# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Final Exam Research Methods
THE END IS NEAR
78
Criminology
11/13/2012

## Additional Criminology Flashcards

Term
 What is a population?
Definition
 entire set of individuals of interest
Term
 What is a sample?
Definition
 Set of individuals selected from a population.Intended to represent the population.
Term
 sampling terminology - element
Definition
 who or what are we studying.
Term
 sampling terminology - population
Definition
 whole group
Term
 sampling terminology - study population
Definition
 where the sample is selected
Term
 sampling terminology - sampling frame
Definition
 actual list of units to be selected
Term
 sampling terminology - parameter
Definition
 summary description of a given variable in a population
Term
 sampling terminology - statistic
Definition
 summary description of a given variable in a sample, we use sample statistics to make estimates or inferences of population parameters.
Term
 sampling error
Definition
 difference between the characteristics of a sample and characteristics from which it was drawn.- ALWAYS A SAMPLING ERROR
Term
 representative sample
Definition
 looks like the population from which it was selected in all respects that are potentially relevant to the study; distribution is similar and not over or under represented.
Term
 what are the two general categories in sampling?
Definition
 Probability:a method of selection in which each member of a population has a known chance or probability of being selected.Non-Probability:a method of selection other than a probability sample
Term
 what does probability sampling estimate?
Definition
 how close our statistic is to the parameter.
Term
 probabilty sampling - confidence interval
Definition
 +/- reported in news or on tv
Term
 probability sampling - confidence level
Definition
 tells us the degrees of certaintyhow often are you willing to be wrong?
Term
 simple random sampling
Definition
 every member of a population is listed and members are then randomly selected for questioning.
Term
 systematic sampling
Definition
 every member of a population is listed and every Kth member is then selected.
Term
 stratified sampling
Definition
 the total population is divided into groups (or strata) and then members of each group are randomly selected.- political survey- allocation of resources within a university
Term
 disproportionate stratified sampling
Definition
 deliberately drawing a sample that over or under represents some characteristics of a population.may do this to ensure that we obtain a sufficient number of uncommon cases in our sample.- violent crime in rural areas vs. large cities
Term
 multi-stage cluster sampling
Definition
 the entire population is divided into groups- a random sample of these clusters is selected and all units within selected clusters are measured.- may do this because it is sometimes cheaper and more convenient to sample the entire population randomly.- especially when population elements are spread over a wide area.
Term
 multistage cluster sampling
Definition
 useful when sampling frame is not available- compile a stratified group (cluster), sample it, then subsample that set.
Term
 how is stratified sampling, disproportionate stratefied sampling, and  multi-stage cluster sampling different?
Definition
 in stratified sampling, SOME members of ALL groups are selected.- in disproportionate stratified sampling SOME members of ALL groups are selected, but some groups will have a higher proportion of members sampled than others.- in multistage cluster sampling, SOME members of SOME groups are selected.
Term
 nonprobability sampling methods
Definition
 availabilityquotapurposivesnowball
Term
 availability sampling
Definition
 available and easy to findconvenienceconducting preliminary study- no systematic technique- sample not representative of any population
Term
 quota sampling
Definition
 quotas are set to ensure sample characteristics are proportionate to their prevalence in population.- similar to stratified probability sampling-- less rigorous and precise in selection-- more similar to availability
Term
 Purposive sampling
Definition
 each element selected for a purpose- use of judgment in whom to select-- targeting knowledgable people-- targeting certain offenders
Term
 snowball sampling
Definition
 hard to reach and hard to find populations- interconnected populations- gaining elements through informants
Term
 What are examples of collections of information from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions?
Definition
 self-administered surveysin-person interview surveystelephone surveys
Term
 survey research in social sciences is an efficient method for data collection for?
Definition
 counting crimeself-reportsperceptions and attitudespolicy proposalstargeted victim surveysother evaluation uses
Term
 why is survey research popular?
Definition
 versatileefficientgeneralizable
Term
 how do you conduct research?
