# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Forces
Glossary for Forces and Motion
41
Science
Not Applicable
02/23/2005

Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 Any change in the velocity of an object. If the object moves faster, or slower, or changes directions, it has accelerated. Acceleration is the change in velocity per second.
Term
 Acclerometer
Definition
 A device for detecting and measuring acceleration; it indicates zero when it is stationary or moving at constant velocity.
Term
 Archimedes
Definition
 A greek mathematician , physicist, and inventor. Archimde
Term
 Archimedes
Definition
 A greek mathematician , physicist, and inventor. Archimde
Term
 Aristotle
Definition
 A Greek philosopher, pupil of Plato, and tutor of Alexander the Great. Aritotle saw the importance of careful observation and detailed classification, which are parts of the scientific method.
Term
 Balance
Definition
 An instrument used to compare masses, traditionally with tow equal pans. Known masses are palced in one pan to balance an object in the other pan.
Term
 Buoyancy
Definition
 The apparent loss of weight of a body partly or completely immersed in a fluid, due to the wieght of fluid displaced by the object.
Term
 Centripetal
Definition
 Directed towards the center, for example the force requeired to keep an obeject moving in a circular path or orbit.
Term
 Deceleration
Definition
 Slwoing down, braking, or negatice acceleration.
Term
 Density
Definition
 The mass of an object divided by its volume. The amount of matter (mass) in a unit volume of a material: for example, the density of gold is 19.3 grams per cubic centimeter.
Term
 Dependent Variable
Definition
 The quanity plotted on the vertical axis of a graph, which depends on the value of the (independent) variable on the horizontal axis.
Term
 equilibrium
Definition
 A situation in which the resultant force on a obejct is zero. The object is at rest or moving at constant velocity in a straight line.
Term
 Equilibrium
Definition
 A situation in which the resultant force on a object is zero. The obejct is at terst or moving at constant velocity in a straight line.
Term
 Fluid
Definition
 Any liquid, gas, or powdered material, which flows, and lacks a derinite shape.
Term
 Force
Definition
 When applied to an object, a force tends to make the object move, change the motion of the obejct, or change its shape. Forces are measured in newtons and are vectors.
Term
 Fricton
Definition
 The force that resists sliding motion between two surfaces in contact. Vehicles moving trhough air experience friciton, commonly called air resistnace or drag.
Term
 Gravity
Definition
 The floce of attraction between objects, which increases as the mass of the objects increases but decreases as the separation of the objects increases.
Term
 Independent Variable
Definition
 The quantity plotted on the horizontal axis of a graph; for example, time is a common independent variable.
Term
 Inertia
Definition
 The tendency of an object to remain at rest (stationary) or to continue moving in a straight line at constant speed. Inertia increases as the mass of the object increases.
Term
 kilogram
Definition
 The SI unit of mass; 1000 grams; approximately 2.2 pounds. Written as "kilogram" symbol "kg"
Term
 mass
Definition
 is the amount of substnace in an object, is fixed, and measured in grams and kilograms,. The mass of any object is independent of the location of the object.
Term
 meter
Definition
 The SI unit of length; equal to 39.37 inches (US) Written as "meter", symbol"m".
Term
 momentum
Definition
 A moving object has mass and a velocity in a certian direction. Momentum can be calculated by multiplying mass times velocity. To change the momentum of an object, a force must act on it. Momentum is a vector because its direction is as important as its magnitude.
Term
 Newton
Definition
 The SI unit of force, written as "newton" symbol "N". This is the force that makes a one kilgram mass accelerate at one meter per second per second.
Term
 Newton, Isaac
Definition
 (1642-1727) English mathematician and physicist who studied motion, gravity, optics, and the orbits of the planets. His laws of motion an theory of gravitation were set out in a famous book, the Principia.
Term
 Newton's 1st Law
Definition
 An object remains at rest or continues to to moce in a straight line at constant velocity, unless it is acted on by an external force.
Term
 Newton's 2nd Law
Definition
 The acceleration of an object is proportional to the applied force and takes place inthe direction of the force. The accerleration is inversely proportional to the mass of the object: for example heavier objects accerlerate more slowly.
Term
 Newton's 3rd Law
Definition
 Actiona nd reaction are equal and opposite. The weight of an object presses on the floor, the floor provides a reaction force on the object equal to the object's weight.
Term
 Orbit
Definition
 The path of a planet aroudn the Sun, or of a moon around a planet, or of a satellite around the Earth. The path may be circular or elliptical. The orbit is maintained by the force of gravity and the speed of the body in its orbit.
Term
 Reaction
Definition
 The equal and opposite force that arises when a force is applied to anobject or system. The weight of a building is supported by the reaction of the ground.
Term
 Resultant
Definition
 The single force that is equivalent to the sum of the separate forces acting on an object.
Term
 SI
Definition
 Systeme International d'Unites; the international system of scientific untis of measurement.
Term
 Speed
Definition
 The distance a moving object covers in unit time; for example five centimeters per second, 20 miles per hour; the rate of movement.
Term
 Spring Scale
Definition
 A device containing a spring for measuring forces. The size of the force is indicated by the length the spring stretches.
Term
 Terminal Velocity
Definition
 The maximun velocity of an object falling through air or water. Gravity accerlerates the obejct until air or water resistnace prevents it accerlerating any more. The velocity is then constant.
Term
 Upthrust
Definition
 The buoymant force experienced by objects in any fluid. The upward force provided by the fluid.
Term
 Vector
Definition
 A quantity such as velocity or gorce, which must be specified by its size and direction.
Term
 Velocity
Definition
 The speed and direction of an object; a vector describing the motion of an object.
Term
 Venn Diagram
Definition
 A method for respresenting groups of similar objects (sets) using circules. Relationships between sets are expressed by overlapping the circles.
Term
 Weight
Definition
 The force of gravity on any object. Weight is dependent on the location of the object and for the force of gravity acting on the object.
Term
 Weightlessness
Definition
 A condition experienced by astronaunts orbiting the Earth. Gravity and the astronauts' speed keep them and the spacecraft in orbit.
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