# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Geog 416 Exam 1
Computer Cartography Definitions and Meanings and Contrast
90
Geography
09/29/2011

Term
 Geometric Nature of Natural Phenomena
Definition
 Point Line Area Volume
Term
 Feature Characteristics
Definition
 Discrete Discontinue If continuous be specific
Term
 Measurement Levels
Definition
 Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio
Term
 Categories of Map Symbols
Definition
 Point Line Areas
Term
 Graphic Elements of Symbols
Definition
 Size Shape Pattern Orientation Arrangment Color Value Intensity
Term
 1st Step of Mapping
Definition
 Geometric Nature of Natural Phenomena
Term
 2nd Step of Mapping
Definition
 Features Characteristics
Term
 3rd Step of Mapping
Definition
 Measurement Levels
Term
 4th Step of Mapping
Definition
 Categories of Map Symbols
Term
 5th Step of Mapping
Definition
 Graphic Elements of Symbols
Term
 Geometric Nature of Natural Phenomena {Examples}
Definition
 Point: Mountain Peak, Plant, Animal Line: Bedrock, Vegetation Area: Island, Species Range Volume: Mineral Reserve, Biomass
Term
 Feature Characteristics {Examples}
Definition
 Point: House, Camp Sites Line: Road, Guard Rails along road Area: Park, Public own land Volume: Landfill, Mines along coal seam
Term
 Data Scale: Measurement Levels {4 scales}
Definition
 Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio
Term
 Nominal
Definition
 NUMBERS to IDENTIFY something but not the actual name
Term
 Ordinal
Definition
 establish ORDER only
Term
 Interval
Definition
 interval scale the difference of numbers
Term
 Ratio
Definition
 measurement = absolute zero and difference between numbers
Term
 Cognitive Maps
Definition
 Mental Maps psychology construct person's perception of place physical characteristics of place EX: boundaries of neighborhood independent Euclidian distance
Term
 Cartographic Map 1
Definition
 dependent on Euclidian distance and direction   Tangible: physical and carried around with relative case   Virtual: represented one of many digital environments
Term
 Scale
Definition
 ration or relationship distance of area on map corresponds with area on ground   1 unit = 1/100,000 squared unit   EX: UA Campus = 1,000 feet long = 1 inch on map   Large & Small Scale = RELATIVE   Large Scale  1:24,000 *********  1:500,000 Small Scale  1:3,000,000
Term
 Large Scale
Definition
 small portions of earth's surface very detailed   Representation Fraction=relatively large 1/1,200 (inch -> 100 feet)
Term
 Small Scale
Definition
 Large areas = generalized info, less detailed   Representation Fraction = Small 1/1,000,000
Term
 Ratio Scale
Definition
 no units distance conversion 1:24,000 map units to real world units = same
Term
 Equivalent Scale
Definition
 distant units units may not be same 1 in = 500 ft 1 in = 1 mile 10 mm = 1 km
Term
 Bar Scale
Definition
 Printed provides reference for user copied, reduced, etc
Term
 Scale
Definition
 connected through generalization and accuracy
Term
 Non - Indexical Map
Definition
 maps = scientific = embody, true statement, independent, context are made
Term
 Indexical Map
Definition
 statements = dependent for their truth in context
Term
 Representation
Definition
 Features = Symbols   Geometry = orthographic and scaled
Term
 Object Based Data Model {2 Models}
Definition
 Vector Model   Raster Model
Term
 Vector Model {Object Based Data Model}
Definition
 Individual Base Point - Line - System No Neighborhood Analyze 2D Cartesian Coordinate System Spatial info measurement=coded   have to tell computer to make points to create lines, shapes. Ex: draw out "Shark" example   have to tell WHERE it is
Term
 Raster Model {Object Based Data Model}
Definition
 Discrete Continuous Analytical Algoriths Neighborhood Analysis 1 number in a cell Grid rows and columns = tessellation basic unit = spatial = cell Encoded   Examples: elevation, temperature, remotely sensed images, rainfall   Have to tell WHAT it is
Term
 Reference Map
Definition
Term
 Thematic Map
Definition
 highlight single theme geology analysis and visualization reference elements
Term
 Quantitative Thematic Map
Definition
 1. dots 2. 3D 3. Flow Map
Term
 (#1) Dots {Quantitative Thematic Map}
Definition
 size by units bigger the dots, the bigger the units
Term
 (#2) 3D {Quantitative Thematic Map}
Definition
 volumes elevation Ex: Area Cartogram
Term
 (#3) Flow Map {Quantitative Thematic Map}
Definition
 arrows directing data
Term
 3 Important Components
Definition
 Geographic or Base Map convey message info Thematic Overlay clear and easy ?
