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Undergraduate 1

Additional Sociology Flashcards






  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  • Written because of the horrors/human rights violations that occurred during WWII

  • Supported by Eleanor Roosevelt - major player in shaping the declaration

  • WWII ended in 1945

  • 1948 - adoption of UDHR

  • Not actually enforceable - more of a guideline

  • Spurred the development of other human rights doctrines such as ICCPR and ICESCR - which are enforceable



International Human Rights Covenant



  • 1966

  • Originally intended to be a single convent but it became two

    • ICCPR - International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    • International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights

  • Makes a few substantial revisions to the UDHR

  • Most notably adding a right of self-determination of peoples

  • However for the most part they follow and elaborate on the 1948 Declaration


International Human Rights Covenant



  • 1966

  • Originally intended to be a single convent but it became two

    • ICCPR - International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    • International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights

  • Makes a few substantial revisions to the UDHR

  • Most notably adding a right of self-determination of peoples

  • However for the most part they follow and elaborate on the 1948 Declaration




  • Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women

  • One of the 6 treaties that provide the core of international Human Rights law

  • International treaty adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly

  • Described as an international bill of rights for women

  • CEDAW committee consists of 23 experts on women's rights from around the world


Genocide; Sudan; Rwanda, Bosnia        



  • Genocide: involves the systematic killing and similar methods aimed at destroying, in whole or in part, a people or ethnic, or religious group

  • Involves the targeted mass political killing - politicide- against a group that may not be defined by common descent



    • Separatist SerbGenocide; Sudan; Rwanda, Bosnia s gained control of ⅔ of the territory of Bosnia

    • They perfected and popularized the strategy of ethnic cleansing, which had been introduced by Croatian Serbs the preceding year, which aimed to rid Serbian territory of Muslim (and Croat) residents through systematic terror and sporadic murde

    • Serbian military action was directed at civilians and soldiers - relief supplies blocked

    • Men routinely tortured/murdered often in masses

    • Women, children, and the elderly were sometimes shot, often physically abused or forced to flee

    • Serbian soldiers would rape young Muslim women to degrade them/shame their families

    • Out of 23 million ¼ of a million people were killed, 2 ½ left homeless

    • UN Security Council had imposed arms embargo on all parties and placed serbia under a comprehensive economic embargo

    • Special war crimes tribunal created

    • Peacekeepers sent to protect the civilians and facilitate humanitarian assistance.

    • Peace agreement signed in 1995

    • Initial responses reflected geopolitical concerns like keeping Yugoslavia in take and to prevent the breakup of the Soviet Union.



  • Rwanda


  • Ethnic conflict was the effect of Belgian colonial rule (who received Rwanda from Germany after WWII)

  • Belgians exacerbated tensions between 2 main groups in the territory: the majority Hutu and the minority Tutsi

  • Belgians used Tutsi elite as an instrument of colonial domination and provoked the Hutu majority resentment

  • 1959 as independence was approaching Hutu resentment turned into violent assertion of political dominance

    • About 20,000 Tutsis were massacred and another 200,000 were forced to flee

  • Prelude to genocide 1990 - Rwandan Patriotic Front made up of Tutsis living in refugee camps invaded Rwanda - Hutu dominated military government of Juvenal Habyarimana portrayed this attempt to reimpose Tutsu domination

  • Habyarimana government and its radical Hutu supporters established a network about 30,000. Government controlled Radio Mille Collines spread anti Tutsi propaganda

    • National cabinet down to local mayors made preparation for a massive organized campaign of violence against Tutsis and political opponents of the regime

  • Killings began when plane carrying the presidents of both Rwanda and Burundi were shot down

  • UN peacekeepers attempted to protect civilians - became targets themselves

  • Security council and refused reinforcements did  not want to call this an act of genocide


    • Sudan’s humanitarian crises go back to its colonial creation - combined a largely Arab and Muslim North with a largely black and christian and animist South.

