# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

G-Code
CNC
198
Mechanical Engineering
03/20/2009

Term
 A-Axis
Definition
 The axis of circular motion of a machine tool member or slide about the
Term
 X - Axis
Definition
 Values along the A-axis are degrees of rotation about the X-axis.
Term
 Aboslute System
Definition
 A numerical control system in which all positional dimensions, both input and feedback, are given with reference to a common datum point.
Term
 APT Programming (Automatically Programmed Tools)
Definition
 A universal computer assisted programing system for multi-axis contouring programming.     The original NC programming system, developed for AeroSpace, first used in building and manufacturing military equiptment.
Term
 Algorithm
Definition
 A computational method for solving problems. Much like a recipe in cooking, or a plan of attack in the military.   Developing the algorithm in machining is the pre-planning process that creates the orderly procedure for machining processes to occur.
Term
 Alphanumeric
Definition
 A system of code that consists of the characters    A-Z and numerials 0-9.
Term
 Analog
Definition
 Pertaining to a system that uses electrical voltage magnitudes or ratios to represent physical axis positions.
Term
 Analyst
Definition
 A person skilled in the development and definition of techniques to solve problems.
Term
 Arc Clockwise  G02
Definition
 An arc generated by coordinted motion between two axes. Curvature of the arc is clockwise with respect to the part and the cartesian planes.
Term
 Arc Counterclockwise G03
Definition
 An arc generated by coordinted motion between two axes.   Curvature of the arc is counter-clockwise with respect to the part and the cartesian planes.
Term
 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Exchange)
Definition
 A data transmission code that has been established as an American Standard by the AmericanStandards Association
Term
 Auxiliary Function M Codes
Definition
 A programming function used in CNC machining that controls functions other than axis motion.   Tool changing, coolant on and off, starting and stopping the spindle, etc
Term
 Axis
Definition
 A principal direction along which the relative movements of a tool or workpiece occur.   Three linear axes, occuring at 90 degree angles from each other, named X,Y and Z.
Term
 Axis Inhibit
Definition
 A feature of an NC unit that enables the operator to withhold command information from a machine tool slide.
Term
 Axis Inversion
Definition
 The reversal of plus and minus values along an axis.   Mirror imaging is used to make a left-handed part from a right-handed toolpath.   When axis inversion is used circular interpolation is also reversed
Term
 Backlash
Definition
 A relative movement between interacting mechanical parts as a result of looseness
Term
 Batch Processing
Definition
 Technique in which items to be processed must be coded and collected into groups prior to processing
Term
 B-Axis
Definition
 The axis of circular motion of a machine tool member or slide about the Y-Axis
Term
 Binary Code
Definition
 Code based on binary numbers expressed as either 1 or 0, true or false, on or off
Term
 BIT-Binary Digit
Definition
 A binary digit has only two possible states. Eight BITS make up one BYTE.
Term
 Block
Definition
 A single line of NC code is a block, a block represents sufficient information to a CNC machine to perform a single line or arc movement.
Term
 Block Delete
Definition
 A function that permits selected blocks of code to be ignored by the control system, at the operators discretion.
Term
 Buffer Storage
Definition
 A place in which information in a control system or computer is stored for use at a later time.
Term
 Bug
Definition
 A programmed error or oversight, a glitch
Term
 BYTE
Definition
 A sequence of eight adjacent binary bigits         (BITS)
Term
Definition
 The using of computers to assist and developphases of design.
Term
 CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing)
Definition
 The use of computers to assist in manufacturing
Term
 Cancel
Definition
 A command that will discontinue any canned cycles or seguence commands.
Term
 Canned Cycle
Definition
 A preset sequence of events initiated by a single   G coded command.
Term
 Cartesian Coordinates
Definition
 A three dimensional system whereby the position of a point can be defined with reference to a set of axes at right angles to each other
Term
 C-Axis
Definition
 The axis of circular motion of a machine tool member or slide about the Z-axis.   C-axis values are degrees of rotation about the Z-axis.
Term
 Chip
Definition
 A single piece of silicon cut from a slice by scribing or breaking.   A chip can contain one or more circuits.
Term
 Circular Interpolation
Definition
 The process of generating up to 360 degrees of arc using only one block of information as defined by EIA
Term
 CL Data
Definition
 Processor output that contains information regarding cutter location
Term
 CNC
Definition
 Computerized Numerical Control
Term
 Command
Definition
 A signal or series of signals that initiates one step or a series of steps in the execution of a program.
Term
 Compile
Definition
 To generate a machine language program from a computer program written in a high level source code.
Term
 Console
Definition
 The part of a computer system used by the operator for communication with the computer system
Term
 CPU
Definition
 Central Processing Unit of a computer.   The memory and logic area of a computer that includes processing and execution of instructions
Term
 CRT-Cathode Ray Tube
Definition
 A device that displays alphanumeric data to the machine operator
Term
 Cutter Diameter Compensation -CDC-
Definition
 A system in which the programmed toolpath may be altered to compensate for cutter diameter differences
Term
 Cutter Offset
Definition
 The distance from the part surface to the axial center of a cutter (the radius of the cutter).
Term
 Cutter Path
Definition
 The path defined by the center of the cutter
Term
 Cycle
Definition
 A sequence of operations that is repeated. The time the repetition requires is cycle time.
