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gender authors/terms

Additional Sociology Flashcards




Belkin 2003

studies women who choose to simply stop working inspire of appropriate credentials

Beller 2009

introduces novel approach to the field (of mobility tables), studying women! finds this alters implications of mobility tables, actually declined since 1960s


The social origin measure used is typically derived from a father's class position. However, Beller makes an important change to the inputs in the classic mobility structure. She updates the mobility table approach to test which operationalization
of social origins is the best fit for predicting social destinations.

She runs a series of models that test:

1. models including father's standing only
2. model's including mother's standing only

3. mothers which include both maternal and paternal standing in an additive model

4. models which include some interaction of paternal and maternal characteristics.


Her conclusions from this analysis is that for situations for which both parents are in the labor market, including maternal and paternal characteristics in measuring social origins
provides the best model fit. However, when housewives are included in such a  model, this produces considerable heterogeneity.



missing mothers distorts social stratication produced biasing estimates of mobility can change findings

Bernhardt et al 1995

conclusions women earn less than men and this inequity has not changed much over time

convergence in median earnings for black women, for white women, men's growing inequality led to many of their gains

they predict a slowing of earnings convergence

Biebly 1991

economists sex differences in wages due to utility maximizing behaviors


neo-classical view, household division of labor
women choose occupations easy to enter and exit


becker suggests women exert less effort to work, but bielby finds this is not true -- women tend to undervalue their work


employers don't test who can best do types of work


beliefs about gender affected decisions of relocation

Blau and Kahn 2007

women earnings have been rising
women's lesser labor market experience contributes to pay gap wages converged in 1980s possibly as statistical discrimination declined

wage convergance slowed in 1990s as more women with less experience entered labor market

trends in overall wage inequality may change shape and size of gender wage gap more generally

Boushey 2005

more women in the labor force may lower overall participation if new entrants

like hispanics are more likely to also leave

recession made it appear women wanted to leave when in fact they were forced to leave

Buchmann and Diprete 2005

growing college completion gap, women do better than men in completing college

incentives and resources may have made women better able to succeed in college

finds greater female disadvantage when there is an educated mother in old period but advantage when mothers are more educated in recent periods


change often caused by a reversal of father effects where there was a male advantage in earlier periods and a female advantage in later periods

girls are more likely to complete college degree even though rates of college entry are similar

gap in education is largely due to women doing better in college

Charles and Bradley 2009

studied gender essentialism across countries


Gender essentialism predicts that stereotypes about male and female capabilities influence both the supply and demand for workers.


It inuencs supply
by giving women preconceived ideas about their strengths and limitations; it influences demand because it gives employers ideas of what women can do.


While Grusky and Charles note that essentialism can both advantage women (moving them into service vs. manual labor) it can also exclude women from analytic
mathematical professions which tend to have the highest pay

Correll 2004

suggests cultural constraints create preferences
men do better in tasks and rate themselves better when they feel they should



Correll in her experiment suggests that these beliefs (about what women are best/worst at) can in turn influence performance (women believe they do worse than men in math activities when primed) suggesting that beliefs might constrain actions.

Diprete 2002

feminist solution to women labor force entry, abandon the family as unit of analysis, focus on individual both men and women separately.

Hauser and Warren argue occupation rather than income better long term indicator, more stable

permanent income assumes people know what their income will be

women in west germany more vulnerable to marital dissolution, reason is less likely to work

both german and us workers have about same likelihood of job displacement

job displacement in germany lasts longer but isn't as detrimental

England 1991 and 2002

economic explanation for different valuation of female jobs

1. female jobs tend to be more comfortable
2. female jobs are more crowded, greater suply of labor, lower value


Socialization perspective: 

This is related to gender essentialism but distinct
in that this perspective focuses explicitly on how men and women develop different interests and occupational preferences early in life which inuence later outcomes. England champions this perspective.

Gross 1964

The term sex segregation is used to describe women and men’s concentration in different occupations

Ruel 2004;
Conventional segregation indices (e.g. index of dissimilarity), qualitative work,
and more recently log-multiplicative modeling reveal different aspects of sex
segregation patterns, although each method is not without its limitations
Grusky and Charles 2001

Conventional segregation indices (e.g. index of dissimilarity), qualitative work, and more recently log-multiplicative modeling reveal different aspects of sex
segregation patterns, although each method is not without its limitations


Each method of measuring segregation is unambiguous in demonstrating the high degree of sex

segregation in modern societies; cross-national studies suggest that occupational

segregation is universal, though the specific patterns vary

(Baron and Bielby 1984; Tomaskovic-Devey 1996).

the more fine-grained the measure, the greater is the level of gender segregation

Gerson (Unfinished Revolution)

