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Final EXAM
so ready to get this crap ova
Undergraduate 1

Additional Psychology Flashcards









around age 60 the lens loses its capacity to adjust to objects at varying distances entirely, a conditon called presbyopia(literally, "old eyes)


although some conditions run in families and may be hereditary, most are age-related, a condition called presbycusis("old hearing") - thought i'd throw this in because they are so similar, think she use this one to throw us off.


--by age 50, the accommodative ability of the lens is 1/6 of what it was at age 20."eye"



The midlife transition in which fertility declines

- in women, it brings an end to reproductive capacity; in men, by contrast, fertility diminishes but is retained.

-menopause follows 10-year climacteric

-age range extends from about 40- to late 50's

-earliest in non-childbearing women, smokeres

Drops in estrogen

-shorter monthly cycles,from about 28 to about 23, more irregular then stops

Can cause problems

-sexual functioning

-cholesterol-lost is estrogens ability to help protect against accumulation of plaque on the walls of the arteries, by boosting "good cholesterol" high density lipoprotein.

Best predictor of sexual frequency

-the best predictor of sexual frequency is marital happiness, an association that is probably bidirectional.

-More likely to occur in good marriages

-couples who have sex often in early adulthood continue to do so in midlife.

-slight dron in frequency among married couples

   *continue patterns from early adulthood

   *more sex is good marriages

-slight intensity of response declines

    *slower arousal due to climacteric

     *partner may seem less attractive

-sexy still important, enjoyable to most

-gender differences in partner availability

Prostate Cancer

-survival rates are relatively high

-leading malignancy for men

-scheduling annual medical checkups and learning risk factors

   *change in bowel or bladder habits, a sore that doesnt heal

    *unusal bleeding/discharge, thickening or lump in your body

    *ingestion or swalloing difficulty, change in wart/mole

    *nagging cough or hoarseness

-linked to higher SES

Type A Vs. Type B personalities

hostility and anger might have negative effects on health in a centuries-old idea.

type a- extreme competitiveness,ambition,impatience,hostility, angry  outburst and a sense of time pressure.

*Type A's are more than twice as likely as Type B's (people with a more relaxed disposition) to develop heart disease.


-hostility "Toxic" consistenly predicts heart disesase and other health problems in both men and women

-Repeatedly suppressing overt anger or ruminating about past anger-provoking events is also associated with high blood pressure and heart disease.

-expressed hostility-

frequent angry outbursts, rudeness, contempt, disagreeable verbal, and nonverbal behavior

Problem-centered vs. emotion-centered coping

two general strategies for coping with stress

-problem-centered in which you appraise the situation as changeable, indentify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it.


-emotional is internal, private and ained at controlling distress when little can be done about a situation.


*Longitudinal research shows that adults who effectively reduce stress move flexibly between problem-centered and emotion techniques, depending on the situation. Their approach is deliberate, thoughtful and respectful of themselves and others. In contrast, ineffective coping is largely emotion and either impulsive or escapist.

Double standard of aging

- aging men rated more positively;women more negatively

-evolutionary roots, media, social messages

-heart of the double standard

 *smooth skin, good muscle tone and lustrous hair

-Appears to be declining

*new positive models replacing old ideas

Crystalized vs. Fluid Intelligence

crystalized- refers to skills tthat depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgement, mastery of social conventions- abilities acquired because they are valued by the individuals culture.

- intelligence tests,vovabulary general information, verbal comprehension and logical reasoning


fluid- depends more heavily on basic information processing skills ability to detect relationships among visual stimuli, speed of analyzing information and capacity of memory

*spacial visualization, digit span, letter- number sequencing and symbol search

Neural Network View

as neurons in the brain die, breaks in neural networks occur. the brain adapts by forming bypasses- new synaptic connections that go around the breaks but are less efficient.


Infomation- Loss View

*information lost at each step through cognitive systems

* whole system slows down to inspect, interpret information

Mid life College student

-45% of college student over age 25

         *60% are women

-Diverse reasons:

*job change, better income

*life transition

*self-enrichment, achievement


*academic abilites

*stereotypes about age

*role overload


-extensive, high organized knowledge base

-provides efficient, effective approaches to solving problems

-organized around abstract principles

-result of years of experience

Cognitive Flexibility

-based on logical reasoning, awareness of both sides of an issue, independence of judgement

-cognitively flexible men sought out work that offered challenge and autonomy. complex work let to gains in cognitive flexibility

-in each nation having a stimulating, nonroutine joh helped explain the relationship between SES and flexible abstract thinking.

- people who do intellectually demanding work seek out stimulating leisure pursuits, which also foster cognitive flexibility

-Cognitive flexibility is responsice to vocational experience well into middle adulthood and perhaps beyond.

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