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Additional Sociology Flashcards





Types of Stratification Systems


OPEN=class system

-people ranked on the basis of merrit, talent, ability, or past performance

-inequality is not systematic

-people are able to chang eclass positions during theier lifetimes and their children can be a diff. class

-achieved characteristics determine class

CLOSED=caste system

-people are ranked on the basis of traits over which they have no control

-caste distinctions are viewed as unalterable


Caste vs. Class

-the rigidy of the systems or how difficult it is for people to change their category







while discrimination is a behavior of unequal tratment towards an individual group on the bases of group membership,

Prejudice is an irrational attitude toward an entire group/individual based on group membership.


Types of Social Movements


regressive/reactionary: seek to turn back the hands of time to an earlier condition or state-of-being sometimes defined as "golden era"

reformist movements: social movements that target some specific feature of society as needing change

revolutionary movements: social movements that seek borad, sweeping, and radical structural changes to a society's basic social institutions or to the world order.

counterrevolutionary: social movements that seek to maintain a social order that reform and revolutaionary movements are seeking change


Census Bureau Classification:

Race & Ethnicity


Ethnicity: divided into two categories:

          (1)Hispanic/Spanish Orgin

          (2)non-Hispanic/Spanish Orgin


          (1) Black or African

          (2) White

          (3) American Indian or Alaskan Native

          (4) Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander

          (5) Asian

          (6) other


Racial Classification is a product of which three things?


chance: those factors not subject to human will, choice, or effort that determine racial and/or ethnic classification

context: the larger social setting in which racial and ethnic categories are recognized, constructe,d and challenged

choice: the act of choosing from a range of possible behaviors or appearances such that the resulting actions evoke associations iwth a particular race or ethnic group


Merton's Typology of Deviance


Conformity: The individual conforms to the dominant culture. Here the individual experiences no problem in terms of goals and the means that society provides to achieve those goals. There is, therefore, no need to engage in deviance to obtain goals deemed worthy by society.

A.     Innovation

Innovators are people who accept the goals of society. For some reason, like poverty, they cannot achieve societies' goals by legitimate means. They have to use illegitimate means such as stealing.

B.     Ritualism

People who ritualize have similar problems that the innovator experiences, but for ritualists the individual rejects the goals, but accepts the means. The individual may, for example, choose to work hard knowing that he or she is not going to achieve the goals that society defines as worthy because they do not get paid enough.

C.     Retreatism

People who are retreatists reject both the means and goals of society. Drug addicts and vagrants are examples of people who retreat.

D.     Rebellion

The individual rejects the culture (values, goals, norms). These individuals pursue alternative cultures. Included in this group are revolutionaries and some gangs.


Leslie White's Theory

of Social Change


1) if a new invention emerges, the cultural base (the number of existing inventions) must be large enough to support it

2) inventions control us;

               A) invention is the mother of necessity

               B) when the cultural base is

                   capable of supporting an invention, 

                   then the invention will come into

                   being whether people want it or not


Connection between Internet and Cold war


the United States got the best scientists in the country to help; this uncluded scientists at four major universities. because the race was so intense, people feared that hte university research centers would possibly be blown up and all the research would be gone. Thus, the scientists decided they needed a way to store and instantaneously transport material from one university to another. So, an internet system was established between the four universities to transport information and research

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