Term
 HSV Color Model
Definition
 Hue {Hee-yoo} Saturation Value Hue = Color HSV = Saturation, value color model
Term
 Value {HSV Color Model}
Definition
 Lightness or darkness of hue 0 = dark 100 = bright the darker the color = higher value
Term
 Saturation {HSV Color Value}
Definition
 center -> out (measures) measure in 1 and 100 1 = pale 100 = Saturated Symbolized quantitative data more saturated, higher value
Term
 Orientation {HSV Color Model}
Definition
 match marks like real world be careful not to change their orientation real landscapes, etc
Term
 Texture {HSV Color Model}
Definition
 Polygons = number of symbol options color, shape, semi - transparent dots, lines
Term
 Legibility {Texts}   3 Principles
Definition
 Transparent Big Features Restraint
Term
 Transparent   Text: Legibility
Definition
 Able to read without going back and forth content should be more important then container
Term
 Big Features   Text: Legibility
Definition
 Larger counter larger ample shapes easier to recognize easy to recognize fonts
Term
 Restraint   Text: Legibility
Definition
 Not too light or too bold not too much serifs attention
Term
 Legibility   {Text}
Definition
 Typeface Design: distinguishing one letter to another.
Term
Definition
 typography how easily words, phrases, and blocks of letters to read   size: make sure details on find serifs on modern fonts dont disappear at small size use "hallow" on fonts to read easier when background colors are dark
Term
 Upper Case {Text}
Definition
 country, continent, oceans   mix upper & lower = point labels   good to mix cases = tell differences in labels
Term
 Typography
Definition
 symbol information   art, craft, and process of composing type and printing it
Term
 History Type   {Typography}
Definition
 Scribal Latin Printing Press Personal Printers Internet Publishing
Term
 Text of Symbols
Definition
 personality of typeface class legibility x - height font size upper & lower class font families backgrounds - use hallow when background is busy san serif = recommended= easy to read=easy to follow when blurry easy to interpret
Term
 Text Recommendations
Definition
 Labels lines Polygons Points North Arrows & Scale Bars Titles Sources   Text needs to be right - side - up
Term
 Points
Definition
 Signify = hierarchy of labels   bigger point for bigger things lower for less important things
Term
 Placing Line Labels
Definition
 Repeatable Above Line Follow Shape Horizontal Italicize {blue =water}
Term
 Polygon Labels
Definition
 should in INSIDE multiple lines, angled, or curved to fit large polygon = spaced out letter
Term
 Scale Bar
Definition
Term
 North Arrow
Definition
 smaller {& professional} no pic no logo
Term
 Source and Author Info
Definition
 Smallest Text on map Author = lower right Source = lower left 8 pts
Term
 Title & Legend Text
Definition
 Title = largest = 2.5 larger Legends = 1.5 larger Adjust depending map size
Term
 Geodessy
Definition
 Science of measuring & monitoring size & shape of earth   helps use understand our world   heights, angles, distances between locations   create spatial reference system that we can use
Term
 Eratosthenes {Era -tos - thee - nes?}
Definition
 Geographer = 1st to use term "Geography"   Measured two wells at different locations. Shadows appear one well with the other don't. Shadows appears at 7.12 Degrees between the shadowed areas where it centered to central earth to measure 'roundness' of earth.
Term
 Oblate Shape 'roundness'
Definition
 The English     People felt the English is right cuz everything is spaced out.