Definition
 establish goals of projectdetermine your samplechoose survey methodologycreate questionnairepre-test the questionnaireconduct interviews and enter dataanalyze the data
Term
 pros and cons of self-administered surveys
Definition
 procan get a large sample sizegood for sensitive issueslow costconinflexiblelow response rateelectronic - acquiring a sampling frame
Term
 pros and cons of in person interview
Definition
 prohigh response rategood if literacy is an issuehigh completion rateconhigh costreliability issues- interviewer training is a must!
Term
 pros and cons of phone interviews
Definition
 prointerviewer convenienceability to monitor interviewersgood if literacy is an issuelow costconease of "hang up" for intervieweereliability issues- interviewer training is a must!
Term
 questionairre construction (types of questions)
Definition
 open-endedrestricted (close-ended)partially open-endedrating scale
Term
 contingency questions are?
Definition
 relevant only to some respondents- answered only based on their previous response- uses filter questions and a skip pattern
Term
 matrix questions are?
Definition
 same set of answer categories used by multiple questions
Term
 how do you maximize the validity?
Definition
 write clear, meaningful questions.respondents choices should be naturally exclusive.response categories should be exhaustive.respondents must be willing and able to answer.short items are best.avoid biased items and terms
Term
 potential issues with questions
Definition
 question order effectassumption of knowledgeleading questionsdouble-barrled questionsresponse sets
Term
 this is an example of? "do you agree with this statement?"   a. the chinese govt. should be allowed to set limits on how much american industry can sell in china. yes/no b. the amerian govt. should be allowed to set limits on how much chinese industry can sell in the U.S. yes/no
Definition
 question order effect example
Term
 this is an example of?   - do men and women differ in their self-image? - do you support the current interpretation of the miranda decision?
Definition
 assumption of knowledge
Term
 this is an example of?   do you still beat your spouse? did you exercise your duty as a citizen and report this incident to police?
Definition
Term
 this is an example of?   is it important that an online shopping website be ethically pleasing and provide devoted detailed information about the company?   how would you rate the cleanliness and service at xxx?
Definition
 double-barrled question
Term
 favoring a certain response, like the letter "c" is an example of?
Definition
 response sets
Term
 how do you gain cooperation?
Definition
 cover letter.increase response rate and honesty.make it credible and personalizedtiming.avoid holiday seasons.household v. business surveysinterviewer.confident/assertive.business-like.people-person
Term
 what are 5 aspects of interviewer behavior?
Definition
 presenting the studyasking the questionprobingrecording answersinterpersonal relations
Term
 pros and cons of survey research
Definition
 prohigh on reliability.same survey goes out to everyone.especially true for computer-assisted interviewingconlow on validity.hard to get the real content you're after.not as accurate as observing directly
Term
 quantitative vs. qualitative
Definition
 quantitativeconduct experiments, evaluate policy innovations.data is in the form of numbers and can be statistically analyzedqualitativetheory - or hypothesis-generating activity.data is in the form of words, pictures, or objects
Term
 field research is appropriate to which topics?
Definition
 ones that seem to defy quantification
Term
 what kind of perspective does field research adopt?
Definition
 comprehensive perspective.often no precisely defined hypothesis.verstehen approach (FAE)..researcher attempts to understand phenomena from the standpoint of the actors
Term
 What kind of theory is involved with field research?
Definition
 grounded theory.theory is developed during the data gathering
Term
 characteristics of participant observation
Definition
 .demands on time and personal cost.observer must attempt to operate mentally on two different levels-becoming an insider-remaining an outsider.observer must avoid over socialization or "going native"
Term
 complete participant
Definition
 researcher not only joins in, but actually begins to manipulate the direction of group activity
Term
 participant-as-observer
Definition
 researcher makes presence known and tries to objectively observe group activities
Term
 observer-as-participant
Definition
 research makes presence known but does not actively participate
Term
 complete observer
Definition
 researcher observes without becoming a participant
Term
Definition
 access to formal organizations.find a sponsor.write a letter to the executive director.arrange a phone call.arrange a meetingaccess to subcultures.find an informant, use that person as your "in".snowball sampling is useful
Term
 two issues with samplign in field research
Definition
 to what extent are the situations available for observation representative of the general phenomena you wish to describe and explain?- are your actual observations within those total situations representative of all observations?
