Shared Flashcard Set


Forestry CDE Forest Disorders
12th Grade

Additional Agriculture Flashcards






-Attack most pine species & hardwoods

-Infest weakened & dying trees, green logs & unseasoned lumber
-Degrade lumber & reduce strength
  -Dark reddish brown in color
-About ¼” long
-Usually have sharp spines at the rear
-Large piles of fine white granular dust below entrance holes or at the base of standing trees
-Darkly stained galleries
-Adults bore into sapwood or heartwood of logs and lumber
-Females lay eggs in small clusters
-Timber is not attacked unless moisture content of wood is at least 48%
-Seasoned lumber is never infested
No chemical control recommended in
the forest
-Rapid utilization of cut timber
-Fast drying of lumber helps prevent damage
-Winter harvest & storage


Attacks all pines native to the South
Most serious in pine naval stores
3/8” in length, , Round rear end
 Attack fresh stumps
Attack lower trunks (0-15’) of living pines
Initial attacks generally within 2’ of the ground
Identified by white to reddish-brown pitch tubes, about the size of a half-dollar
 Adult beetles bore into the cambium & construct galleries
Eggs laid in clusters & hatch in 10-14 days
Life cycle takes from 2 ½ to 4  months, depending on the season
2-4 generations a year
Natural enemies & good tree vigor keep populations at low levels
Preventive sprays effective for high value trees
Prompt removal of infested trees helps control outbreaks
Management practices that promote tree vigor & minimize root & trunk damage help prevent infestations


Kill more pine timber in the south than any other forest insect, with the exception of the SPB

Usually attack injured, dying or recently felled trees & fresh logging debris
Common in trees weakened by drought or lightning strikes
1/8 to 1/5 of an inch long
Scooped out rear end with 4-6 spines on each side
 First signs of attack are reddish-brown boring dust in bark crevices or reddish-brown pitch tubes about dime size on bark surfaces
Y & H shaped egg galleries with short larval galleries extending perpendicular to them, usually free of boring dust, Pitch tubes found from the ground to the top of the trees
Blue-stain fungi introduced when the beetles attack the tree, visible in the sapwood & hasten the death of the trees
New adults emerge after 21-40 days during the summer
 The best control is prompt removal & utilization of actively infested trees
Chemical control is not feasible under forest conditions
Preventive practices include minimizing logging damage  to remaining trees & quick removal of felled trees


The most destructive pest of pines in the southern United States

Attacks & can kill all species of pines but prefers loblolly, shortleaf, Virginia, pond & pitch
Front of the head is notched and the hind end of its body is rounded, 1/8 inch long
Larva is crescent-shaped and whitish, with an amber head
-Tree exudes resin which forms a small pitch tube about the size of a small piece of popcorn
-Beetles construct winding, S-shaped galleries, which cut across and girdle the tree
-Blue-stain fungus in the sapwood hasten the death of the tree
-First indication of mortality is discoloration of the foliage
-Trees may be killed singly or in groups ranging from a few trees to several hundred acres
 Adults construct winding galleries in the inner bark
One life cycle can be completed in 30 days under ideal conditions
3-7 generations per year depending on latitude, elevation & climate
Integrated pest management techniques such as rapid removal & utilization of infested trees, piling & burning of infested materials, chemical
control in high value resources
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