneous Rock
Definition
 Formed from a melt • All silicates • Crystals are interlocked without any gaps of spaces • Slower to cool the larger the crystal size is
Term
 Sedimentary
Definition
 - rocks that have settled out of fluid1. Clastic2. Biological3. Chemical
Term
 Metamorphic
Definition
 changed or altered
Term
 Volcanic Arc
Definition
 – Volcanoes located on the dominant plate.
Term
 Mineral
Definition
 basic building block of the earth- naturally occurring inorganic crystalline material. I.E. Coal, Amber, Diamond
Term
 Silicate
Definition
 4 Quartz, Mica and feldspar
Term
 Oxide
Definition
 combo of metal with oxygen- Hematite, Corundum
Term
 Sulfide
Definition
 – metal with sulfur. Pyrite, Galena, Sphalerite
Term
 Carbonate
Definition
 carbonate ion + something. Calcite, Dolomite, Siderite. Acid will dissolve carbonates.
Term
 Sulfate
Definition
 Sulfate Ion + something. Gypsum, Anhydrite
Term
 Phaneritic
Definition
 grainy minerals cooled far under surface
Term
 Aphanitic
Definition
 fine grained rock- cooled fairly rapidly near the surface. Volcanic
Term
 Porphyritic
Definition
 - Mixture of grains, Big and little crystals. Big crystals are imbedded in the smaller crystals. Big crystals= phenocrysts. Cooled slow Little crystals= ground mass matrix. Cooled faster.Glassy – cools too fast for minerals to form.
Term
 1. Compaction
Definition
 weight of overlying sediments compacts the materiel.
Term
 2. Cementation
Definition
 dissolved materials deposit onto the surface of the mineral grains. Fills in the pore spaces. Types of cementation rock- conglomerate (rounded edges) or breccias (sharp edges).
Term
 Clastic
Definition
 chunk of a larger piece. Preexisting minerals broken off. Settled on top of each other. Weathering, transportational and depositional. Deposit type is determined by the amount of energy the transporting medium had. River scenario.
Term
 1. Frost wedging
Definition
 water expansion in rocks by freezing.
Term
 2. Root Wedging
Definition
 Biological growth causes stress.
Term
 3. Crystal wedging
Definition
 Salt water evaporates salt crystals are left and expand. Especially in deserts and arid regions.
Term
 4. DTE Differential Thermal Expansion.
Definition
 Heat causes outer portion of the rock to get hot and expand. The center remains cool, the hot part cracks off from the cool part. (insolation= heating and cooling due to the sun.) Fire can cause this due to differential thermal expansion.
Term
 5. Exfoliation
Definition
 Outer surface is under less pressure than the interior, outer layer will spall off from the interior. Sheets will fall off.
Term
 1. Carbonation
Definition
 Reaction where minerals will react with Acid. (carbonic acid will dissolve limestone) Needs liquid water to weather.
Term
 2. Hydration
Definition
 minerals react directly with water (feldspars) . Feldspar + Water = Clay. Don’t need liquid water to accomplish. As rocks weather it piles up at the base of the mountain and it is called Grus. Process Forms most of the worlds clays.
Term
 3. Oxidation
Definition
 Minerals react with oxygen and corrodes.
Term
 Components of soil:1. Mineral:
Definition
 Regulith, provides source of plant nutrients. (Trace amounts of copper, iron), (large amounts are needed of oxygen, carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen) Phosphorus comes from Phosphates; Nitrogen comes from Ammonia and nitrate. Water soluble nutrients.
Term
 Components of soil: organic
Definition
 Partial decayed parts of plants and animals = Humus (compost). Loose material that absorbs water easily, Releases organic acids (keeps soil slightly acidic, plants need slightly acidic soil). Critical to functioning of the soil.
Term
 components of soil biological
Definition
 Organisms that live in the soil. Soil will not work without them. Consumes organic materials and produces waste products like phosphates, nitrates, ammonia and other nutrients. Recyclers of the soil. Bacteria, algae, fungi and insects.
Term
 components of soil biological
Definition
 Organisms that live in the soil. Soil will not work without them. Consumes organic materials and produces waste products like phosphates, nitrates, ammonia and other nutrients. Recyclers of the soil. Bacteria, algae, fungi and insects.
Term
 soil horizon : top soil
Definition
 - zone of leaching. Water leaches minerals and dissolves materials lower in the horizon. Dark soil full of organic materials supports plant growth.