Term
 Data
Definition
 The representation of information in the form of NC Words, sysmbols, numbers, letters, characters and/or digits
Term
 Database
Definition
 A comprehensive collection of information in a specific format applicable to a user's needs
Term
 Debug
Definition
 To troubleshoot, detect, locate and remove mistakes from a program
Term
 Decimal Code
Definition
 A code system in which each allowable position has ten possible states.
Term
 Digit
Definition
 A single character in any numbering system
Term
 Digital
Definition
 Relating data in the form of digits
Term
 Display
Definition
 A visual representation of data
Term
 Downtime
Definition
 Time during which equipment is inoperable because of faults
Term
 DNC-Direct Numerical Control
Definition
 A system in which machine coded programsare introduced into the CNC controller from a remote computer
Term
 Dwell Time
Definition
 A timed delay of programmed or established duration used inspecific machining operations
Term
 While in the CRC mode, you may program___
Definition
Term
 Z-Axis An axis that is vertically perpendicular to the x-y zero point. All movement above the zero point is positive (+Z) while all movement below the zero point is (-z).
Definition
 Zero Administration for Windows (ZAW):  Microsoft's effort to reduce the total cost of ownership (TCO) for Windows platforms. (Microsoft Corp.) See also total cost of ownership
Term
 X Window System An interface that enables multiple log-in sessions to occur on-screen, simultaneously, in different windows.
Definition
 Y-axis An axis that is at right angles to the X-axis and intersect the zero point of the X-axis. All movement further away from the zero point is plus (+y). All movement closer than the zero point in minus (-y).
Term
 World Wide Web (WWW)  A hyper-linked, browsing, multimedia environment that operates over the Internet or intranets.See also Internet, Intranet
Definition
 Working Drawing A drawing of a part providing data for manufacturing.
Term
 Wire Frame Modeling  A type of geometric modeling in which the edges of a part are represented by solid lines.
Definition
 World (WRL)  The file format for VRML models.
Term
 Wired for Management (WFM)   an Intel-led effort to develop guidelines for computer platforms that can be centrally managed over networks to reduce total cost of ownership. (Intel Corp.) See also total cost of ownership
Definition
 Wireframe a geometric model that describes 3D geometry by outlining its edges, similar to a "stick figure."
Term
 Windows Distributed Internet Applications Architecture (Windows DNA)  a framework for software that combines the benefits of the Web and client/server computing, Based on based on COM. (Microsoft Corp.) See also COM
Definition
 Windows NT  a 32-bit, high-end, platform-independent, operating system developed by Microsoft Corp. Its features include symmetric multiprocessing, multitasking, networking, security, and an easy-to-use interface. It competes with the UNIX operating system. (Microsoft Corp.) See also UNIX, operating system
Term
 Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) - a language that lets Web browsers view and interact with 3D models; requires a special viewer.
Definition
 Virtual prototyping (VP) - the use of computer models and simulations to supplant the use of physical prototypes and models for evaluating and testing product designs.
Term
 Viewing and markup software - software that allows users to display a CAD drawing or model and adding comments, revision notes, etc. Typically, viewing and markup software will work with numerous types of CAD (vector) and graphics (raster) file formats, in addition to standard documents (word processing and spreadsheets, for instance).
Definition
 Virtual Reality (VR) - Refers to the ability to interact with data in a way that enables the users to "enter" and navigate through a computer-generated 3D environment and change their viewpoint and interact with objects created within that environment in a way that mimics the real world.
Term
 Variational geometryA capability of 2D and 3D modeling systems in which the user defines a model by dimensions and constraints, which are then solved by a series of simultaneous equations to create and modify geometry. The changes, then, work in both directions, i.e. changes in entity A will affect be reflected in entity B and vice-versa. See also parametrics
Definition
 Vector dataA method of defining 2D or 3D graphics by lines, arcs, circles, etc. in contrast to raster data. See also raster data
Term
 UNIXDeveloped by AT&T Bell Laboratories in the late 1960s, a mature, 32-bit (some are 64-bit), multi-user, multitasking operating system. Many hardware developers have created their own versions of UNIX based on software licensed from AT&T. Examples include IBM's AIX, Silicon Graphics Inc.'s IRX, and Sun's Solaris. See also Windows NT, operating system.
Definition
 Value Added Reseller (VAR)A dealer of hardware and software that "adds value" to the product before reselling it, e.g. by integration, services, programming, training, etc.
Term
 Unipolar A bifilar wound motor. The current flows only in one direction through each winding. Normally there are two winding per bobbin and eight bobbins per motor. Usually is a 5,6 or eight wire motor. One or more common leads are used per winding. Has less torque than a bipolar stepper motor but is simpler to drive. Bipolar stepper motor- just two windings. The electronic controls reverse the current alternately between the coils. This motor has more torque but requires more electronic controls.
Definition
 Universal Serial Bus (USB)A standard 12-Mbps serial expansion bus for connecting peripherals to a PC, providing plug-and-play capability and daisy-chaining (adding new devices to the last device rather directly to the system itself). See also plug-and-play
Term
 Transmission Control Program/Interconnect Protocol (TCP/IP) A standard networking protocol, widely used thanks to its ability to work with multiple platforms and implementation for the Internet. See also Internet
Definition
 Uniform Resource Locator (URL) The address assigned to every Web page from its domain name. For example, CAEnet's URL is http-//www.penton.com/cae/
Term
 Translator An electronic device that converts pulses into the correct switching sequence, which will operate the motor one step for each pulse received.