    • 1956 received independence and was already in the midst of a civil war between North and South - ½ million people died in the 1st phase 2 million in 2nd phase

    • 2011 South Sudan peacefully success

    • However in the western region of Sudan (Darfur Conflict) a new conflict started because the population was majority non-Arab and non-Muslim - thousands were killed and more than 100,000 refugees left

    • Violence direct at non-Arab population was reminiscent of Serbian ethnic cleansing in Bosnia

    • 2 ½ a million people, 40%of the prewar population to glee and killed ⅓ of a million

    • Numerous efforts at cease fires and final resolutions were undertaken

    • Charges were brought in the International Criminal Court against leaders if the violence including sitting sitting president Omar al-Bashir and a peace agreement was signed by all major parties in Qatar - responses timid and unsuccessful.


Ethnic Cleansing                  


  • Is the genocidal purification of a population of a territory through murder and forced migration.


  • The mass expulsion or killing of members of an unwanted ethnic or religious group in a society.

  • Term used to describe the strategy and practices of Serbian separatists in the former Yugoslavian republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina during the civil war of 1992-1995


Humanitarian Intervention   


  • Is intervention almost always involving the use of force for humanitarian purposes typically in situation of genocide, armed conflict, or severe humanitarian conflict   


  • Driven by a combination of new geopolitical environment, in which rivalry between the superpowers no longer prevented humanitarian action and the usually brutal character of the “new wars” of the 1990s

  • Wars were usually within the states rather than between the states

  • Largely ignored the traditional distinctions between civilians and soldiers often intentionally targeting the civilian population of the other side


Apartheid in South Africa  


  • Apartheid: term meaning separateness

  • a distinctive style of unusually deep and wide ranging systematic racial domination

    • White privilege and domination

  • Remember Blacks lost the right to vote in 1936

  • The Population Registration Act of 1950 - cornerstone of apartheid, required racial registration of each person at birth

  • The Group Areas Act of 1950 - consolidates and extended earlier laws designating land by race

  • The 1954 Natives Resettlement Act provided for forced removals of blacks from white designated land

  • Illegal for most blacks to be in urban areas for more than 72 hours w/o special permission

    • Resulted in creation of secluded black townships with inferior housing, education, and special services

  • The 1953 Reservation of Separate Amenities Act removed the former legal requirement that racially segregated facilities  be equal

  • Total separation of white and non white


  • The struggle against the apartheid in South Africa was a struggle to change South Africa laws and practices so that average South Africans could turn to the legislature, courts, or bureaucracy should they be denied, for example equal protection of the law or political participation

  • The African National Congress (ANC) the leading political group

    • Pass law demonstrations - beginning of organized resistance .   

  • UN really became involved in S.A. after the 1960 Sharpeville Massacre, the shooting of 69 peaceful demonstrators

  • Security Council established a voluntary arms embargo - then in 1977 a mandatory embargo established after Steve Bikos murder and resulting riots

  • Created the Special Committee on Apartheid -campaign against apartheid

  • US Policy pressures and international pressures lead to the process of reform

    • Botha govt agreed to the abolition of apartheid


Political prisoners, torture



  • A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible. The term is used by persons or groups challenging the legitimacy of the detention of a prisoner

  • Navy Mechanics School (ESMA) in Buenos Aires

    • Torture

      • If the victims were women they would aim for the breasts, vagina, anus

      • If the victims were men they would aim for genitals, tongue, neck

      • Sometimes the victims twitched so uncontrollably they would shatter their own arms and legs

      • Children would be tortured in front of their parents

      • One woman was sent the hands of her daughter in a shoe box

      • The body of another woman was duped in her parents yard, naked but showing no outward signs of torture. Later the director of the funeral home called to inform her parents that girl’s vagina had been sewn up with a rat inside

      • Bodies were never recovered. At ESMA, corpses were initially buried under the sports field. When this was filled, the bodies were burned daily, at five thirty in the afternoon, usually after having been cut up with a chainsaw       


Iran-Contra scandal of 1980’s



  • Political scandal in the US during the second term of the Reagan Admin

    • Senior administration officers were secretly facilitating the sale of arms to Iran which was the subject of an arms embargo

  • The scandal began as an operation to free the seven American hostages being held in Lebanon by Hezbollah, a paramilitary group with Iranian ties connected to the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution

    • The plan was that Israel would ship weapons to Iran and then the US would resupply Israel and receive the Israeli payment

    • The Iranian recipients promised to do everything in their power to achieve the release of the US hostages   





  • 1963

    • Anastasio Somoza Garcia seized power and initiated what would be more than forty years of authoritarian family rule

      • Assassinated in 1956 and power was first passed to his son Luis Somoza Debayle and then to his younger son, Anastasio Somoza Debayle, who ruled until overthrown in 1979

      • Although the Somozas retained forms of democracy, elections were rigged and civil and political rights regularly violated. Economic and social rights were also systematically infringed, both through the predatory accumulation of immense personal wealth by the Somozas and their cronies and through disregard of social service

        • For example, in the early 1970s, the Nicaraguan govt spent three times as much on defense as on health care. Its neighbors typically spent equal amount on each

    • Massive corruption in the cleanup and recovery effort following 1972 earthquake in Managua, left around ten thousand dead and hundreds of thousands homeless, exacerbated and highlighted the endemic problems of inequality

    • Two years later, Somoza was reelected in a contest that even by Nicaraguan standards was farcical

    • In Jan 1978, the pace of disaffection accelerated after the assassination of Pedro Joaquin Chamorro, the leader of the moderate opposition

      • Even the business community turned against Somoza, under whom it had profited, organizing a general strike to protest Chamorro’s death - eighteen months later Somoza was forced into exile   

    • The revolution had immense human and economic costs

      • One fifth of Nicaragua’s population of roughly 2.5mil become refugees

      • Casualties included 40,000-50,000 people killed

        • 150,000 wounded

        • 40,000 orphaned

      • The war also disrupted agricultural production and most other sectors of the economy

    • Human rights conditions generally improved in the revolutionary Nicaragua

      • Sandinista govt increased spending on social programs, especially health care, and redirected spending for education toward mass literacy

        • Personal and legal rights were fairly widely respected

        • Internationally recognized civil liberties were extensively implemented for the first time in Nicaraguan history

        • Mass political participation was actively fostered, and the 1984 election was generally considered by outside observers to have been relatively open and fairly run

Manuel Noriega



  • Former Panamanian political and military officer

  • He was military dictator of Panama from 1983 to 1989, when he was removed from power by the US during the invasion of Panama

  • Noriega worked with the US CIA from the late 1950s until the 1980s

    • In 1988 grand juries in Tampa and Miami indicted him on US federal drug charges

    • The 1988 Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations concluded: "The saga of Panama's General Manuel Antonio Noriega represents one of the most serious foreign policy failures for the United States. Throughout the 1970s and the 1980s, Noriega was able to manipulate U.S. policy toward his country, while skillfully accumulating near-absolute power in Panama. It is clear that each U.S. government agency which had a relationship with Noriega turned a blind eye to his corruption and drug dealing, even as he was emerging as a key player on behalf of the Medellín Cartel (a member of which was notorious Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar)."


Child soldiers


Child soldiers are any children under the age of 18 who are recruited by a state or non-state armed group and used as fighters, cooks, suicide bombers, human shields, messengers, spies, or for sexual purposes.

Human trafficking


Article 3, paragraph (a) of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons defines Trafficking in Persons as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs   

Sexual slavery     



person, especially a woman or girl, who is confined and is raped, sexually abused, or forced to work as a prostitute

Education in India – “Barefoot College” film



  • The college is owned and run by the village

  • Incorporates real life situation in learning to apply to life

  • Children’s Parliament

    • Monitor and noticing what is going on

    • No child labor, marriage, and abuse

  • Fighting for women’s rights

    • Not relying on husbands

  • Teaching medical and technical training

  • Sanitary napkins for girls

  • Solo Engineers: Older women

  • Community radio cast run by older women

  • Having older women get training because they are more likely to come back to the village and help it thrive rather than the younger people

  • Various initiatives

    • People don't have to leave their homes

    • Help making the villages thrive

  • Biodiversity


Child labor in US (tobacco farms)