Term
 Prolate Shape 'roundness'
Definition
 Egg Shape The French
Term
 Geiod
Definition
 sea level   idealized equilibrium surface of sea water -> equipotential gravitational surface   irregular shape   idealized, not realized surface   mountain mass disturbs gravitational field = geoid   lousy foundation surface irregular cannot be measured mathematically Azimuths and distances not determined exactly
Term
 Ellipsoide "Reference Ellipsoide"
Definition
 mathematical model of "smooth" shape regular shape calculated exactly easy to create superior foundation of map
Term
 Spheroid => Flat
Definition
 Flat maps are projected to make it flat involving distorting map   All flat maps = distort shape or size or direction or distance; hold one constant, not all four
Term
 Map Projection {Basic INfo}
Definition
 Light in center of Ellipsoide to project on flat surface   GIS map = 2D
Term
 Map Projection 3 types
Definition
 Cylindrical Cones Planar
Term
 Cylindrical {Map Projection}
Definition
 wraps paper on globe and light shine thru globe   longetitude most accurate = between 30o and 30o {since they are closer together} -> equally spaced   pass 60o is not good since they distort apart
Term
 Cones {Map Projection}
Definition
 Polygonic: Multiple different cones use on globe measures on different angles of globe   Each cones measures each parellel lines     {not perfect but good}
Term
 Planar
Definition
 use one sheet flat paper to measure map of different angles   {worst procedure}
Term
 Map Symbols {Definition}
Definition
 information save space, easier, & quicker to read symbols may be simple drawings, letters, colored shapes, shortened words
Term
 Map Symbols {2 types}
Definition
 Shape Size
Term
 Shape {Map Symbols}
Definition
 Identify similar objects or differentiate between different objects   abstract: more details or replicate: simple details
Term
 Size {Map Symbols}
Definition
 larger symbol = more larger, stronger, etc. smaller symbol = less, smaller, weaker, etc. points, larger or smaller lines thicker and thinner areas larger and smaller (cartograms) ordinal, internal, ratio, scale data avoid large and small dots since they can overlap and become less readable
Term
 John Snow
Definition
 1813 - 1858 @14 became apprentice as surgeon 1st to discover calibration of anesthesia mapped cholera outbreak of 1854
Term
 Map Projection   {random term}
Definition
 different sizes, shapes, and distortion for different projection
Term
 Shape Distortion   {Map Projection}
Definition
 Greenland BIGGER than South America when Greenland SHOULD be smaller
Term
 Area Distortion   {Map Projection}
Definition
 map of USA with 827,000 miles2 (smaller scale) versus 6.8 million miles2 (larger scale)
Term
 Distance Distortion   {Map Projection}
Definition
 different projections have different distortions between 2 points
Term
 Projection Selection Guidelines
Definition
 Equatorial to Tropics = Cylindrical Midlattitudes = Conic Polar Regions = Azimuthal   Secant: Provide 2 lines of ZERO distortion
Term
 Coordinate System
Definition
 points configure shapes and lines of graph   *geometry*   Geoid irregular shape and surface Reference Ellipsoide regular shape and surface Projection making oblate flat Coordinate Systems (x,y) graph; geometry
Term
 Basic Elements of Coordinate Systems
Definition
 (0,0) Point Systems X - Coordinate Points Y - Coordinate Points   defines DIRECTION DISTANCES in ORIGIN of direction
Term
 Datum
Definition
 reference specifications of measurements system of coordinate system of surface
Term
 Calculate {Scales}
Definition
 compare known distances in same units & compute ration:   UA Football Field: 100 yards in real life 3 inches on map   map scale = (map distance) / (actual distance)   map scale = (3)/(3600)   map scale = (1)/(1200) = 1:1,200
Term
 Scale Selection
Definition
 Large <- map scale -> small Small <- map earth area -> large more <- info detail -> less Less general <- symbolized -> more general zoom in <- zooming -> zoom out
Term
 Imperial Units
Definition
 inches, feet, yards, miles measure distance of different parts of body   *1 inch = 2.54 cm or 25.4 mm*
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