Definition
 Total cost of ownership (TCO) the "true" cost of owning a computer, including hardware, software, training, support, maintenance, and so on.
Term
 Tolerance- A blueprint specification indicating an unwanted but acceptable deviation from a given dimension.
Definition
 Tool path- The series of coordinate positions that determine the movement of a tool during a machining operation.
Term
 Title BlockA portion of a blueprint that contains information such as the company name, part name, part number, designer, scale, and material.
Definition
 Tessellationthe process of converting geometry into a set of polygons and accompanying information such as color, translucency, texture, etc.
Term
 Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) a graphics file format that efficiently represents raster data such as photographs or illustrations. See also raster data
Definition
 Swept surface  a surface created by sweeping a 2D profile along a trace path. ToleranceSee also surface modeling
Term
 Sub-ProgramActing as a part programming shortcut, a part program sequence that is called on as needed. Also called a subroutine.
Definition
 Surface modelinga 3D modeling method of describing geometry by its surfaces. Typically used where surface shape is critical, for example, automobile body panels. Surface modeling software generally provides many functions for creating, editing, and evaluating surfaces. See also cloud of points, lofting, swept surface
Term
 Stepper motor A device that translates electrical pulses into precise mechanical movement. The output shaft may deliver rotary or linear motion.
Definition
 Structured Query Language (SQL) standard for database management systems that provides a common way of accessing data stored in the system.
Term
 Step Per Revolution  The total number of steps to rotate the motor shaft 360 degrees. For CNC 200 or 400 steps per revolution are usually used.
Definition
 Step Angle  The angular increment the motor shaft will turn each time the windings (coils) are energized. The angle is specified in degrees. For a 200 step per revolution motor the step angle will be 1.8 degrees.
Term
 Stereolithography (SL) A rapid prototyping (RP) process, introduced in 1987 by 3D Systems Inc. launched the RP industry. A Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) machine builds physical models in this manner- it focuses an ultraviolet (UV) light onto the surface of a vat filled with liquid photopolymer. The light beam, moving under computer control, draws each layer of an object onto the surface of the liquid. Wherever the beam strikes the surface, liquid changes to solid. 3D parts are built from the bottom up, one layer at a time; when the part is finished, it is exposed to UV light for curing. (3D Systems Inc.)
Definition
 Standard for the Exchange of Product model data (STEP (ISO 10303))A set of ISO standards which provide for the exchange of engineering product data. Provides industry specific Application Protocols (AP) to specify the representation of product information for various applications, including drafting, associative drafting, configuration controlled 3D assemblies, automotive design, and many others. (PDES Inc.) See also ISO
Term
 SPECmarks  industry-standard benchmarks developed by the Standard Performance Evaluation Corp. (SPEC) to measure of a computer's integer and floating point performance. (Standard Performance Evaluation Corp.) See also floating point processor
Definition
 Spun Surface A surface created by spinning a 2D profile of a trace path around a centerline axis.
Term
 Software  The coded instructions, formulas, and operations that structure the actions of a computer.
Definition
 Solid modeling  a geometric modeling method that completely and unambiguously describes both the exterior and interior of a part or assembly in three dimensions. See also CSG, BREP
Term
 SLA format (SLA) The 3D file format used by Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) rapid prototyping machines. Can also be used as a general 3D file format for viewing. (3D Systems Inc.) See also rapid prototyping, Stereolithography
Definition
 Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) A CPU-to-drive (or other peripherals) interface. Ultra-Wide SCSI supports 40 MB/sec data transfer from the peripheral to the system. The newer Ultra 2 Wide SCSI doubles data transfer to 80 MB/sec.
Term
 Scanner  A computer device that converts hard copy drawings into digital form.
Definition
 Server  in client-server computing, a system that performs processing and delivers data to any number of clients in a network. See also client-server computing
Term
 Roster Image A form of graphics in which closely spaced rows of dots from an image on a computer screen. Also known as bit-mapped graphics.
Definition
 SAT  a file format for 3D solid geometry, created by systems that use the ACIS solid modeling engine. (Spatial Technology Corp.) See also ACIS
Term
 Reverse engineeringIn general, the processing of understanding the design and functionality of a product using a sample of the product itself. For CAD, the term refers more narrowly to the process of scanning or digitizing the shape of an object and turning that data into a model which can then be treated as a normal CAD model, ultimately to re-manufacture the part or product. See also Cloud of Points and/or Point Cloud
Definition
 Resolution The acuity of a graphics display, monitor, or hardcopy device. Typically measured in total pixels, horizontal X vertical (i.e. 1,280 X 1,024), or dots/inch (dpi).  See also pixel, dots/inch
Term
 Relational Database Management System (RBDMS)  a database system in which data are stored in tables related by common members. See also DBMS
Definition
 Rendering Process of adding shading, colors, reflectivity, textures, etc. to a model to make it appear realistic.