  • The whole family will go and work on the tobacco farms from sunrise to sunset

  • They do not get bathroom breaks

  • They are not provided with proper attire

    • They have to bring trash bags to wear

  • They are exposed to the toxins of the tobacco

  • Their fingers become black

  • They are always coughing and have to work in the heat


Video on North Korea (immigration to China)  



  • The women can only go shopping in groups so that no one can run off

  • N. Korea tries to appear healthy and wealthy

  • A lot of N. Koreans try to escape by going to China

    • A lot of them got caught and sent back

    • It is capital punishment to try to leave the country without documents

  • People tried to flee because of

    • Malnutrition

    • Oppression

  • They flee

    • In winter to go through when it is snowing

  • There are a lot of cameras and guard towers

    • Guards with dogs

  • 70% of all Korean refugees are women

    • Fall into the hands of human trafficking

      • Could be by N. Koreans or other Chinese

      • Sometimes sold in marriages or even into the prostitution nightlife

  • One of the best things to do after escaping is by getting into the church

    • But it is still risky bc of retribution

  • A lot of room for corruption for border guards

    • They get paid off

    • Drug smuggling

    • You can pay the guard off, but you might be told to transport materials

  • In the past 50 years, only 9k have made it

  • Family dictatorship

    • Every generation, the dictators are not as effective as the previous generation

  • N. Korea has the military capability       


North Korea’s Prison Camps



  • Conditions inside the N. Korea prisons are unsanitary and life-threatening

  • Prisons are subject to torture and inhumane treatment

  • Public and secret executions of prisons, even children, especially in cases of attempted escape are commonplace

  • Infanticide and infant killing upon birth also often occur

  • Mortality rate is very high, because many prisoners die of starvation, illnesses, work accidents, or torture

  • Even if children are born they have to be raised within the prison camps





a person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.      

Tiananmen Square uprising in China


  • 1989

    • The protests were triggered in April 1989 by the death of former Communist Party General SecretaryHu Yaobang, a liberal reformer who was deposed after losing a power struggle with hardliners over the direction of political and economic reforms

    • More than one hundred thousand students marched to Tiananmen Square.

      • New petitions called for even greater reforms

      • Three thousand students began a hunger strike

        • Held in front of Mao’s mausoleum, in the shadows of the monument to the martyrs of the Communist Revolution, it was a gesture of self-sacrifice

        • A thousand hunger strikers were hospitalized, more than a million protesters and onlookers jammed the streets around in and Tiananmen Square

      • By late spring, increasingly sophisticated and effective autonomous student organizations began to emerge

        • Students also received growing support from workers, businessmen, bureaucrats, and even some doliers


  • Martial law was declared in Beijing. Chinese troops fired on unarmed demonstrators and brutally crushed China’s emeerging democracy

Indigenous people (defined)    



  • Definition defines people in relation to the nation state - this may not fit all situations where people can be describes as indigenous  

    • Ex. if indigenous people gain state power

5% indiginous in world

Characteristics of indigenous groups


  • Indigenous people tend to be mobile (semi-nomadic or nomadic)

  • Tend to have communal ownership of valuable resources

  • Tend to have kinship based social structures

  • Tend to have relatively egalitarian social structures

  • Tend to control resources desired by the capitalist nation state


Processes of “Ethnocide”



  • Control of a frontier area - involves the use of torture, exploitation, etc.

  • Military intervention - establish indirect rule by installing local leaders and ruling through them

  • Land policies - the desire to control indigenous peoples resources


Indigenous people and Environment                



  • Environmental problems related to food production, oil extractions, and their effect on indigenous people

  • Critical theorists are critical of modernists and capitalist perspectives of nature which often evaluate nature only for its instrumental value

  • Horkheimer and Adorno - “the domination and exploitation of the environment leads to the domination and exploitation of humans

  • Herbert Marcuse - the idea of the liberation of nature

    • Advancing to the use of achievements of technological civilization for freeing men and nature from the destructive abuse of science and technology in the service of exploitation

  • Dunlap and Cotton - the process of Societal recognition of and definition of environmental issues as problems of importance.


