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Geography Development Dilemmas
Development Dilemmas
11th Grade

Additional Geography Flashcards





Development Dilemmas




 By Wisdom


Development Indicators Definitions

GDP - The total value of goods/services produced by a country in a year.

Dependency Ratio -The proportion of people who are too young (0-14) or to old (65+) to work

Literacy Rate -The % of the total population, aged 15+ who can read and write.

Access to safe drinking water -The % of the total population with access to an improved water supply

Being unfed-The % of the total population who do not consume at least 2000 calories a day.

Life expectancy -The average number of years a person is expected to life.

Poverty line - The minimum level of income required to meet a person's basic needs.

Infant Mortality -  The number of children per 1000 live births who die before their first birthday.

Maternal Mortality -  The number of mothers per 100,000 who die in childbirth.


Examples of Newly Industrialised Countries and Rapidly Industrialised Countries

Reasons are many TNC's came over to manufacture their goods in this countried because wages were much lower. 




Hong Kong







South Africa



Brandt Line

The Brand Line is a line that goes throughout the world measuring development gap between the two different parts of the world. It is split into the GLOBAL NORTH(the rich) and the GLOBAL SOUTH (the poor)


Differences and Similarities 

Difference- Countries are now fighting their way out of the global south by import and exporting more, and creating more jobs, in an attempt to reach the global north.

Similaritie- Most of the world's poorest countries are still in Africa.


HDI and Development

Development is the use of resources to improve the stadard of living in a nation.


The Human Development Index (HDI) is made up of 4 different devlopment indicators and they are...

  • Life expentancy  
  • Literacy (English)
  • Education (average length of schooling)
  • GDP using (Purchasing Power Parity
There is a scale on measuring HDI, it goes from 0-1 0 is the lowest and 1 is the highest.



HDI and The Brandt Line Part 2


HDI is useful because it takes into account four other development indicators. It also gives a number from 0 to 1 which tells us how developed a country actually us.


The Global North consists of the UK, USA, Germany, Brazil,Russia,India,China,South Africa and others

The GLOBAL SOUTH mostly consists of countries in Africa such as Malawi and Somalia, and Asia countries (Thailand and Singapore).



Malawi is a country which is located in southern eastern Africa, it is below the sahara. Therefore, it could be classified as a SUB-SAHARAN country. 

Malawi is an LIC, which remains in currently remains in poverty for several reasons, which are listed below.


1. Land Locked

Malawi has no coastline, this means that whenever Malawi want to trade goods, they have to go through another country to do so. In this case Malawi has to go through Mozambique on an 800km single railway track which is slow and very expensive, it also runs once a week! In addition to this, Mozambique charge Malawi when they go pass their country.


Malawi Part 2



20% of the adults living in Malawi have HIV, which leaves Malawi with a smaller working force than normal. This slows down development because, it means that less people will be working, which leads to a slower increase in economical development.


3. Trade


The key to development in Malawi is trade. Malawi export raw coffee beans. The citizens of Malawi could earn more money by roasting their coffee beans. HOWEVER the EU have placed a TARIFF of 7.5% on all imported roasted coffee beans to reduce the profit made by farmers in Malawi.


TARIFF - A tax placed on imports. 


Corruption Perceptions index, political freedom and low-levels of development

Corruptions perception index was made to help investors see where their money would be safest. The safest countries are New Zealand and USA and the least safest countries are Somalia and Afghanistan.


Polticial Freedom - If the people of a country cannot vote, they have a lack of political freedom. This is most likely to occur in more corrupt countries such as Chile.




Rostow Theory (Modernisation Theory)


1st Stage: Traditional Society - Most people work in farming (primary sector).

2nd Stage: Pre Takeoff - There is a shift from farming to manufacturing (Primary sector to Secondary sector). Trade increases.

3rd Stage: Take off - Growth is rapid, more investments.

4th Stage: Drive to Maturity - Technology is used throughout the economy. (Period of growth)

5th Stage: Age of high mass consumption - (Period of comfort) - Consumers enjoy from a wide range of goods/services.


Frank's dependency theory

Frank's dependency theory shows me that goods are sent from the core to the periphery and the semi-periphery. It also tells me that resources go to the core from the semi-periphery and the periphery.


Low value raw materials are traded between the periphery and the core. The core add value,  to these raw materials by making them into goods such as Malawi's coffee beans into coffee. Adding value increases revenue for the countries in the EU.


Example of Malawi: Malawi sents coffee beans to Europe and recieve money or other products to help Malawi fund their development.





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