Term
 Reduced Instruction-Set Computing (RISC)-  A computing architecture. Systems built upon it generally take only one clock cycle to execute operations because the microprocessors handle fewer instructions; this typically translates into faster processing speeds. See also CISC
Definition
 Refresh rateThe number of times a monitor redraws an image, measured in hertz. Also called vertical scan rate or vertical frequency. The higher the refresh rate, the less the screen will seem to flicker. Some experts recommend 75MHz as a minimum. Refresh rates are now described in milliseconds -2ms or 5ms refresh rates are common in 2008
Term
 Redlining software  Software that allows users to display a CAD drawing or model and adding comments, revision notes, etc. (from the days of paper when engineers used red pencils on blueprints to accomplish the same task). See also viewing and markup software
Definition
 Redline  To review, mark up, make notes of detailed focus, special interest a 3D model or CAD drawing for further comment.
Term
 Raster dataA method of defining 2D graphic data with black-and-white or colored dots as opposed to vector data. Raster data resolution is typically defined by the number of pixels or dots/inch. See also vector data, resolution, pixel
Definition
 Ray tracing A rendering method that approximates illumination by casting a ray from the viewer into the model for each pixel in an image. See also rendering
Term
 Random Access Memory (RAM)  The storage area of a computer that holds programs and data.
Definition
 Rapid prototyping (RP)Various manufacturing processes as well as a burgeoning industry. RP processes involve devices--ranging from office modelers to four-ton machines--that accept 3D CAD files, slice the data into cross-sections, and construct layers from the bottom up, bonding one on top of the other, to produce physical prototypes for applications such as engineering form, fit, and function; soft tooling for prototypes; and patterns for hard tooling. The RP industry consists of RP systems, materials, and after-market products as well as a services sector.
Term
 Radiosity An way to illuminate models so that the visibility of a surface of an object is assessed relative to every other surface and light source. Produces soft shadows.
Definition
 RampingThe process of controlling the pulse frequency to accelerate or decelerate a stepper motor. Ramping increases the ability to drive larger loads at greater speeds by slowing the first series of pulses allowing the motor to overcome inertial loads and reduces overshooting by slowing the motor down more gradually than an unramped motor.
Term
 Point Cloud A set of x-y-z coordinates obtained from a 3D scanner or digitizer. The data from an "ordered" point cloud can then be turned into a continuous surface and used in a 3D model. Often used in reverse engineering applications. See also reverse engineering, surface modeling.
Definition
 Query  A search or inquisition for the definition, content or data search of any subject of interest or issue of contention.
Term
 Prototype The original test model of a part
Definition
 Product Data Management (PDM) software and systems that organize, manage, and track product, drawing, and model data, typically via a database management system. Evolving into systems that can be used across the enterprise and not just in design. See also ERP, MRP II
Term
 Primitives or Primitive  Basic shapes such as cubes, spheres, cylinders, blocks, and cones that are combined in solid modeling to create a model of a part.
Definition
 Preliminary Blueprint  A design representing the rough dimensions of a specific part.
Term
 Post-processingIn general, the evaluation, display, and reporting of data that results from some type of solution method. In finite-element analysis, it refers to the generation of displays showing stress, displacement, and other results; the generation of animations; and the creation of reports. See also finite-element analysis, finite-element modeling, pre-processing
Definition
 Pre-processingin general, the preparation of data for further processing. In finite-element analysis, it refers to the process of setting up a model to be analyzed with the finite-element method, including definition of geometry, creation of the finite-element mesh, specifying materials, loads, and boundary conditions, and any solution options. See also finite-element analysis, finite-element modeling, post-processing
Term
 Post Processor A software link in the CAD/CAM chain that communicates instructions from CAM to a CNC machine.
Definition
 Points/inch (ppi) The resolution of a hardcopy device or graphics display. The same as dots/inch. See also resolution
Term
 Plug-and-play (PnP)  typically, the ability to plug a peripheral into a computer and have it be automatically configured without any direction from the user. Sometimes refers to software add-ons as well.
Definition
 Plug-in  a software extension for browsers that adds specific functionality. Many plug-ins provide the ability to view various file formats. Add-on programs for some CAD systems are also now being referred to as plug-ins as well. See also browser
Term
 Pixel  for "picture element," the smallest definable dot of graphics data. Typically used in the description of graphics processors, displays, and monitors. See also resolution
Definition
 Plotter  A large printer used to print blueprints. These output devices support vector graphics, unlike dot matrix and laser printer.
Term
Definition
 Photorealism the process of generating computer images that closely resemble photographs.
Term
 Personal Computer (PC) on the computing continuum, a PC is a desktop device generally built around Pentium microprocessors from Intel Corp. and the Windows operating systems from Microsoft Corp. See also PW
Definition
 Personal Workstation (PW) on the computing continuum, a personal workstation is a desktop device that runs 32-bit operating environments such as UNIX or Windows NT. This type of computer is based on CISC or RISC platforms, supports 2D/3D graphics generally through a standard such as OpenGL, and is "tuned" to run engineering applications. See also PC
Term
 Pen plotter a hardcopy device that draws links on paper, or other flat medium, by moving one or more pens across the surface of the medium; with more than one pen, multiple colors are possible.
Definition
 Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) a high-performance bus that provides a processor-independent data path between the CPU and peripherals for graphics, video, SCSI, LAN, etc. (PCI Special Interest Group) See also AGP
Term
 Personal Computer (pc)  A computer designed for an individual user and commercial software. Desktops, laptops, and notebook computers are PC's.
Definition
 PDES Inc. (PDES)  an industry/government consortium whose aim is to speed development and implementation of the STEP standard. See also STEP
Term
 Part Program  A series of numerical instructions used by a CNC machine to perform the necessary sequence of operations to machine a specific work piece.
