# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Geog 471 Midterm 1
Statistics, Excel, Data Analysis, Terminology
32
Geography
10/01/2011

Term
 0.05
Definition
 Alpha {number}   number has to be below to accept null hypothesis?   if number above is to reject null hypothesis?   number compared with P - Value of Data Analysis
Term
 Null Hypothesis
Definition
 preposition to be tested; the hypothesis under investigation   no theory no statistical difference   "there's no statistical difference between mean set 1 and mean set 2." do not use "increase" or "decrease" in terminology
Term
 ANOVA
Definition
 analysis difference in multiple statistics.   key phrase: statistic - significant - difference   t - Test null - hypothesis analysis of 2 data to figure out if need improvement or no improvement.   Ex: ANOVA Tests bike racks on campus to see if each racks show significant distance from rack to destination. If 1 rack is too far from destination, then there's needs to have readjustment of rack to make it closer to destination.
Term
 Bimodal
Definition
 distribution of occuring with 2 modes   means of # started high, but fall in middle and then high again, not good means = no # nothing in middle
Term
 Step 1 of testing
Definition
 research problem
Term
 Step 2 of testing
Definition
 Hypothesis
Term
 Step 3 of testing
Definition
 Select Test Method   ----------   Ex: Paired/Unpaired t - Test
Term
 Step 4 of testing
Definition
 Harvest Data
Term
 Step 5 of testing
Definition
 Clean/ Verify Data
Term
 Step 6 of testing
Definition
 Run Test
Term
 Step 7 of testing
Definition
 Interpret
Term
 P - Value of t - Test: 0.152   {Terminology Example}
Definition
 there are equal means from any data sets   Ex: Column 1 = Column 2
Term
 P - Value of t - Test: 0.261   {Terminology Example}
Definition
 We reject the null - hypothesis; since there are no statistical signficant differences of the means between 2 data sets.
Term
 P - Value of t - Test: 0.038   {Terminology Example}
Definition
 There are still statistical differences.
Term
 Paired
Definition
 same place before and after of the 2 sets
Term
 Unpaired
Definition
 different places 2 different groups EX: AZ & CA
Term
 one - tail
Definition
 directional hypothesis looks at one end use either "increase" or "decrease"
Term
 two - tail
Definition
 non - directional hypothesis of any differences between A & B
Term
 "t - critical" one - tail & two - tail
Definition
 T - statistical measure of difference of A & B
Term
 Fail to reject the null - hypothesis   means?...
Definition
 ACCEPT the hypothesis
Term
 Correlation   {Term Definition}
Definition
 the relationshop of data
Term
 Regression   {Term Def 1}
Definition
 prediction & more details of data (extent X - axis)   testing for relationship NOT differences   ---- X - input = independent Y - input = Applicant (dependent)
Term
 Multiple R   {Regression}
Definition
 correlation [strength not slope] co-efficient between the percentage of variation between the data
Term
 R Squared (Multiple R) {Regression}
Definition
 co - efficient determination   percentage explain by model   "variation is R Squared"   negative value
Term
Definition
 the correlation of R squared and Adjusted R Squared   closer to the line the better
Term
 Significant F (Significant Factor)   {Regression}
Definition
 Statistical significant relationship between A & B
Term
 P - Value of Significant F = 3.68936 E - 06   {Terminology Example}
Definition
 (higher than 0.05)   There is NOT statistical significant relationship between income and median house price.   We reject the null - hypothesis.
Term
 Using "Regression" Data Analysis   {what to look for}
Definition
 P - Value NEEDS to be BELOW 0.05 of Significant F If above = no SSR = not valid = reject null If below = there IS SSR between dependent & independetn variables Terminology Example: For every point goes up, the student quality goes up by 1(X-input/indepedent) as well Note: 4.68E-15 of P - Value is very low (bad)
Term
 Difference   {Term Definition}
Definition
 What's the problem?
Term
 Relationship   {Term Definition}
Definition
 What's the nature?
Term
 t - Test   {Term Def}
Definition
 differences & means
Term
 Regression   {Term Def}
Definition
 Relationship
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