Term
 soil horizon accumulation
Definition
 Zone of accumulation. Minerals that were dissolved from the topsoil accumulate here. Tan slightly salty material.
Term
 soil horizon weathering zone
Definition
 soil is starting to form from regulith. Weathered rocks and minerals are breaking down.
Term
 desert soil
Definition
 very mineralized but not much organic material. Land can be very productive until irrigation reverses soil production. Irrigation pulls water upwards and pulls minerals and materials up to the surface. Soil salinastion.
Term
 tropical rainforest soil
Definition
 poor lands for agriculture. Water leaches out almost all the nutrients.
Term
 Hardpan
Definition
 Water has leached out almost all nutrients and zone b. becomes hard, insoluable and salty.
Term
 Claypan
Definition
 – Clay particles make zone b. insoulable.
Term
 ---- Damage to soil
Definition
 destroy the structure, biology or chemistry of soil. Soil is not a renewable resource, mineable resource.Plowing fields exposes soil to UV light.Depletion of the soil thru agriculture for food.Removeing vegetation coverage.
Term
 . Logging:
Definition
 1. selective cutting- minimal amount of damage 2.shelter wood – cut down specific trees but leave enough trees to hold the land and planting trees. 3.clear cutting- Cut down all the trees.
Term
 B. Construction
Definition
 1. Removing vegetation 2. Churning soil increases loss of soil to water. 3. Destroys the structure of the soil.
Term
 C.Farming:
Definition
 1. plowing soil too fine. 2. planting too large areas
Term
 C.Farming:
Definition
 1. plowing soil too fine. 2. planting too large areas
Term
Definition
 1. Destroying plants causes erosion.
Term
Definition
 1. Destroying plants causes erosion.
Term
 E. Soil contamination
Definition
 1.Toxic chemicals or metals poison the soil. 2. Fertalizers, herbacides and pesticide runoff. (Eutrophication – non oxygenated water zone due to growth of algae . Nutrient overload.) 3. Leaking of underground storage tanks. 4. Soil salination – salting of the soil. Irrigation of desert lands causes salt to rise upwards to the topsoil, instead of soaking down to the accumulation zone. Water carries salt upwards to the point that the soil is too salty to grow plants on.
Term
 soil damage prevention
Definition
 A. Catchment basin farming – rainwater pools at the basin where crops are planted, water pools around the plants roots. Prevents evaporation.B. Drip irrigation – drip type irrigates only the roots and not the whole plant. Saves water .C. Desalination of the land before irrigation.D. Planting impermeable tiles 2 feet below ground. Prevents salt from leaching upward.E. Genetic modification of plants to grow in saltier land.F. Changing the types of crops to better fit the land.G. Minimal irrigation. Only as much as needed
Term
 . Compaction and subsidence
Definition
 Compaction - Soil compacts under pressure. Subsidence - Surface of the land sinks due to compaction. Especially organic rich soils are very susceptible to this as the organic components are removed. Sand is the best to build on because it doesent compact very much.
Term
 . Expansion of clays
Definition
 Clay layers expand with water absorption. Soil expands and contracts based upon water level. Wet = expansion. Dry = shrinkage. 2-7 billion dollars in damage to US structures. The only way to fix is appropriate draining
Term
 Piping
Definition
 water carries away the fine particles in the soil. Creating a hollow channel in the soil. Compaction allows water to carry away sediments, chamber will collapse (broken water main can cause this quickly).
Term
 Drainage
Definition
 Soil is too solid to allow water to percolate. Causes flooding (French drain – pipe with small holes in it) . Countour flow of property to enable drainage.
Term
 Preventing damage to soil thru farming.
Definition
 Stop plowing soil so fine that dirt can be carried away by wind or rain. Stop planting such large areas. No till planting, Crop rotation, wind breaks, countour planting.Minimize animal grazing
Term
 Gulley traps
Definition
 slows water down enough to cause sediments to drop and fill the gulley in.
Term
 A. Sheet erosion:
Definition
 In a sheeting patern(sheet wash or sheet erosion)
Term
 B. Gulley erosion.
Definition
 Water creates a channel which gets bigger as the erosion continues over time
Term
Definition
 – natural way to erode the high spots and fill out the low spots. Without plate tectonics all land would be smooth and regular.
Term
 1. Cohesion
Definition
 how well does it stick together. Interlocking of the grains helps to keep regolith together.
Term
 Moisture content
Definition
 Moisture makes things more cohesive, they stick together better than if dry
Term
 . Friction –
Definition
 more friction present the more cohesive the surface. (angle of repose – maximum angle that the materiel can support before collapse. Sand is 34 degrees, Loess is vertical.).