Definition
 Parasolid A solid modeling engine used by many commercial and research organizations as the core of CAD/CAM/CAE applications. (Unigraphics Solutions Inc.) See also ACIS, component software
Term
 Parabolic Interpolation- Control of a cutter path by interpolation between three fixed points, with the assumption that the intermediate points are on a parabola.
Definition
 Parametrics- a capability of 2D and 3D modeling systems in which the user defines dimensions and constraints to which the model must conform. Alterations are then automatically reflected in related areas. Strictly speaking, parametrics work in only one direction, i.e., altering entity A will affect entity B, but not vice-versa. In practice, however, most systems allow the changes to operate in either direction. See also variational geometry
Term
 Overshoot- The amount by which axis motion exceeds the target value.
Definition
 Parabola- A plane curve generated by a point moving so that it's distance from a fixed second point is equal to it's distance from a fixed line.
Term
 Optional Stop- A miscellaneous function similar to Program Stop(M01) except that the control ignores the command unless the operator has previously pushed a button to validate the command.
Definition
 Output- Data transferred from an internal storage unit to storage or an output device.
Term
 Operating system (OS)- The main program that controls the computer's hardware operations. Microsoft's Windows 3.1, Windows 95, and Windows NT are examples of operating systems typically used to run PCs; different variants of the UNIX operating system generally run workstations. See also Unix, Windows NT
Definition
 Offset- -A displacement in the axial direction of the tool equal to the difference between the actual tool length and the programmed tool length.
Term
 OpenDWG Alliance a non-profit organization aimed at documenting and promoting the Autodesk AutoCAD DWG format, as it exists now, as an open drawing exchange standard. Alliance members are commercial CAD/CAM/CAE software vendors (although Autodesk is not a member). The Alliance provides documentation, specifications, utilities, and subroutines for working with DWG files. (OpenDWG Alliance) See also DWG
Definition
 Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) a rendering-only applications programming interface (API) widely used by CAD/CAM/CAE software, originally developed by Silicon Graphics Inc., for creating 2D/3D graphics. Lets applications create high-quality color images independent of windowing systems, operating systems, and hardware. Functions include modeling, transformations, color, lighting, smooth shading, texture mapping, NURBS, fog, alpha blending, and motion blur. (Silicon Graphics Inc.) See also Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline, rendering
Term
 OLE for Design and Modeling (Modeling) and OLE for Design and Modeling (Geometry and Topology) (OLE D&M) a method of combining data and functionality from two different CAD/CAM systems into one model by defining a standard way to extract design information out of CAD/CAM databases for simultaneous display. OLE D&M (Geometry and Topology) adds to this by defining a standard mechanism for communicating spatial arrangement of graphical objects for CAD/CAM/CAE and GIS software. Over 50 CAD/CAM software vendors are involved in the OLE D&M Specification. (Microsoft Corp.)
Definition
 Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) provides a common interface for accessing heterogeneous databases. Based on Structured Query Language (SQL. ) Allows developers to build client/server applications without targeting a specific DBMS. See also SQL, DBMS
Term
 Object Linking and Embedding (OLE)a standard set of functions that allow users to link or embed one file or object within another, even if created with a different application. For instance, a spreadsheet can be embedded into a CAD file and be made active within the CAD program. OLE builds on COM/DCOM, providing higher level services to applicationprogrammers such as structured storage, making it easier for applications to organize, add, and remove data without requiring them to create large numbers of directories and files on the disk. (Microsoft Corp.) See also COM, DCOM
Definition
 Object Request Broker (ORB) an application framework that provides interoperability between software objects, even if they are built in different languages and run on different machines. (Object Management Group) See also CORBA
Term
 Numerical Control programming (NC programming) method of creating the instructions to drive an numerically-controlled (NC) machine tool (sometimes called computer-numerical controlled, CNC). Often done from theCAD model.
Definition
 Null Pertaining to a zero output from a device.
Term
 Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) a mathematical description of geometry that provides easy manipulation along with accurate description of entities and surfaces, from simple to complex. See also B-spline
Definition
 Nonlinear finite-element analysis analysis technique used when materials, geometries, loads, or boundary conditions deviate from a straight-line behavior. See also finite-element analysis
Term
 N/CNumerical Control-The technique of controlling a machine or process by using command instructions in coded numerical format. The use of computers and special program instructions to execute the sequence of machining operations to make a part.
Definition
 Newsgroup a service of the Internet that acts like a bulletin board for a special or specific interest discussion group. Users can log into a newsgroup and read questions, answers, and comments left by other users. In a binary newsgroup users can upload or download files, images, programs, etc.
Term
 M Code: A code used to signal an action from a miscellaneous group of commands. M codes change cutting tools, turn on or turn off the coolant, spindle, or work piece clamps, etc.
Definition
 Machine Control Data: Manufacturing instructions defined in CAM and enacted on a CNC Machine.
Term
 Machine Control Unit: A small, powerful computer that controls and operates a CNC machine.
Definition
 Machine Tool: Powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by machining.
Term
 Machining: The selective removal of metal or material.
Definition
 Machine Code- Code obeyed by a computer that needs no further translation.
Term
 Machine Tool A power driven machine used to form or shape metal and other materials.
