# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Final Mr. Rez
Final
175
Physics
Not Applicable
05/23/2008

Term
 The gravational force exerted by a large body, such as Earth, is
Definition
 weight
Term
 The period of simple pendulum depends upon
Definition
 the length of the pendulum
Term
 To resolve a force vector into its components, a set of perpendicular axes is drawn.  Then the ____ is drawn to scale at the correct angle
Definition
 resultant force
Term
 Ignoring air resistance, if a 10-kg ball and a 200-kg crate were both dropped from the top of a building, the acceleration of the crate would be ____ the acceleration of the ball
Definition
 equal to
Term
 The strongest force is
Definition
 strong nuclear force
Term
 Using ____ rise and run will result in the most accurate slope on a position-time graph
Definition
 the largest
Term
 An object is in equilibrium when
Definition
 the net sum of the forces are zero
Term
 The change in a runner's velocity with time is the runner's
Definition
 average acceleration
Term
 According to Newton's ____ law, an object with no net force acting on it remains at rest or in motion with a constant velocity
Definition
 first
Term
 Which of the following are the results of the work of physicists
Definition
Term
 One of the first European scientists to claim publicly that knowledge must be based on observations and experiments was
Definition
 Galileo Galilei
Term
 A hiker moves 15 km due east and then heads due north for 8 km.  What is the direction of the resultant
Definition
 northeast
Term
 When adding or subtracting measurements, first perform the operation and then round off the result to correspond to the ____ value involved
Definition
 least precise
Term
 Where would a pitcher have to aim a fast ball in order to have it pass at the height of the batter's chest
Definition
 just above the height of the batter's chest
Term
 The metric prefix that means 100 is
Definition
 hecto
Term
 What is indicated by a smooth, upward curving line on a graph
Definition
 a direct relationship between y and the square of x
Term
 Losing speed as you ride your bike uphill demonstrates Newton's ____ law
Definition
 second
Term
 The slope of a straight-line graph is the vertical change ____ the horizontal change
Definition
 divided by
Term
 The acceleration due to gravity of a free-falling object
Definition
 is always negative
Term
 Knowing the magnitudes of the hypotenuse of a right trangle and the side opposite angle theata, you could comput the ____ of angle theata
Definition
 sine
Term
 Why is the work of theoretical physicists in superconductivity not finished?
Definition
 There is no complete explanation of how new superconducters work.
Term
 The BCS theory was developed to explain how
Definition
 superconductors work
Term
 The equilibriant force is ____ the resultant
Definition
 equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to
Term
 Two teams in a tug of war exert the same amount of force on eachother and the rope does not move.  Newton's ____ law explains why the rope does not move.
Definition
 first
Term
 To produce mechanical resonance, the time between applied forces must equal the ____ of the object
Definition
 period
Term
 For an object moving with circular motion, the direction of centripetal acceleration is
Definition
 toward the center of the circle
Term
 The degree of exactness to which the measurement of a quantity can be reproduced is called
Definition
 precision
Term
 Which of the following is called the language of physics?
Definition
 mathematics
Term
 If the force of gravity on a balloon is 3000 N, and the lift force provided by the atmosphere is 3300 N, in which direction is the net force acting?
Definition
 upward
Term
 The attractive force that acts between all objects is
Definition
 gravitational force
Term
 A child on a bicycle rides eastward past a house, as a car, also traveling eastward, slowly passes.  Which of the following people would preceive the biker as having the greatest velocity?
