# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

GCSE EdExcel P2 Keywords
The keywords for EdExcel GCSE P2
121
Physics
01/30/2013

Term
 Static electricity
Definition
 A stationary electric charge, typically produced by friction, that causes sparks or crackling or the attraction of dust or hair.
Term
 Electrostatic charge
Definition
 The electric charge at rest on the surface of an insulated body (which establishes and adjacent electrostatic field).
Term
 Protons
Definition
 A stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei, with a positive electric charge equal in magnitude to that of an electron.
Term
 Neutrons
Definition
 A neutron is a subatomic particle contained in the atomic nucleus. It has no net electric charge, unlike the proton's positive electric charge.
Term
 Nucleus
Definition
 The central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth.
Term
 Neutrons
Definition
 Particles in the nucleus with a mass of 1 and no charge,
Term
 Induction
Definition
 The action by which a body possessing a charge of statical electricity develops a charge of statical electricity of the opposite character in a neighboring body.
Term
 Induced charge
Definition
 To make an object to become charged.
Term
 Earthing
Definition
 Many electrical appliances have metal cases, including cookers, washing machines and refrigerators. The earth wire creates a safe route for the current to flow through, if the live wire touches the casing.
Term
 Discharged
Definition
 To release a charge by a flow of electrons to earth (or neutral).
Term
 Current
Definition
 An electric current is a flow of electric charge through an electrical conductor.
Term
 Direct current
Definition
 An electric current that flows continuously in a single direction
Term
 Alternating current
Definition
 In alternating current, the electrons don’t move steadily forward. Instead, they just move back and forth.
Term
 Coulombs (C)
Definition
 The unit of electrical charge equal to the quantity of charge transferred in one second by a steady current
Term
 Amperes (A)
Definition
 Equivalent to one coulomb per second, formally defined to be the constant current
Term
 Ammeter
Definition
 An instrument for measuring electric current
Term
 In series
Definition
 when the components of a curcuit are next to each other
Term
 Series circuit
Definition
 A curcuit that has it's parts connected serially
Term
 Parallel circuit
Definition
 A closed curcuit in which the current divides into different paths before recombining to complete the curcuit
Term
 Potential difference
Definition
 The difference of electrical potential between two points, measured in volts.
Term
 Voltage
Definition
 An electromotive force or potential difference (unit).
Term
 Voltmeter
Definition
 An instrument for measuring electric potential in volts.
Term
 In parallel
Definition
 When the components of a curcuit are parallel to each other
Term
 Resistance
Definition
 Anything in the circuit which slows the flow down.
Term
 Ohms (Ω)
Definition
 Resistance unit
Term
 Variable resistor
Definition
 Controls the magnitude of resistance passing through the resistor
Term
 Filament lamps
Definition
 As the temperature of the filament increases, the resistance increases making a curve.
Term
 Diodes
Definition
 Current will only flow through a diode in one direction only
Term
 Light-dependent resistor (LDR)
Definition
 An LDR is a special type of resistor that changes its resistance depending on how much light there is
Term
 Thermistors
Definition
 Similar to an LDR but its resistance depends on temperature, high temp low resistance and vice versa.
Term
 Ions
Definition
 An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
Term
 Power
Definition
 The rate at which work is performed, or energy converted.
Term
 Watts (W)
Definition
 The unit that measures power. Equal to one joule per second. A watt is equal to current x voltage.
Term
 Displacement
Definition
 How far something has moved in a straight line.
Term
 Speed
Definition
 How fast something is moving without a concern for the direction.
Term
 Velocity
Definition
 How fast something is moving in a particular direction.
Term
 Vector
Definition
 A quantity that has a direction and size.
Term
 Distance-time graphs
Definition
 A graph recording distance travelled over a particular time.
Term
Definition
 How steep a line is.
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 The rate of change of speed.
Term
 Force
Definition
 Strength or energy as an attribute of physical action or movement
Term
 Free-body diagram
Definition
 A pictorial device, often a rough working sketch, used by engineers and physicists to analyze the forces and moments acting on a body.
Term
 Interact
Definition
 Act in such a way as to have an effect on another
Term
 Action force
Definition
 A force that exerts a force on another object. It often comes in pairs with the Reaction Force, forming an action-reaction pairs.
Term
 Reaction force
Definition
 A force that acts in the opposite direction to an action force.
Term
 Air resistance
Definition
 A force caused by air when an object is moving.
Term
 Drag
Definition
 A resistance to motion when an object moves through a medium. Eg a boat moving through water.
Term
 Resultant
Definition
 The result of two or more forces acting conjointly.
Term
 Mass
Definition
 The amount of an object there is.
Term
 Weight
Definition
 The force with which an object near the Earth or another celestial body is attracted toward the center of the body by gravity
Term
 Gravitational field strength
Definition
 Gravitational field strength at a point is defined as the gravitational force per unit mass at that point.
Term
 Terminal velocity
Definition
 Where the downward force of gravity equals the force of drag.
Term
 Thinking distance
Definition
 The thinking distance is the distance travelled in between the driver realising he needs to brake
Term
 Braking distance
Definition
 The braking distance is the distance taken to stop once the brakes are applied.
Term
 Stopping distance
Definition
 Stopping distance is the distance it takes for a car to stop from a specific speed.
Term
 Reaction time
Definition
 The time that goes by between a stimulus and the response to it.
Term
 Friction
Definition
 The resistance that one surface or object encounters when moving over another.