Definition
 Machining Center Machine tools, normally Numerically Controlled, capable of automatically repeating many operations such as drilling, reaming, tapping, milling, and boring multiple faces on a work piece.
Term
 MacroA group of instructions that can be stored and recalled to solve a recurring problem.
Definition
 Magnetic Tape A tape made of plastic or mylar that is covered with magnetic particles. It stores information by selective polarization of portions of the surface.
Term
 Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) a system used to plan and manage manufacturing operations. The bill of materials (BOM) for products release to manufacturing is a key part of the MRP II data. Evolved from materials requirements planning (MRP). See also ERP, PDM
Definition
 Manual Data Input MDI-A mode of control that allows the operator to input data into the control system, the data input is identical to the data that can be input by other means such as tape or DNC.
Term
 Manual Part Programming The preparation of a manuscript in machine control language and format to define a sequence of commands for processing by a CNC machine.
Definition
 Manuscript A written or printed copy, in symbolic form, containing the same data as that punched on cards or retained in a memory unit.
Term
 Megabyte (MB) a unit of measure that typically identifies the capacity of a computer's memory, storage space, or information-handling abilities. One MB is 1,048,576 bytes.
Definition
 Megahertz (MHz) millions of Hertz (cycles/sec) is a commonly used measure of the clock speed of a CPU. All else being equal, a CPU running at a higher MHz will be faster than one running at a slower clock speed. See also CPU
Term
 Memory An organized collection of storage elements into which a unit of information consisting of a binary digit can be stored and from which can later be retrieved.
Definition
 Meshing the process of dividing geometry into a grid of elements for finite-element analysis. See also finite-element analysis
Term
 Mirror a function for creating entities in a 2D or 3D CAD program; such entities are mirrored yet opposites copies of the original.
Definition
 Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) an application framework that provides reusable C++ object classes that can be used to reduce the amount of programming necessary to develop Windows-based applications such as CAD and to include OLE capability within these applications. (Microsoft Corp.) See also OLE
Term
 Mirror Image The reversal of plus and minus values along an axis. Mirror imaging is used to make a left-handed part from a right-handed tool path. When axis inversion is used circular interpolation is also reversed. Use of (INV,X1Y0) is a Type II language command.
Definition
 Modal Pertaining to information that is retained by the system until new information is obtained that replaces it.
Term
 Module An interchangeable plug-in item containing components.
Definition
 MTB Machine Tool Builder.
Term
 MultiMedia Architecture (MMX) architectural design enhancements to the Intel Pentium CPU chip to handle multimedia operations. (Intel Corp.)
Definition
 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) a specification for exchanging text (in different character sets) and multimedia (sound, images, etc.) among different systems using Internet mail standards.
Term
 Leading Zeros Redundant zeros to the left of a number.
Definition
 Letter Address Often called NC Words, such as X, Y, Z, F, G, M.
Term
 Linear InterpolationA control function whereby data points are generated between given coordinate positions to allow simultaneous movement one, two or more axes of motion in a linear path.
Definition
 Level-of-Detail control (LOD) the ability to vary the amount of details displayed in a graphics image to improve performance. For instance, at a distance, models can appear as simple 3D figures, but as users zoom in, a more detailed representation is presented.
Term
 Local-area network (LAN) two or more computers linked via cables and software so they can share data, programs, peripherals.
Definition
 Lofted surface a surface created by fitting a shape to a series of 2D cross-sections. See also swept surface, surface modeling
Term
 Kinematics method of analyzing a moving mechanical system without regard to forces. Inverse kinematics is a method of determining mechanism geometry from a desired motion. See also dynamics, interference checking
Definition
 LoopRepetitive operations can be programmed in a continuous mode until the desired functions have been completed.
Term
 Kilobyte (KB) a unit of measure that typically identifies the capacity of a computer's memory, storage space, or information-handling abilities. One KB is 1,024 bytes.
Definition
 Jog A control function that momentarily operates a drive into the machine.
Term
 Jig A fixturing device used most often for drilling operations.
Definition
 Java a programming language developed by Sun Microsystems that can be read and translated to run on any platform. Most often used in Internet/Web applications (Note- Java is not an acronym). (Sun Microsystems Corp.)See also Internet, World-Wide Web
Term
 Independent Software Vendor (ISV) a company that offers commercial software and that does not offer hardware.
Definition
 Incremental Dimensioning A method of expressing a dimension with respect to the preceding point. NOT a good idea, incremental dimensioning allows users to fall into a trap. If a single error in data is entered incorrectly at the beginning of a project, ALL points determined afterwards will have that amount of error built into them.
Term
 Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) object-oriented universal software language for defining AEC/FM project models, allowing the sharing of the information globally, across disciplines, and technical applications throughout a project life cycle. Supports specific AEC processes such as architectural design, HVAC engineering design, construction management, and facilities management. Commercial software based on IFC will be able to understand and manipulate objects created by others, and each such application can create new objects with intelligent relationships to the others' objects. (International Alliance for Interoperability) See also International Alliance for Interoperability
Definition
 Inhibit To prevent an action or event.
Term
 Inkjet printer/plottera hardcopy device that uses liquid ink sprayed through miniature nozzles onto the paper in dot matrix patterns to form text and graphics. Color inkjets use several ink nozzles connected to containers of colored inks.