Term
 sampling dimensions in field research -population
Definition
 variation in behavior and characteristics
Term
 sampling dimensions in field research - space
Definition
 variation in behavior and physical characteristics of locations
Term
 sampling dimensions in field research - time, micro
Definition
 .variations in behavior by time of day, day of week, .lighting by time of day.business, store, entertainment.activities by time of day, day of week
Term
 sampling dimensions in field research - time, macro
Definition
 variations in behavior by season, holidayentertainment by season, holiday
Term
 sampling dimensions in field research - weather
Definition
 variations in behavior by weather
Term
 recording observations
Definition
 cameras and sound recorders.actions.conversationsfield notes.first sketchy notes and then rewrite in detail.include "unimportant details".mnemonics.time working on field notes:time in field = 4:1structured observations.like a closed-ended questionnaire.environmental surveys
Term
 environmental surveys are?
Definition
 structured observations in the field and recorded on specially designed forms.record what an observer sees in the field.what is the situation in which this is taking place?.Not describing interactions. Just what you are seeing in the environment .Different ways to study actions: Descriptive analysis sheet, frequency sheet, interval recording sheet
Term
 advantages of field research
Definition
 .provides great depth of understanding.less prejudgment, more flexible.more appropriate than surveys to measure behavior.high validity
Term
 disadvantages of field research
Definition
 .low reliability.generalizability low.time consuming.typically can't use probability sampling.ethical dilemmas.observer bias
Term
 illustrations of field research
Definition
 .on being sane in insane places.performances of identity: urban minority youth and a multicultural venture in growing up americano.private lives of go-go dancers.Complete observer situation: observing but not participating. -Not interacting with the people you are studying..Observer as participant/participant as observer: - mix of participation and observationâ€¦.duhhhh
Term
 what are the two type of analyses?
Definition
 analyzing previously collected data.data from agency records- agency records.data from other researchers- secondary datacontent analyses.analyzing social artifactsNIJ â€“ National institute of justice was one of first agencies to make data published by them available to the public.
Term
 data sources - primary data sources
Definition
 data collected first hand
Term
 data sources - secondary data sources
Definition
 data that has already been collected.secondary data analyses- the reanalysis of data that were originally gathered or compiled for other purposes.access-freedom of information act-- unless essential to national security, data should be available for legitimate research
Term
 seondary analysis - sources
Definition
 .other researchers.sources of agency records- published data- nonpublic agency records- new data collected by agency staff
Term
Definition
 cheapfastbenefit from work of skilled researcherstypically no IRB
Term
Definition
 .data might not be appropriate to your research question.least useful for evaluation studies.CANNOT make causal inferences
Term
 units of analysis of agency records
Definition
 .beware of match or mismatch between units of analysis.you can go- individual -> aggregate.you cannot go- aggregate -> individual-- danger of committing ecological fallacy
Term
 Limitations of agency records
Definition
 data have been gathered for agency purposes, not research.record keeping is a social process.misinterpretation of codes.incomplete datareliability and validity issues.changes in operational definitions of key terms over time.changes in procedures over time.data entry errors
Term
 researchers using secondary data must be able to answer:
Definition
 what were agencies goals in collecting data?who was responsible for data collection and what were their qualifications?what data were collected to and what were they intended to measure?when was the information collected?what methods were used for data collection?how if information organized?- are there identifiers that are used to identify the different types of data available on the same case?how consistent are the data with data available from other sources?what is known about the success of the data-collection effort?- how are missing data indicated?- what kind of documentation is available?
Term
 content analysis is?
Definition
 systematic studying of messages.well suited to answer "who said what, to whom, why, how, and with what effect?".a method for quantifying behavior must be defined
Term
 how to do a content analysis?
Definition
 determine your research question.manifest content- visible, surface content.latent content - underlying meaningdetermine your:.universe.units of analysis and sampling frame.sampledetermine your operational definitions.exhaustive.mutually exclusive.derived from one conceptual frameworkdetermine your observers.blind to purpose of study.have to check inter-rate reliabilitycode and analyze the darn thing!
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