Environmental racism



  • Bullard Definition

  • Any environmental policy or directive that differentially affects or disadvantages individuals, groups, or communities based on race or color.

  • Concept can also be applied to social classes - environmental classism




  • The Center's best known work is our 30 years of organizing and advocacy to win adoption of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The Declaration was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2007.


Group Project Topics1:

Drugs – cartels in Mexico, Colombia




    • Decline in Colombian cartels caused increase in Mexican Cartels since the 90s

    • 2006 former president Felipe Calderon declared war against drugs and cartels - policy is supported by the U.S. and DEA

    • Cartels make $10-$40 billion a year on drugs

    • Mexican “Drug War” has killed between 30,000 and 40,000 people - civilians, cartel henchmen, and federal employees

      • Cartels killed over 5,000 people (2005-2007)

    • 3 main sources of violence: intra-cartel disputes, inter-cartel rivalries, and the overall war that President Felipe Calderon's government is waging on the cartels

    • Fear of cartels = people abandoning homes = ghost towns throughout Mexico

    • Institute of Politics (IOP) - created in 2010 by Jean-Philippe Gauthier

      • mission  - to promote greater understanding and cooperation between the academic world of politics and public affairs

      • National Security Policy Group - part of the IOP policy program and initiative design helping students express their views and make recommendations on complex and pressing policy issues - ie health care

      • Team formed to analyze the current relationship between the US, Mexico, and the Mexican Drug Cartels, and issue policy recommendations based on findings

        • Mex. Govt must fight corruption at all government levels by revising its federal reelection process to create greater accountability mechanisms for politicians in office

        • Govt should strengthen its community level efforts by building strong communities - legitimate careers by subsidizing education.

    • CADCA - Community of Anti-Drug COalitions of America

      • 22 community coalitions that support drug prevention in Mex

      • Mission - prevent alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse

      • Educate communities focus on youth

    • Prohibition of Drugs in Colombia based on prohibition laws in US Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914 - prohibited production and sale of opiates and cocaine

      • Added weed, tobacco, and alcohol -1937

      • Became a campaign called War on Drugs

    • Powerful Colombian forces FARC, Guerilla Armies, ELN

    • FARC - Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionaria de Colombia

      • Kidnapping, control over territory/rural civilians, recruits of minors, supply world's 50% of cocaine - 60% of cocaine to US

    • ELN - National Liberation Army

      • More political than FARC, 1990s = Kidnappings, 2000s = drug trafficking

    • Right wing militaristic opponents to left wing guerilla armies

      • School of the Americas - responsible for political killings and left wing civilians

    • HR Violations in Columbia

      • Child recruitment, internal displacement, human trafficking, effects of paramilitary demobilization, Guerrilla abuses, public security abuses, reforms promoting immunity

    • NGO- International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

      • Mission - to protect the lives and dignity of victims of armed conflict and other situations of violence and to provide them assistance

    • UNASUR - The Union of South American Nations

      • Mission - provide unification and integration btwn S.America countries


Violence against Women – Pakistan, Bangladesh 2


  • Any act of gender based violence that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, or psychological; harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, whether in public or private life.

  • Gender violence - a form of gender based violence that reflects and perpetuates the inequality of women in society

  • Acid Survivors foundation (ASF) - NGO

    • Prevents acid and burn violence and empowers survivors especially women and children by working with an integrated approach , using a holistic model to engage all national and international stakeholders.

    • Association of Southeast Asian Nations - IGO _ declaration on the elimination of violence

Refugees – Syria, Burma

  • Syria and Myanmar

  • UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees) - IGO

  • Refugees International – NGO

Education – India, Africa

  • India

    • IGO – UNESCO – United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization

      • One out of nine students make it to college

      • Lowest education enrollment ratio of 11%

      • Receive the average of 1.8 years of school

    • NGO – Pratham

      • Supplement government efforts

  • Africa - Kenya

    • NGO – AET Africa Educational Trust

    • IGO – African Union

      • Agenda 2063

Censorship/Media – Eritrea, Israel


  • The suppression or prohibition of any parts of book, film, etc. that are considered inappropriate