Definition
 Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) neutral file format used to exchange vector and text data among CAD systems. It is the format for graphical vector data in the Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support (CALS) document. See also vector data, CALS
Term
 Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) An interface standard that connects hard-disk drives to PCs. Extended IDE (EIDE), also known as AT Attachment (ATA)-2 or Fast ATA, is another such interface.
Definition
 InputTransfer of external data into the control system.
Term
 International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) an organization formed to define, promote, and publish specifications for Industry Foundation Classes as a basis for sharing AEC project information globally, across disciplines, and technical applications throughout a project life cycle. (International Alliance for Interoperability) See also Industry Foundation Classes
Definition
 Interference checkingthe process of identifying if and where two or more pieces of geometry (usually solids) intersect. When moving parts are involved, a kinematics analysis is used to detect interferences. See also kinematics
Term
 International Standards Organization (ISO)is a worldwide, non-governmental federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries.
Definition
 InterpolationA function of a control whereby data points are generated between given coordinate positions.
Term
 Internetthe public, worldwide "network of networks" based on TCP/IP protocols. See also Intranet
Definition
 Intraneta private network that uses the same technologies (TCP/IP, HTTP, HTML, etc.) that make up the Internet. Typically, intranets are internal to a company or organization, secure from the Internet at large. See also TCP/IP, HTTP, HTML, Internet
Term
 HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP)the protocol used to move HTML files over the Internet or intranet. See also Internet, Intranet, HTML
Definition
 ISOInternational Organization of Standardization.
Term
 Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language (HPGL)a format for graphics printing, especially of CAD data, developed and used by Hewlett-Packard Co. and emulated by many others. This format is sometimes used to exchange CAD data among systems. (Hewlett-Packard Co.)
Definition
 HyperText Markup Language (HTML, HTM)the standard markup coding used to create content for the Web. See also World-Wide Web
Term
 Hardware- The components that make up a computer or control system.
Definition
 Hard-Wired- Having logic circuits interconnected on a backplane to give a fixed pattern of events.
Term
 Hard Copy- A readable output of data on paper.
Definition
 hardcopy device- a peripheral device used to create permanent, printed output from a computer or workstation.
Term
 Graphics Interchange Format (GIF)- a raster format for graphics, particularly photos, illustrations, and icons. Widely used for Web applications. See also World Wide Web
Definition
 Graphics library- a set of software functions specifically for graphics. Typically provided separately from the application program and the hardware. See also API, OpenGL
Term
 Graphical User Interface (GUI)- an interface to a computer that uses icons to represent desktop objects, such as documents and programs, that the user can access and manipulate with a pointing device, such as a mouse.
Definition
 Graphics board- special circuitry typically added as a separate board to a computer to handle graphics processing. Also called video cards, graphics cards, and graphics accelerators.
Term
 G Code- -Active Preparatory Function-An NC word addressed by the letter G and followed by a numeric value, G Codes are flags that when executed by the machine control unit, initiate axis motions, plane changes, feed rate changes, etc.
Definition
 GIGO- -Anacronym for "Garbage In, Garbage Out", when a programmer is given garbled inaccurate information (geometry), the BEST that can be expected is an inaccurate tool path. ALWAYS, proof every number given to you from any Engineer, if you don't you will be re-programming the work!
Term
 Geographic Information System (GIS)- computer system or software that includes both graphics data as well as textual information for applications in mapping, demographics, etc.
Definition
 Gigabyte (GB)- a unit of measure that typically identifies the capacity of a computer's memory, storage space, or information-handling abilities. One GB is 1,073,741,824 bytes or 1,000 MB. See also megabytes
Term
 Gauge Height-A predetermined Z axis clear plane retraction point along the Z-axis to which the cuter retreats allowing safe X Y axis travel.
Definition
 Geometry: The measurement, properties and relationships of the lines and points of an object that make up its shape.
Term
 Geometric Modeling: A modeling process in which a designer creates lines and text that represents the shape of a desired part. Geometric modeling is the first step in CAD.
Definition
 G-Code: Common name for the programming language that controls NC and CNC machine tools.
Term
 Floating point- a method of calculation and storage of numbers in which the decimal point moves instead of staying in a fixed position to handle significant digits.
Definition
 Floating Zero- -A characteristic of a machine control unit that allows the zero reference point to be established at any point of travel along an axis.
Term
Definition
 Floating license- a method of licensing software so that X number of concurrent users anywhere on the network can use a copy at any one time, versus licensing the software for a particular system or user.
Term
 Fixed Block Format- -A format where data blocks appear in sequentially arranged order.
Definition
 Fixed Cycle- - A preset sequence of events initiated by a single G coded command.
Term
 Finite-Element Modeling (FEM)- the process of setting up a model to be analyzed with the finite-element method, typically done graphically with geometry, where the model is meshed and boundary conditions are specified. Sometimes refers to the evaluation and reporting of results of such an analysis as well. See also boundary conditions, finite-element analysis, meshing, pre-processing, post-processing
Definition
 Firmware- Programs or controlled instructions that are not changeable by the user and that are often held in ROM, Read Only Memory.
Term
Definition
 Finite-Element Analysis (FEA)- a computer-based method that breaks geometry into elements and links a series of equations to each, which are then solved simultaneously to evaluate the behavior of the entire system. Most often used for structural analysis, but widely applicable for other types of analysis and simulation, including thermal, fluid, and electromagnetic. See also finite-element modeling, preprocessing, post processing.