Definition
 a person in the house
Term
 If the horizontal component of a force is positive, then, by convention, the force acts
Definition
 to the right
Term
 In scientific notation, a number between 1 and 10 is multiplied by
Definition
 a whole-number power of 10
Term
 On a velocity-time graph, the slope of the tangent to the curve at a given point is the
Definition
 instantaneous acceleration
Term
 To avoid parallax errors, laboratory instruments should be read
Definition
 at eye level
Term
 Newton's ____ law states that the acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the net force on it and inversely proportional to its mass
Definition
 second
Term
 In trajectory motion, the initional horizontal velocity is ____ the final horizontal velocity
Definition
 equal to
Term
 An equation is wrong if both sides contain
Definition
 different units of measure
Term
 An object in circular motion travels a distance of ____ during its period
Definition
 2(Pi)R
Term
 In projectile motion, the rising and falling times of the object are equal if the launching position is ____ the landing position
Definition
 at the same height as
Term
 Absolute zero is the
Definition
 lowest possible temperature for matter
Term
 A cyclist finishes a 100-km race in 2.7 hours.  The average velocity
Definition
 equals the displacement divided by the total time
Term
 The slope of a position-time graph is the ____ of an object
Definition
 velocity
Term
 The dock worker walks up a plank at constant speed.  The frictional force that keeps the worker from slipping is equal in magnitude to the
Definition
 force parallel to the plank
Term
 The ____ of any point on a velocity-time graph equals the instantaneous velocity at the time
Definition
 vertical value
Term
 The effects of the resultant vector is ____ the effect of the original vectors
Definition
 the same as
Term
 If the average velocity of an object is the same for all time intervals, then the object moves at a(n)
Definition
 constant velocity
Term
 A child lets go of a ball at the top of a driveway.  The instantaneous acceleration of the ball as the child lets go is
Definition
 negative
Term
 Mass and weight are related by
Definition
 the force of gravity
Term
 Distance is a quantity that
Definition
 has only magnitude
Term
 A variable that can be manipulated in an experiment is
Definition
 an independent variable
Term
 Suppose an object is dropped from a moving train.  The time it takes to fall
Definition
 is independent of the observer's position
Term
 Suppose you pull a wagon along a horizontal sidewalk.  The force that pulls the wagon forward over the sidewalk is the ____ force
Definition
 horizontal component
Term
 The downstream velocity of a river that flows south ____ a boat's eastward velocity
Definition
 has no effect
Term
 The displacement of an object moving with a constant acceleration can be calculated by
Definition
 multiplying the sum of the initial and final velocitites by the time interval and dividing by 2
Term
 A dock worker pulls a trunk up a plank and accidentally lets go of it.  The trunk begins to slide down the plank.  When is the friction between the trunk and the plank at its maximun?
Definition
 just as the worker lets go of the trunk
Term
 The effect of air resistance on the tail of a kite is ____ the effect of air resistance on the body of the kite
Definition
 less than
Term
 When the displacement of an object with simple harmonic motion is greatest, the acceleration has a
Definition
 maximun value
Term
 A runner is 5.0 km east of another runner, who is 5.0 km east of a parking lot.  The parking lot is
Definition
 a reference point for both runners
Term
 If air resistance is ignored, the displacement of a falling object is
Definition
 directly proportional to the square of time
Term
 The vertical change in position of an object that is dropped and that of and identical object that is thrown horizontally from the same height
Definition
 is the same
Term
 The area under the curve on a velocity-time graph equals the
Definition
 displacement from the origional position to its position at time t
Term
 Constant acceleration on a velocity-time graph produces a curve that is
Definition
 a straight line
Term
 In Greenland, the acceleration due to gravity is ____ the acceleration due to gravity at Earth's equator
Definition
 greater than
Term
 A surprising aspect of physics is that its results can be described by a small number of relationships, or
Definition
 laws
Term
 Difficulty in pushing a large crate from rest involves
Definition
 static friction
Term
 The slope of the tangent on a position-time graph equals the
Definition
 instantaneous velocity
Term
 The area under a curve on a velocity-time graph for an object moving with a uniform acceleration is the ____ of that object
Definition
 displacement
Term
 Aristotle and his followers were mainly concerned with finding out
Definition
 why specific events occur
Term
 As the angle of an inclined plane increases, the parallel force ____ and the perpendicular force ____
Definition
 increases, decreases
Term
 When multiplying quantities expressed in scientific notation (m x 10n) that have different exponents, you multiply the values of m and ____ the exponents
Definition
Term
 On a position-time graph, the velocity equals
Definition
 the rise divided by the run
Term
 Which of the following best describes the relationship between the final and initial velocities of a uniformly accelerating object?
Definition
 The final velocity increases as the initial velocity increases
Term
 If you push against a wall, the wall pushes back against you with ____ force
Definition
 equal
Term
 When the drag force on an object equals the force of gravity, ____ occurs
Definition
 terminal velocity
Term
 A toy rocket is launced straight up into the air.  When the rockey reaches its maximum height, its velocity is
Definition
 at its minimum
Term
 Aristotle believed that all matter was composed of
Definition
 four elements
Term
 The fundamental SI unit for time is the
Definition
 second
Term
 When adding vectors graphically, the direction and length of each vector must
Definition
 not be changed
Term
 A toy rocket is launched straight up into the air.  The total displacement upon landing is
Definition
 zero
Term
 To solve the equation vt=d for t,
Definition
 divide both sides of the equation by v
Term
 When vectors are resolved into components on an inclined plane, the ____ force is the one that acts along the incline
Definition
 parallel
Term
 A runner traveled 15 km east then backtracked 11 km before stopping.  The displacement from the original position is
Definition
 +4.0 km
Term
 When constructing a graph from data, the range of the x-axis is determinded by the range of the
Definition
 independent variable
Term
 For an object moving along a trajectory, the horizontal acceleration of an object ____ as the position changes
Definition
 is constant
Term
 A runner is 5.0 km east of another runner, who is 5.0 km east of a parking lot.  Where is the first runner with respect to the parking lot?
