Shared Flashcard Set


Garland Chapters
Criminal Justice

Additional Criminal Justice Flashcards





A history of the present



1) Decline of the rehabilitative Ideal

2) Re-emergence of punitive sanctions

3) Return of the victim

4) Public protection

5) Reinvention of the prison

6) Politicization and the new populism

7) Expanding infrastructure of crime prevention

8) Commercialization of crime control

9) Changes in the emotional tone of crime policy

10) transformation of criminological though

11) New management styles and working processes

12) perpetual sense of crisis

Modern Criminal Justice and the Penal-Welfare State

1) a change in the style of governance where social governance relied upon forms of social expertise and techniques of rule

2) change in social control and informal social controls in the schools, workplaces, and other institutions created an everyday environment of norms and sanctions

3) shift in economic content where all the public had to do was legitimize what was being done and everyone went along with it

4) support for social elites helped develop the field even more

5) perceived validity and effectiveness of the government activity, mechanisms in place to make it look good

6) policies were the achievement of professionals and reforming politicians, flourishing from public apathy and ignorance

The Crisis of Penal Modernism

1) mid 1970s: unanticipated, rapid collapse of the correctionalism model due to published critiques (Martinsons, 1974 "Nothing Works")

2) Formation of sentencing and parole guidelines

a) high levels of inprisonment

b) emphasis on justice, not rehabilitation

c) emphasis on control, not support and provision

3) Reactionary movement: discredit and reject but no repairs suggested

a) it is making criminals even worse

b) nothing works

c) justice is in jeopardy

Social change and social order in late modernity


1) availibility/spread of cars & distance from work/home

2) new dwelling patterns

3) new forms of segregation and social division

4) mass media as a central institution

5) more opportunities for crime

6) reduced situational controls

7) increased amount of "at risk" populations

8) divided society whereby the lower class are problematic

9) crime is seen as a lack of dicipline

Policy Predicament: Adaption, Denial, and Acting Out

1) the new perdicament: high crime rates are normal, the CJ state is limited and not focused on future sucess, and the "soverein state" does not have a monopoly on crime control

2) the structured ambivalence of the state's reponse

Crime Complex: The Culture of High Crime Societies

1) High crime rates seem "normal"

2) old solutions to crime are inadequate

3) Politians focus on effects of crime instead of the causes

4)  anxiety + insecurity + rapid social change = a

politics of reaction

5) media creates an emotional face for victims

6) Adaptation by re-establishing social controls through commercial sector and the victims movement


The New Culture of Crime Control

1) more intensive and proactive community-oriented policing

2) Recognition of victim's rights and restorative justice

3) changes not due to new institutions, just a re-coding of them as more punitive to minimize costs and maximize security

4) Probation is intensified and discredited as a punishment

5) Prisons function to control, exclude, exile and segregate in the name of public safety

6) punishment at a distance: punishment is predetermined

7) Us vs Them: not concerned with stigmatization

8) Criminology of everyday life: integration of areas to systematically reduce security vulnerabilities

9) Criminology of the other: better safe than sorry and no need to understand criminals - they are bad.

10) economic (no longer social) way of reasoning: value and cost is more important than outcome


How mass incarceration occured
1. A shift from `penal welfare' to `retributive' model...
2. Prompted by social and tech. changes.
3. Enabled by a shift to political conservatism.
4. Resulting in a marginalization of subgroups.
5. Who were blamed for the problems in society, as was the liberal penal welfare model.
6. This shift resulted from a desire for security, order and control missing following #2.
7. And led to a combination of `market and moral discipline' with more controls on the poor and fewer on everyone else.
Effects of mass-incarceration
1 Creates systematic social, economic and political exclusion by race (social marginality)
2 Develops and supports criminal underclass through criminogenic nature of incarceration and parole/probation rules
3 Understates unemployment rate by removing `unemployable' from society.
4 Alters norms and values of communities across generations.
5 Creates a gulag system of economy, where prisoners are increasingly perform work for government and private business without pay.
Supporting users have an ad free experience!