Term
 Feed Rate Override- -A variable manual control function that allows the control system to increase or reduce programmed feed rates.
Definition
 File- -An organized collection of relevant, orderly data.
Term
 Feed- -A programmed or manually established rate of movement of the cutting tool into the work piece for the required machining operation.
Definition
 Feed Rate- -F Word-A multi-character code containing the letter F followed by digits that determine the machine slide rate of movement.
Term
 Fahrenheit a joint project between Silicon Graphics Inc. and Microsoft that will result in a suite of Application Programming Interfaces (API) for the Microsoft's DirectX multimedia architecture on Windows and for Silicon Graphics' UNIX platform; it will integrate Microsoft's Direct3D and DirectDraw with Silicon Graphics OpenGL, OpenGL Scene Graph and OpenGL Optimizer. See also API
Definition
 Feature-based modeling- a method of building and editing 3D models (usually solid models) by using standard features such as holes, slots, bosses, etc. See also solid modeling
Term
 Executive Program- -A set of programming instructions that allows a CNC lathe to have the capability to perform lathe functions or a CNC mill to performmilling functions. A set of instructions designed to output specific functions.
Definition
 Facilities Management (FM)- the task of managing the space, utilities, and other resources in a building, plant, or factory, often with the assistance of CAD software
Term
 Engineering Document Management (EDM)- the process of organizing, managing, and tracking drawings and other documents, usually with the aid of computers.
Definition
 Enterprise Resource Management (ERP)- a system used to handle a wide range of business functions, including accounting, sales, distribution, materials management, production planning, and human resources. Some MRP II systems have evolved into ERP systems. See also MRP II, PDM
Term
 End of Program- -A miscellaneous function (M02) that represents the completion of a programmed cycle.
Definition
 End Points- -The extremities of a span.
Term
 EIA Standard Code- -A standard code for positioning, linear motion, and contouring control systems proposed by the U.S. EIA Standard RS-244.
Definition
 End-Of-Block Character- -A character representing the end of a programmed block of information.
Term
 Edit- -To modify the form of data.
Definition
 EDM- Electrical Discharge Machining
Term
 G01
Definition
 Linear Interpolation Straight linear axis motion at a controlled feed rate.   Milling Turning
Term
 G02
Definition
 Clockwise circular motion using two axes in a single program block. Milling-Turning-
Term
 G03
Definition
 Counter-clockwise circular motion using two axes in a single program block. Milling-Turning
Term
 G04
Definition
 A dwell, stoppage of axis motion, for a programmed length of time.   Milling-Turning
Term
 G17
Definition
 X,Y plane selection. -Milling-
Term
 G18
Definition
 X,Z plane selection.Milling
Term
 G19
Definition
 Y,Z plane selection. Milling
Term
 G20  G70
Definition
 Inch units (G20 or G70 depends on the MTB) -Milling-Turning-
Term
 G21 G71
Definition
 Metric units (G21or G71 depends on the MTB) -Milling-Turning-
Term
 G28
Definition
Term
 G29
Definition
 Automatic return from a reference point. -Milling-Turning-
Term
 G40
Definition
 Cancel Cutter Diameter Compensation - Milling-
Term
 G40
Definition
 Cancel Tool Nose Radius Compensation.  - Turning -
Term
 G41
Definition
 Cutter Diameter Compensation on, cutter left.  - Milling-
Term
 G41
Definition
 Tool Nose Radius Compensation Left - Turning -
Term
 G42
Definition
 Cutter Diameter Compensation on, cutter right.  - Milling-
Term
 G42
Definition
 Tool Nose Radius Compensation Right                   - Turning-
Term
 G70
Definition
 - Turning- Canned Finishing Cycle
Term
 G71
Definition
 - Turning- Canned Roughing Cycle
Term
 G72
Definition
 - Turning- Canned Facing Cycle
Term
 G74
Definition
 Canned Peck Drilling Cycle - Turning-
Term
 G75
Definition
 Canned Grooving Cycle- Turning-
Term
 G76
Definition
Term
 G80
Definition
 Cancel Canned Cycle. -Milling-
Term
 G81
Definition
 Canned Drilling Cycle. -Milling-
Term
 G82
Definition
 Canned Counter Bore Cycle. -Milling-
Term
 G83
Definition
 Canned Deep Hole Drilling Cycle. -Milling-
Term
 G90
Definition
 Absolute Positioning. -Milling-
Term
 G91
Definition
 Incremental Positioning. -Milling-
Term
 G92
Definition
 Repositioning or re-setting the origin point. -Milling-
Term
 G98
Definition
 The initial machine reference positioning system. (Machine Reference Zero) -Milling-
Term
 G98
Definition
 Turning-Linear Feed rate Per Time.
Term
 G99
Definition
 Milling-Cancel G92 position set. (Part Reference Zero)
Term
 G99
Definition
 Turning-Feed rate Per Revolution
Term
 G107
Definition
 Cylindrical Interpolation Turning
Term
 G107
Definition
 Cylindrical InterpolationTurning
Term
 G112
Definition
 Polar coordinate interpolation modeTurning
Term
 G113
Definition
 Polar coordinate interpolation mode cancel  Turning
Term
 G250
Definition
 Polygonal turning mode cancel  Turning
Term
 G251
Definition
 Polygonal turning modeTurning
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