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 The tendency of the object to keep moving in the same direction
Term
 Vector quantity
Definition
 An amount or measurement that is related to a direction. Velocity, acceleration, and weight are vector quantities
Term
 Crumple zones
Definition
 A part of a motor vehicle, esp. the extreme front and rear, designed to crumple easily in a crash and absorb the main force of an impact.
Term
 Seat belt
Definition
 A safety device used in a car or plane to cause you to slow down over a longer period of time, thus reducing the force on the body in an accident.
Term
 Air bags
Definition
 A safety device in a car, consisting of a bag that inflates automatically in an accident in order to increase the time it takes the person to slow down and reduce the force on their body.
Term
 Crumple zones
Definition
 A part of a motor vehicle, esp. the extreme front and rear, designed to crumple easily in a crash and absorb the main force of an impact (by increasing the time it takes the vehicle to stop).
Term
 Work
Definition
 The amount of energy transferred doing something.
Term
 Energy transferred
Definition
 The amount of energy being transferred from one place to another.
Term
 Joules (J)
Definition
 The measurement of work done and energy transferred.
Term
 Power
Definition
 How quickly work is being done and therefore how quickly energy is being transferred.
Term
 Watts (W)
Definition
 The measurement of power, it is equal to one joule per second.
Term
 Kinetic energy
Definition
 This is the energy something has when moving.
Term
 Gravitational potential energy
Definition
 The energy that must be used against gravitational forces to move a particle of mass.
Term
 Kinetic energy
Definition
 This is the energy something has when moving.
Term
 Sub-atomic particles
Definition
 The smaller particles that make up an atom.
Term
 Nucleons
Definition
 The particles found in the nucleus are called this.
Term
 Atomic number
Definition
 The amount of protons that an element has.
Term
 Proton number
Definition
 The number of protons that an element has.
Term
 Mass number
Definition
 The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Term
 Nucleon number
Definition
 The number of protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of an atom. An alternative name for mass number.
Term
 Isotopes
Definition
 A different atomic form of the same element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.
Term
 Ion
Definition
 An atom which has gained or lost electrons.
Term
Definition
 Radiation that causes atoms to lose electrons and become ions
Term
Definition
 When a substance has a unstable nucleus, resulting in release or nuclear radiation.
Term
 Unstable
Definition
 An atom which has too many neutrons could be said to be this.
Term
 Decays
Definition
 When the necleus of a atom breaks down causing it to emit radiation
Term
 Random
Definition
 Without a fixed time or pattern.
Term
 Alpha particles
Definition
 Ionising radiation containing 2 neutrons and 2 protons (helium nucleus).
Term
 Penetration distance
Definition
 How far ionising radiation can travel through a substance.
Term
 Beta particles
Definition
 High-speed electrons that are emited from an unstable nucleus
Term
 Gamma rays
Definition
 High frequency electromagnetic waves emitied by some unstable nuclie and so travel at the speed of light
Term
 Daughter nuclei
Definition
 The remaning nuclide left over from radioative decay.
Term
 Nuclear fission
Definition
 A nuclear reaction in which a heavy nucleus splits spontaneously or on impact with another particle, with the release of energy
Term
 Chain reaction
Definition
 A reaction which causes many others one after the other.
Term
 Nuclear fusion
Definition
 A nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of energy
Term
 Nuclear reactors
Definition
 This transforms the energy contained in the nuclei of uranium and plutonium atom, into thermal energy using nuclear fission
Term
 Core
Definition
 Where the fuel and control rods are placed and the reaction is occuring.
Term
 Control rods
Definition
 Structures which absorb the neutrons, these are placed between the fuel rods in the core
Term
 Moderator
Definition
 Something that slows down a nuclear reaction by slowing/absorbing neutrons.
Term
Definition
 Made up of radioactive daughter nuclei and radioactive isotopes formed when the materials in the core absorb neutrons
Term
 Validated
Definition
 To check or prove the accuracy of something
Term
 Peer-reviewed
Definition
 Reviewed by someone with knowledge on the subject
Term
 Electrostatic repulsion
Definition
 When two of the same charges repel each other
Term
 Mutation
Definition
 The changing of a structure, resulting in a variant
Term
 Hazards
Definition
 Dangers to a person or object
Term
 Risk
Definition
 A situation involving exposure to danger
Term
Definition
Term
 High level waste (HLW)
Definition
 Sealed in glass conisters and concreted over until the radiation becomes low level.
Term
 Intermediate level waste (ILW)
Definition
 Contained in metal cylinders because they become radioactive.
Term
 Low level waste (LLW)
Definition
 Not as radioactive, bried and compacted in special sites.
Term
Definition
Term
 Activity
Definition
Term
 Becquerel (Bq)
Definition
 A unit of measurement, number of nuclear decays per second.
Term
 Half-life
Definition
 The time taken for half the undecayed nuclei to decay.
Term
 Geiger-Müller (GM) tube
Definition
Term
 Count rate
Definition
 Number of clicks per second or minute of ionising radiation
Term
Definition
 Small amounts of radiation in the atmosphere
Term
 Background count
Definition
Term
Definition
 A gas emited produced by the natural decay of radioactive sources. Eg. Uranium.
Term
 Cosmic rays
Definition
Term
 Tracer
Definition
 These are used for tracking substances such as:-Find leaks or blockages in underground pipes-Find the route of underground pipes-Track the dispersal of waste
Term