Definition
 +10.0 km from the lot
Term
 Physics is the study of
Definition
 matter and energy
Term
 A graph that is a hyperbola represents ____ relationship
Definition
 an inverse
Term
 For an accelerating object, the slope on a position-time graph
Definition
 changes with time
Term
 As the angle of an inclined plane increases, the acceleration of an object approaches
Definition
 9.80 m/s2
Term
 Vectors can be added in any order as long as the
Definition
 tail of one vector is placed at the head of another vector
Term
 Metals such as copper can be pounded into thin sheets due to
Definition
 electromagnetic force
Term
 Momentum can be calculated by multiplying mass by
Definition
 velocity
Term
 On the Kelvin temperature scale, what is the freezing point of water?
Definition
 273.15
Term
 If thermal energy is added to equal masses of substances, they will show different changes in temperature because their ____ are different
Definition
 specific heats
Term
 When a golf club hits a golf ball, the change in momentum of the ball is ____ the change in momentum of the club
Definition
 equal to
Term
 The amount of heat needed to melt one kilogram of a substance is called that substance's
Definition
 heat of fusion
Term
 How much work is done if you raise a 6.0-N weight 1.5m above the ground?
Definition
 9.0 J
Term
 The SI unit of pressure is the
Definition
 pascal
Term
 The ____ states that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection
Definition
 law of reflection
Term
 Anything that has mass is surrounded by
Definition
 a gravitational field
Term
 A change in the kinetic energy of an object is equal to the
Definition
 new work done on the object
Term
 At sea level, if the area of a surface increases, the pressure of the atmosphere on the surface
Definition
 remains the same
Term
 Which of the following objects is not being used as a simple machine?
Definition
 a stick used to hold up a wilted plant
Term
 Which form of thermal energy transfer is most effective in fluids?
Definition
 convection
Term
 The energy that flows as a result of a difference in temperature is
Definition
 heat
Term
 Any object that has energy has the ability to
Definition
 produce a change
Term
 The total amount of energy in an isolated, closed system
Definition
 remains constant
Term
 According to ____, an imaginary line from the sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals
Definition
 Kepler's second law of planetary motion
Term
 As the distance between two bodies increase, the force of attraction between the bodies
Definition
 decreases
Term
 The buoyant force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid is equal to
Definition
 the weight of the displaced fluid
Term
 As heat is applied to a sample of water at 1 C, the volume of the water
Definition
 decreases
Term
 In his example, Cavendish was able to determine
Definition
 the value of G
Term
 Two moving objects collide and move apart on paths that are 120* apart.  The total momentum of the objects after the collision is ____ the total momentum before the collision
Definition
 equal to
Term
 When waves spread our around the edge of a barrier, ____ occurs
Definition
 diffraction
Term
 If an object moving at a rate of 20 m/s collides with a stationary object and the two objects move away together, the velocity of the combined objects will be
Definition
 less than 20 m/s
Term
 When a golf club hits a golf ball, the change in velocity of the ball is ____ that of the club
Definition
 greater than
Term
 Surface tension is the result of ____ forces within a liquid
Definition
 cohesive
Term
 An object has energy caused by its motion.  This is
Definition
 kinetic energy
Term
 According to Einstein's general theory of relativity
Definition
 mass causes space to be curved
Term
 The total increase in thermal energy of a system is the work done on it ____ the heat added to it
Definition
 plus
Term
 A(n) ____ transmits energy without transferring matter
Definition
 sound wave
Term
 The hotness of a body it its
Definition
 temperature
Term
 For an idea machine
Definition
 efficiency is always 100%
Term
 In which of the following situations is work done on the football by gravity?