60% of income earners
period in 1970s women left families and moved to work
many children feel they would have been better off with a working mother, less ambivalence about having a work committed mother

flexible families useful
kids like their parents being flexible
parents leaving labor market unwillingly seen as downward shift

traditional marriages can doom both partners to being forever unhappy

worst case is seemingly happy marriage that dissolves


Gerson in the Unnished Revolution provides the prospective of some new
parents but mostly unmarried young adults (20s to 30s). Her ndings are consistent
with some work of Bianchi as well as McLanahan regarding new perspectives
on parenting and marriage in the United States. Specically, she nds that
a majority of women want some form of autonomy and equality with partners
and don't view domestic labor as their preferred chosen profession. They largely
view that working mothers can be good mothers and some view the domestic
labor of their own mothers as limiting. The men she spoke to largely supported
what Gerson referred to as neo-traditionalist model where their careers would
come rst but women had a right and often responsibility to work although this
labor should be secondary to men's aspirations. Both genders expressed a grow-
ing uncertainty about their future life partners and the stability of marriage and
Gerson closes with a hopeful view of the future as the old paradigm dies, she
sees an opportunity for a system with greater exibility. While I am somewhat
skeptical about this new system and greater future options, I liked Gerson's
book, in particular its inclusion of both genders. A qualm I have with a lot of
this literature is the exclusion of tmen. Too often gender studies seems to focus
on changes for women almost always assuming that men hold an advantaged
position and without acknowledging the ways in which culture constrains the
options of men.

Goldin and Rouse

the blind musicians

the opt-out phenomenon, if perceived to be relatively common, may serve to reinstate processes of statistical discrimination.


It is interesting to me that Grusky focuses on radical egalitarianism in relation to women when in fact it seems that cultural norms also disadvantage men in so far as men are not seen as capable of being caretakers nor being particularly nurturing.


Moreover, Grusky cites the decreasing gendered norms especially regarding manual labor as potentially bad for women.

Grusky and Levanon 2004

essentialism internalized and externalized assumptions about what men and women can do

women recognizing unequal pay may opt out



Mandel and Semyonov 2006

welfare states increase female participation in labor force but doesn't give them access to highly desirable jobs

women in welfare state occupy traditionally female dominated jobs not much managerial access

employee and employer preferences are related

Tam 1997

questions devaluation perspective of female jobs because it attributes residual differences to employer devaluation of women ffnds no devaluation for female occupied jobs


Occupational Ghetto

Grusky and Charles


pose puzzle of why inspite of egalitarian moves, sex segregation remainds

occupational structure conduit for determining lifestyle, wages, working condition

more egalitarian societies higher segregation and while discourage vertical segregation may help horizontal segregation

segregation persists because nonmanual tasks are distinctly female, manual tasks are distinctly male

post industrialism involves not only service sector but also economic rationalization to assign economic?? tasks

Percheski 2008

childbearing penalty is shrinking across cohorts


finds little evidence to suggest that more recent cohorts are opting out of the labor market and in fact nds at level of female employment but at high level and a declining penalty for mother hood in terms of labor market productivity


Using decomposition debunks opt out myth high percentage of women working and shrinking penalty to child bearing across more recent cohorts

Petersen and Morgan 1995

gender differences can be produced by
1. differential allocation to jobs
2. occupations dominated by women are devalued
3. women receive less money for same work, within-occupation discrimination

researchers argue that 1 and 2 are biggest problems in
within-occupation differences are relatively small



This wage gap is primarily caused by the selection of women into particular
types of occupation and the devaluation of those occupations but is also, to a
lesser degree caused by devaluation of women's work when they are in the same
occupation as men (see Petersen and Morgan 1995).

Petersen and Saporta 2004

allocative vs. valuative discrimination,

selection into jobs vs. value in jobs

Reskin 1991

gender dierences can reflect queing, employer preferences for hiring workers and worker preferences for jobs


when large numbers of women, they can force job changes


high turnover occupations workers too poorly mobilized to resist integration


Reskin 1993

segregation fundamental inequality
allows for groups to remain ignorant of others preserving illusion of equality
essay emphasizes segregation's role in creating inequality

men and women have always done different jobs
occupation integration slowed in 1980

sex labels and sex essentialism affects both supply and demand for workers in occupation

suggests economic growth fosters female access to male occupations

integration can be stalled by protests of male workers, shield from need to cut costs, and responses of customers

Reskin and McBrier 2000

ascription, within organizations men more likely to be hired when other men in control'

formalization can undermine ascription when it is more than a symbolic gesture
higher paying managerial positions, more men

Schwartz 2010

increase entry of larbor women into labor market and changing relationship between husband's earnings and wives


husband working and earning more is now associated with greater likelihood of wife working before it was negative, this also increases income inequality

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