  • IGO

    • CDT-Center for Democracy and Technology

      • CDT is a global online civil liberties and human rights organization, dedicated to driving policy outcomes that keep the internet open, innovative and free

        • Preserve the unique nature of the Internet

        • Enhance freedom of expression globally

        • Protect our fundamental right to privacy

        • Limit government surveillance

        • Define the boundaries of tech in our daily lives

      • Areas of ICESCR CDIT addresses

        • 2. Each state parties to the present covenant undertake to guarantee that the rights

      • Campaigns

        • Staff writers write press release to raise awareness of privacy invasion and freedom of expression

        • San Bernardino Shooting IPhone Situation

          • CDT is against apple unlocking the shooters phone

        • Surveillance on voters

          • Voters will give info to show support or join a campaign

          • Subject to surveillance

  • NGO

    • Article 19

      • Design and promote laws that protect freedom of expression and information

      • Advocate for legal reform

      • Assist the media with professional development

      • Hold govt and abusers of this freedom accountable

      • Defend victims

    • UDHR

      • Article 19

    • ICCPR

      • Article 19

        • Right to hold opinions

        • Freedom of expression – seek, receive info of all kinds

    • Zwelakhe Sisulu – 1988

      • South African editor was detained without trial by apartheid government

      • Art 19 campaigned on his behalf and was released in 1988

  • Contrast the Orgs.

    • CDT focuses primarily on technical issues of censorship

    • Advocates for rights of privacy

    • Both aim to protect freedom of self-expression on a global level

  • Israel

    • The freedom of press is relatively respected – ranked 101

    • However, media reports are subject to

      • Military censorship – any publications must go through military sensor

      • Gag order – any info under gag order should not be published

      • Editors committee – editors of media are told not publish secret info

    • Prisoner X – 2010

      • An Australian – Israeli died after being secretly incarcerated

      • The death kept secret

      • All three measures were taken

  • Eritrea

    • Ranked 180 in 2015 Freedom of Press Index

    • 9/2001 all independent media was shut down – no free or independent news media structures

    • Internet use is limited and controlled by the government and EriTel

    • No foreign reporters are granted access

    • In 11/2006, and 2/2009 Eritrea jailed 30 journalists – making it the largest jailer of journalist in Africa

    • Human Rights Organizations cannot provide help because of the limited knowledge of what is going on

  • Independent vs. Private

    • Depends on the countries

      • US has private media

        • Kinda/sorta has government media

          • Kind of independent

          • PBS has government funding, but not controlled


HIV/AIDS – India, Swaziland 3



  • HIV - Human Immunodeficiency Virus - attacks immune system specifically T cells

  • AIDS - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - describes HIV in an advances stage - 36.9 million people living with aids

  • Swaziland - 26% of pop aged between 15 and 49 = HIV positive

  • India - 3rd largest HIV epidemic rate in world

  • UNICEF - International Governmental Organization/United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund - IGO

    • Goal- advance the rights of children, adolescents and women to survival, growth, development, participation and protection by reducing inequality based on caste, ethnicity, gender, poverty, region or religion

  • World Health Organization (WHO) - IGO

    • Goal - to direct and coordinate authority on international health within the united nations system

  • Doctors without Borders -NGO

    • Goal - to help people worldwide by delivering emergency medical aid to people affected by conflict, epidemics, disasters, or exclusion from health care


Torture – Iraq, Chile 4


  • Convention against torture - torture is any act by which severe pain or suffering whether physical or mental is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a 3rd person info or a confession

  • Prohibition against torture

    • Bedrock principle of international law

    • Torture as well as inhuman, or degrading treatment is banned at all times, in all place, including war

    • No national emergency justifies use

    • No one may be returned to a place where they may face torture

    • Included acts causing mental suffering or threatening loved ones


  • NGOs

    • Center for Victims of Torture (CVT)

      • Healing services

      • Training services

    • Center for Mental Health and Human Rights (CINTRAS)

      • Offers psychotherapy

  • IGO

    • United Nations Committee against Torture (CAT)

      • A body of ten independent experts that monitors the implementation of the convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment by its state parties

      • Their aim is to prevent torture around the world

      • The convention was adopted by the UN General assembly on December 10, 1984.