Definition
 dropping the ball
Term
 When a force is exerted on an object, work is done only if the object
Definition
 moves
Term
 The transfer of energy by mechanical means is
Definition
 work
Term
 The shortest time interval during which wave motion repeats is the
Definition
 period
Term
 Astronauts in an orbiting space shuttle experience a sensation of weightlessness because
Definition
 the space shuttle is falling freely toward Earth
Term
 A(n) ____ is produced during destructive interference of waves
Definition
 node
Term
 Unlike work, heat is energy transferred because of
Definition
 a difference in temperature
Term
 A system is said to be closed if
Definition
 objects cannot enter or leave it
Term
 Vibrating bells produce ____ waves
Definition
 traveling
Term
 Waves on banjo strings are ____ waves
Definition
 transverse
Term
 During constructive interference, the individual wave pulses
Definition
 retain their original sizes and shapes
Term
 If no net force acts on a body
Definition
 the velocity of the body is constant
Term
 The gravitational potential energy of an object close to Earth is directly related to
Definition
 both the mass and the height of the object
Term
 If 25 g of hot water are added to 35 g of cold water, the heat lost by the hot water is ____ the heat gained by the cold water
Definition
 equal to
Term
 The state of matter in which atoms become torn apart is
Definition
 plasma
Term
 When you throw a ball up into the air, the total energy of the ball at any point in its flight can be expressed as kinetic energy ____ potential energy
Definition
 plus
Term
 If two bodies meet in an elastic collision, the total KE of the bodies before the collision is ____ the total KE of the bodies after the collision
Definition
 equal to
Term
 Which of the following make up a complex machine?
Definition
 a lever and a pulley
Term
 In which of the following situations is no work done on a football?
Definition
 carrying the football down the field
Term
 Dropping a stone into water will produce a(n)
Definition
 single wave pulse
Term
 Pressure can be calculated as force ____ area
Definition
 divided by
Term
 During its orbital period, as a planet moves closer to the sun, the orbital velocity of the planet
Definition
 increases
Term
 The speed of any mechanical wave depends on
Definition
 the medium through which it travels
Term
 The kinetic energy of a boulder weighting 50.0 N perched on the edge of a cliff 25.0 m high is
Definition
 0 J
Term
 As an object falls toward Earth, the potential energy of the object
Definition
 decreases
Term
 If the mechanical advantage of a machine is less than 1
Definition
 effort force is greater than resistance force
Term
 Which of these is NOT needed to find the kinetic energy of an object?
Definition
 its shape
Term
 If an object with a velocity of 50 m/s has the same momentum as that of a 10-kg mass having a velocity of 20 m/s, the mass of the object is
Definition
 less than 10 kg
Term
 An internal force ____ the total momentum of a system
Definition
 does not change
Term
 According to Newton's law of universal gravitation, the force of attraction between any two masses is directly related to
Definition
 the product of the two masses
Term
 When light from the air enters a body of water, some of the energy moves back into the air as a(n) ____ wave
Definition
 reflected
Term
 The change in the direction of waves at the boundary between two different media is
Definition
 refraction
Term
 In which of the following situations is work done on the football by a person?
Definition
 picking up the football
Term
 The greatest change in momentum will be produced by
Definition
 a large force acting over a long time
Term
 When a golfer hits a golf ball, the force exerted by the ball on the club is ____ that exerted by the club on the ball
Definition
 equal to
Term
 One definition of power is
Definition
 work done per unit time
Term
 The number of complete vibrations per second is the
Definition
 frequency
Term
 Using an idea machine, a worker exerts an effort force of 5.0 N to move a 12.0-N weight a distance of 3.0 meters.  The effort distance is
Definition
 greater than 3.0 meters
Term
 According to Bernoulli's principle, as the velocity of a fluid increases
Definition
 the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases
Term
 The process by which matter changes state from a gas to a liquid is
Definition
 condensation
Term
 A heat engine converts
Definition
 thermal energy to mechanical energy
Term
 When heated, only matter in the solid state exhibits
Definition
 linear expansion
Term
 A crystal lattice is a characteristic of many
Definition
 solids
Term
 According to Pascal's principle, any change on a confined fluid
Definition
 is transmitted unchanged througout the field
Term
 A machine with a mechanical advantage greater than one
Definition
 increases effort force
Term
 If the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up a liquid increases
Definition
 the temperature of the liquid increases
Term
 An object that is deformed by a force and returns to its original form when the force is removed shows the property of
Definition
 elasticity
Term
 The shortest distance between two points on a wave where the watve pattern is repeated is the
Definition
 wavelength
Term
 When two objects are at thermal equilibrium
Definition
 they are at the same temperature
Term
 Impusles can be represented by
Definition
 FΛt
Term
 The disorder in a system is known as
Definition
 entropy
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