Term
 Conditions favoring mass wasting:
Definition
 1. Great quantities of loose regolith .2. Slope - Steeper the better.3. Water saturation. Regulith weighs more, expands the density of materiel, Water lubricates materiel makes it easier for materiel to move, seperates the grains thru hydraulic pressure.4. Bedding planes are similar in degree to the slope. Can cause a whole layer to slide off (dip slope).5. Triggering event – cause of the event. Earthquake, vibrations etc.
Term
 1. Slump
Definition
 Downward slipping of coherent blocks. Solid blocks fall together in large formations. Toe at the bottom stabilizes the process. Removing the toe will cause the process to begin again.
Term
 slide
Definition
 Loose materiel slides down the plane of the scarp. Without coherent blocks. 1 large mass.
Term
 mud flow
Definition
 When loose regolith is saturated with water, it begins to flow like a viscous fluid. It flows like a liquid, channelizing in the valleys.
Term
 mudflow
Definition
 When loose regolith is saturated with water, it begins to flow like a viscous fluid. It flows like a liquid, channelizing in the valleys.
Term
 earth flow
Definition
 Dry materiel flowing like a liquid. Very fine regolith on a steep incline.
Term
 rock fall
Definition
 Falling rocks happen along cliffs, especially with frost weathering. Causes large rocks to fall.
Term
 Why do cities flood?
Definition
 - Loss of vegetation - Surface drainage - Things that happen in the city also happens in nature but there is a extreme lack of drainage
Term
 Factors controlling velocity
Definition
 1. Gradient- steeper the gradient the faster the water flows2. Load- the larger the load the more force it takes to move the load and the slower the stream flows 3. Streambed roughness- the rougher the surface and more friction it has. The smoother the surface the faster is flows 4. Cross sectional area of the channel- the bigger the channel the more water it can hold. As pressure increases velocity decreases. The larger the channel the more pressure and it still has the same amount velocity it had when it had lower pressure in the smaller stream and therefore the stream doesn’t mover as fast as the channel gets larger (Bernoulli principle) 5. Discharge- the volume of water the stream carries
Term
 Laminar flow-
Definition
 moving in one direction
Term
 Turbulent flow-
Definition
 water moving in all directions
Term
Definition
 a. Bed load- transported in the turbulent zones. Never move far from bed floori. Rollingii. Dragging, traction iii. Salutation- bouncing along the bottomb. Suspended load- motion in the turbent flow pushes you toward laminar flow and the speed of this keeps it suspended in the stream
Term
Definition
 1. Mass wasting 2. Rain wash 3. Ground water 4. Glaciers5. Wind 6. Erosion of steam bed
Term
 How does a stream cut a canyon?
Definition
 - Gradient- steeper the gradient the more power it has to cut through the rock. - Types of erosiono Head wardo Downwardo Lateral- High energy- steep streams have head ward and downward erosion - Come to grade, which comes to a level surface. These streams have low energy and have lateral erosion - Process of streams is to eventually level out but it can never happen because the lower the gradient gets the slower the process is to get to the level surface. - Use this process to classify the types of stream
Term
 Youthful stream
Definition
 1) Steep sided V shaped channels 2) Straight channels 3) White water
Term
 mature stream
Definition
 1) Come to grade – no downward or headword erosion 2) Lateral erosion 3) Flood plain 4) Meanders-
Term
 meanders
Definition
 when the river bends. Start when there is a bolder or some stoppage where the river has to go around it. As it curves the inside on the bend there is a lower energy and drops off sediment. This causes the bend in the river with each bend sediment is dropped off and the higher energy point in the bend erode.
Term
 Old Age
Definition
 1) Broad flood plain2) Convolution meanders 3) Ox-bow lakes – when the meander gets so unsaturated that the distance between two point may only be a few feet and they jump and bank to make a ox-bow lake 4) Formation of natural levees- every time the stream over flows at the lip of the stream the water doesn’t move so it drops sediment. Each time it does this the lip gets higher and higher and it takes more water to over flow
Term
 1) Arch dams
Definition
 arch takes all the pressure of the dam (example: hover dam)a. Very expensive damb. Used for hydroelectric
Term
 2) Buttress dam
Definition
 strength comes from the weight of dam downwardsa. Low water levelb. Water resovware
Term
 3) embankment dam
Definition
 cheapest damn-a. weight of damn itself keeps it in place 4) gravity dam-
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