      • UDHR Article 5: no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment

      • ICCPR Article 7: no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment that in particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experiment

      • The CAT requires that parties train their law enforcement on how to treat detainees or those in custody

      • The way that the committee works is mainly by monitoring and when people violate the the convention they then make recommendations for those countries with a timeline of when and how they should fix the issues

      • The constraints that the committee has is that they are able to address these issues of torture, but they are unable to really enforce anything. They can only give recommendations and address the issues and hope that the countries do as they are told

  • Iraq

    • Torture in Iraq

    • NGO Example

      • Social control

    • IGO Example

      • The CAT has reviewed the violations of the convention but has not enforced any of these actions

      • Iraq has not signed the treaty but they did ratify it on July 7, 2011

      • On July 2015 the committee reviewed the severe human rights violations committed by ISIS and gave recommendations on what the state party should do which is to investigate further and ensure that rules arent violated, but the committee is also concerned that Iraq’s legislation does not have clear provisions in accordance with prohibiting torture

      • The Iraqi govt responded by saying that they were very committed to promoting and protecting human rights and that they are drawing up plans to provide more safeguards, but they didnt really address the actual issue of ISIS and torture

      • In August of 2018, Iraq will go up against the committee again to give their reports on what they have changed

  • Chile

    • Methods of torture under Pinochet

      • Burned by cattle prod, mental stress, tied up with machine guns pointed at heads, forced to wear cloths of the deceased, electrocuted, water boarded, heads dunked in buckets or urine/excrement, suffocated, hanged by hands/feet, women raped

    • NGO Example

      • Relating methods of torture to the personal experience of Leila Perez

      • How CINTRAS has the resources and qualifications to help those who are suffering emotionally from the effects of Pinochet’s military dictatorship. Ties in the story of Leila Perez who has tortured by military on two separate occasions

        • Helps victims and their families move past feeling of guilt/shame from the humiliation they have endured

    • CAT and Chile

      • On Sep 23, 1987 Chile had signed the CAT and on Sep 30, 1988 they ratified it

      • May of 1991, Chile was under review for acts of torture violating the treaty. They have had meetings from 1991 to 2013 regarding Chile and what needs to be done

      • In March of 2009, the govt of Chile responded to the review. The Chilean govt said that their definition of torture is different therefore they arent in violation with the treaty, but they are taking steps to match the laws.

      • Chile was supposed to report to the committee again in December of 2013, but they didnt submit anything yet

  • Contrast

    • CVT seeks to ensure that the US offers safe haven to refugees fleeing persecution

      • CVT advocates for increasing access to high quality trauma rehabilitative services for survivors of torture and severe war atrocities

      • According to Human Rights Watch, Iraqi security forces clamp down violently against peaceful demonstrations for better services and an end to corruption. Indefinite detention and torture continue with impunity, especially for women and minorities

    • CINTRAS provides beneficiaries with interdisciplinary treatment, which requires the simultaneous

      • involvement of psychiatrists, psychologists, occupational therapists, family therapists, physiotherapists and social workers. This multi-faceted approach enables us to offer comprehensive solutions

    • Activities pursued by the Human Rights Office include: monitoring and reporting on the human rights situation, advocacy with the Government and other actors with responsibility for the promotion and protection of human rights, training of government officials, security forces and judicial personnel, human rights education and awareness-raising, and the training of members of civil society on ways and means to undertake human rights advocacy, monitoring and reporting.


Children’s rights – Rwanda, Palestine 5

  • CRC

    • Created to protect the rights of all the children in the world

  • Rwanda

    • NGO – Humanian

    • UDHR – Art 7

    • ICCPR – Art 7

    • IGO – UNICEF

    • ICCPR – Art 16

  • Palestine

    • NGO – MECA – Middle East Children’s Alliance

    • UDHR – Art 25

    • ICESCR Violation – Art 12

    • IGO – UNICEF

*Intergovernmental Organization (IGO) -treaty based organization of the states


*Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) - Private association of individuals/groups that engage in political activity

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