# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

fluids + pressure
fluids + pressure vocab/equations
58
Physics
03/10/2017

Term
 density
Definition
 mass per unit volume[image]
Term
 pressure
Definition
 force per unit area excerted by the molecules on a surface[image]
Term
 Pascal's Principle
Definition
 any change in the pressure applied to a completely enclosed, incompressible fluid is transmitted undiminished to all parts of the fluid and enclosing walls
Term
 Archimedes' Principle
Definition
 any fluid applies a buoyant force to an object that is partially or completely immersed in it; magnitude of the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Term
 incompressible fluids
Definition
 -density does not change with pressure-most liquids are nearly incompressible for common pressure changes
Term
 compressible fluids
Definition
 -density changes with pressure-in most cases, gases must be treated as highly compressible fluids
Term
 streamlines
Definition
 show the fluid flow
Term
Definition
 velocity of fluid particles at any point is constant over time
Term
Definition
 velocity of fluid particles at any point changes as time passes
Term
 turbulent flow
Definition
 unsteady flow at high speed around obstacles
Term
 non-viscous flow
Definition
 -fluid moves readily-neighboring layers of fluid slide freely past each other-ex: water
Term
 viscous flow
Definition
 -fluid does not move readily-neighboring layers of fluid do not slide freely past each other-ex. oil, honey
Term
 irrotational flow
Definition
 -same speed at all points-paddle wheel won't turn-ex. pipe with low friction walls
Term
 ideal fluid
Definition
 incompressible and non-viscous
Term
 mass flow rate
Definition
 [image]
Term
 volume flow rate
Definition
 [image]
Term
 Bernoulli's equation
Definition
 [image]
Term
 kinetic theory
Definition
 matter is made of of atoms that are in continual random motion-atoms exert electromagnetic forces on each other-forces are attractive at large distances, but repulsive at small distances
Term
 thermal expansion
Definition
 most substances expand when heated and contract when cooled[image]
Term
 volume thermal expansion
Definition
 [image]
Term
 convection
Definition
 transfers heat by the bulk movement of fluids
Term
 conduction
Definition
 [image]unit: Watt
Term
Definition
 [image]
Term
 ideal gas
Definition
 atom/molecules are so far apart that they don't interact except for when they collide elastically
Term
 temperature
Definition
 measure of average KE of molecules
Term
 moles
Definition
 number of molecules present
Term
 volume
Definition
 amount of space occupied by the gas
Term
 ideal gas laws
Definition
 [image]
Term
 Maxwell distribution of speeds
Definition
 [image]
Term
 kinetic energy
Definition
 [image]KE = (³/₂)nRT = (³/₂)NkT
Term
 root mean squared speed
Definition
 [image]
Term
 system
Definition
 quantity of matter surrounded by boundaries
Term
 closed system
Definition
 matter cannot cross boundary
Term
 open system
Definition
 matter can cross boundary
Term
 isolated system
Definition
 no heat, work, or matter crosses the boundary
Term
 process
Definition
 changes the state of a system
Term
 irreversible process
Definition
 -system changes rapidly-system cannot return along same path
Term
 reversible process
Definition
 -system changes slowly-system can return along same oath
Term
 cycle
Definition
 series of processes that returns a system to its initial state
Term
 first law of thermodynamics
Definition
 [image]
Term
 rotational flow
Definition
 -different speeds at different points-paddle wheel test-ex. river
Term
 isobaric expansion
Definition
 [image]
Term
 isobaric compression
Definition
 [image]
Term
 isobaric process
Definition
 [image][image][image][image][image]
Term
 isometric / isochoric heating
Definition
 [image]
Term
 isometric / isochoric cooling
Definition
 [image]
Term
 isometric / isochoric process
Definition
 [image][image] [image]
Term
 isothermal expansion
Definition
 [image]
Term
 isothermal compression
Definition
 [image]
Term
 isothermal process
Definition
 [image][image] [image]
Term
Definition
 [image]
Term
Definition
 [image]
Term
Definition
 [image][image][image]
Term
 second law of thermodynamics
Definition
 -heat flows spontaneously from high temps to low temps, but does not flow spontaneously in reverse-"natural tendency" for heat to flow from hot to cold
Term
 efficiency
Definition
 ration of the net work done to the heat input[image]
Term
 heat engine
Definition
 [image][image][image]
Term
 Carnot engine
Definition
 most efficient possible heat engine consisting of 2 adiabatic and 2 isothermal processes[image][image]
Term
 entropy
Definition
 -measurement of molecular diversity of a system-able to measure energy no longer available to do workisothermal: [image]isobaric: [image] units: J/K
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