# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

final
n/a
51
Physics
05/03/2009

Term
 3 general conditions for interference
Definition
 tow or more interfering waves travel throguh different regions of space over at least part of teir propagation from source to destination :: the waves are brough together at a common point :: the waves must have the same frequency and a fixed phase relationship
Term
 fixed phase relationship
Definition
 over a given distnace or time interval the phase difference bewteen the waves remains constant (coherent waves)
Term
 ___ waves have a constant phase difference
Definition
 coherent
Term
 In a double slit interference pattern, what could "adjacent maxima" also be called?
Definition
Term
 Diffraction pattern from a single slit is viewed on a screen. would the central maximum be narrower or wider if red light is used instead of blue?
Definition
 wider - blue light is lower wavelength
Term
 inertial reference frame
Definition
 a set of coordinated axes that move at constant velocity relative to other inertial reference frams
Term
 the idea that laws of motionshould be the smae in all inertial reference frames is part of what theory of relativity?
Definition
 galilean
Term
 a lightbulb is connected to a 120V, 60Hz source. How many times per second does the current reverse direction?
Definition
 60Hz = 60 oscillations/s ... 1 oscillation reverses twice (sin curve)+120= 60 times-120 = 60 times120 times/sec
Term
 a european outlet supplies 220V at 50Hz. How many times/sec is the magnitude of the voltage equal to 220V?
Definition
 50 oscillations/sec+220 = 100 times-220 = 100 times200 times/sec
Term
 a spaceship traveling at 0.13c away from earth sends a radio transmission to earth. according to galilean relativity, at what speed would the transmission travel relative to earth? According to Einstein, at what speed does the transmission travel relative to earth?
Definition
 Galilean .. c-0.13c = 0.87cEinstein .. c - everything is at the speed of light
Term
 Phase change upon reflection occurs only when light comes from a material with a higher/lower index of refraction than the one it reflects off of.
Definition
 lower
Term
 an inverted wave is equivalent to a ___ phase shift
Definition
 lambda/2
Term
 michelson interferometer: if the interference is constructive, the light intensity at the detector is ____, if the interference is destructive, the light intensity at the detector is ____.
Definition
 large, zero
Term
 michelson interferometer: places where interference intesity is greatest is called ____, places where interference is zero are called ____.
Definition
 bright fringes, dark fringes
Term
 michelson interferometer: when the mirror is moved distance d, the distance traveled by the light changes by ___.
Definition
 2d
Term
 huygen's principle
Definition
 all points on a wave front can be thought of as new sources of spherical waves
Term
 Huygen's principle explains ___-slit interference
Definition
 single
Term
 in a diffraction grating, the width of the main peaks becomes wider/narrower as the number of slits increases
Definition
 narrower
Term
 rayleigh's criterion is used for?
Definition
 circular shaped apertures -- such as telescope lens
Term
 an inertial reference frame can be defined as one in which newton's ___ law holds. what implication does this create?
Definition
 firstwe can test for an inertial reference frame by observing the motion of a particle for which the total force is zero.
Term
 proper time
Definition
 measured by an observer at rest RELATIVE to the clock at hand... so if the clock is in motion, the person in motion has the proper time
Term
 light years
Definition
 if a star is 8.6 light years (ly) from earth, then it takes the light from the star 8.6 years to travel to earth
Term
 according to time dilation, moving clocks move faster/slower than stationary clocks
Definition
 slower
Term
 rest mass
Definition
 mo - for mass mesasured by an observer who is moveing very slowly relative to the particle -- rest mass is larger than regular mass
Term
 noninertial reference frame
Definition
 has non-zero acceleration
Term
 General relativity is based on the equivalence principle, which states that?
Definition
 the effects of a uniform gravitational field are identical to motion with constant acceleration
Term
 the laws of physics are the same/differ in different inertial frames
Definition
 same
Term
 one consequence of the equivalence principle
Definition
 light rays are deflected by a gravitational field
Term
 properties of waves and particles in the quantum regime
Definition
 all objects can exhibit interference, all objects carry energy in discrete amounts called quanta
Term
 photoelectric effect
Definition
 ejection of electrons from a metal after absorbing energy from light
Term
 ionization energy
Definition
 energy required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase
Term
 Pauli exclusion principle
Definition
 each electron in an atom occupies a separate energy level and thus has a unique set of quantum numbers
Term
 as the quantum number "n" increases, the average distance from the electron to the nucleus increases/decreases
Definition
 increases
Term
 n values are also called?
Definition
 shells (ex: n=2 shell)
Term
 the quantum number "l" is proportional to?
Definition
 the angular momentum of the electron
Term
 quantum number "l":l0 = s statel1 = p statel2 = d statel3 = f state
Definition
Term
 states with l=0 have ___ angular momentum
Definition
 zero
Term
 quantum number "m" gives the direction of the ______ of the electron in a particular state
Definition
 angular momentum
Term
 each quantum state can be occupied by how many electrons?
Definition
 1 (pauli exclusion principle)
Term
 strong force
Definition
 an attractive forece that acts between pairs of nuclei, responsible for the stability of the nucleus
Term
 RBE
Definition
 relative biological effectiveness
Term
 in ___ two nuclei join together to produce one new particle
Definition
 nuclear fusion
Term
 minimum amount of nuclear fuel material needed to sustain a chain reaction
Definition
 critical mass
Term
 a reaction whose main produces are two nuclei both roughly half the size of the original parent nucleus
Definition
 nuclear fission
Term
 photoelectric effect: current is proportional to ____
Definition
 intensity of light source
Term
 photoelectric effect: more photons yeild more ____
Definition
 photoelectrons
Term
 photoelectric effect: KE of photoelectrson does/doesn't depend on intensity of light source
Definition
 doesn't
Term
 photoelectric effect: KE of photoelectrons is proportional to the ___ of the light source
Definition
 frequency
Term
 photoelectric effect: higher frequency photons impart more/less neergy
Definition
 more
Term
 ____ in nuclear reactions is always conserved
Definition
 charge
Term
 for a nuclear reaction to occur spontaneously, the mass of the parts must be more/less than the mass of the whole
Definition
 less
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