# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Final Exam
organic and biochemistry
207
Chemistry
12/07/2012

Term
 What is Chemistry?
Definition
 The Study of matter and its make up.
Term
 What is the Scietific method?
Definition
 Scientific approach to solving problems
Term
 What are the steps involved in the scientific  method?
Definition
 ask questions  do back ground research  construct a hypothesis do experiment analyze data and draw conclusion  communicate your results
Term
 What is the difference between precision nad accuracy?
Definition
 Accuracy means getting a result that is close to the real answer. Precision means getting a similar result every time you try.
Term
 Measurments always have?
Definition
 Uncertainty
Term
 The last digit of a measurement is always?
Definition
 Uncertain
Term
 Know how to count significant digits (or  figures)
Definition
 Zeros appearing between nonzero numbers are significant Zeros appearing infront of nonzero numbers are not significant  Zeros at the end of a number and to the right of a decimal are significant
Term
 rounding off
Definition
 If the digit is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 do not change the rounding digit. All digits that are on the right hand side of the requested rounding digit will become 0. If the digit is 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, your rounding digit rounds up by one number. All digits that are on the right hand side of the requested rounding digit will become 0.
Term
 Know how to figure out the number of sig digits involving addition and subtraction.
Definition
 When quantities are being added or subtracted, the number of decimal places (not significant digits) in the answer should be the same as the least number of decimal places in any of the numbers being added or subtracted.
Term
 Know how to figure out the number of sig. digits in calculations involving multuplication and division.
Definition
 In a calculation involving multiplication, division, trigonometric functions, etc., the number of significant digits in an answer should equal the least number of significant digits in any one of the numbers being multiplied, divided etc.
Term
 What is scientific notation?
Definition
 0.00675 is the same as 6.75 x 10-3
Term
 Basic unit ans symbols for the metric system
Definition
 millimeter   mm                        milligram  mg centemeter  cm                       gram      g meter  m                                kilogram   kg kilometer   km                         metric ton   t   milliliter    ml cubic centimeter  cm3 liter    L cubic meter  m3
Term
 Know metric prefixes
Definition
 giga G 109 1 000 000 000 billion** mega M 106 1 000 000 million kilo k 103 1 000 thousand centi c 10-2 0.01 hundredth milli m 10-3 0.001 thousandth micro μ 10-6 0.000 001 millionth nano n 10-9 0.000 000 001 billionth**

Term
 Converting measurements from one unit to the other
Definition
 Length: 10mm = 1cm             100cm = 1m            1000m = 1km   Mass: 1000mg = 1g          1000g = 1kg            1000kg = 1t   Volume: 1000mL = 1L              1cm3 = 1mL              1000L = 1m3
Term
 What is Density?
Definition
 Measurement of the mass of an object per unit volume of the object.
Term
 What is volumes measured By displacement?
Definition
Term
 What is Energy?
Definition
 The ability to do work
Term
 What is potential energy?
Definition
 stored energy
Term
 What is kinetic energy?
Definition
 energy of motion
Term
 What are the units of energy?
Definition
 Joule (J) of Calories (cal)
Term
 What is temperature
Definition
 measures only kinetic energy
Term
 Convert from oC, oF, K
Definition
 oF to oC = (F - 32) * 5/9 oF to oC = (F - 32) * 5/9 + 273.15   oC to oF = (C * 9/5) + 32 oC to K = C + 273.15   K to oF = (K - 273.15) * 9/5 + 32 K to oC = K - 273.15
Term
 What is specific heat capacity?
Definition
 heat of a substance/element
Term
 What is Calorie?/ Joule?
Definition
 energy measurements
Term
 Heat equation
Definition
 q = m x s ΔT   ---> Tf - Tin
Term
 What are 3 Physical states?
Definition
 Solid, liquid, gas
Term
 Names of the processes going form one physical state to another.
Definition
 solid to liquid --> melting liquid to gas --> evaporation gas to liquid --> condensation liquid to solid --> freezing
Term
 What is a pure substance?
Definition
 material that cannot be seperated
Term
 What is an element?
Definition
 specific substance that cannot be decomposed
Term
 What is a compound
Definition
 material containing two or more elements or molecules
Term
 what is a mixture?
Definition
 has a variable composition, can be seperated by physical methods.
Term
 What is homogeneous mixture?
Definition
 uniform properties also called solution
Term
 What is a heterogeneous mixture?
Definition
 has properties that varies from region to region
Term
 What is a physical property
Definition
 with out altering composition
Term
 what is a physical change
Definition
 going from solid to liquid or liquid to gas
Term
 what is a chemical property?
Definition
 altering composition
Term
 what is a chemical change?
Definition
 rearangment of atoms
Term
 What is conserved during a chemical reaction?
Definition
 energy and mass
Term
 relative charge and mass of an electron
Definition
 negative charge 9.1 x 10-31 kg
Term
 relative charge and mass of the proton?
Definition
 positive charge 1.67 x 10-27 kg
Term
 relative charge and mass of the neutron?
Definition
 neutral charge  same mass as proton
Term
 how are subatomic particles arrange in an atom?
Definition
 Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus and electrons outside
Term
 What is the atomic notation?
Definition
 [image]
Term
 What are isotopes
Definition
 Each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei,...
Term
 what is atomic mass
Definition
 The mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom...
Term
 what is a group or family
Definition
 a group (also known as a family) is a vertical column in the periodic table of thechemical elements. There are 18 groups in the standard periodic table, including the d-blockelements, but excluding the f-block elements.
Term
 what is a period or series
Definition
 elements are arranged in a series of rows (or periods) so that those with similar properties appear in a column
Term
 what are representative elements?
Definition
 The Representative Elements are those elements within the first two families (Groups I and II on the far left) and the last six families or groups (on the right) of the Periodic Table.
Term
 what are transition elements
Definition
 The Transition Metals are the elements in those Groups within the middle of the Table.
Term
 Common name for group 1A
Definition
 Alkali metals
Term
 common name for group 2A
Definition
 alkaline earth metals
Term
 common name for group VIIA
Definition
 Halogens
Term
 common name for group VIIIA
Definition
 inert gasses or noble gasses
Term
 what is an ion
Definition
 an atom or a molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons
Term
 what is a cation
Definition
 a positively charged ion
Term
 what is a anion
Definition
 a negatively charged ion
Term
 common ionic charge for group 1A
Definition
 +1
Term
 common ionic charge for group 2A
Definition
 +2
Term
 common ionic charge for Al, Zn, Cd, Ag
Definition
 Al = +3 Zn = +2 Cd = +2 Ag = +1
Term
 common ionic charge for group VIA (16)
Definition
 -2
Term
 common ionic charge for group VIIA (17)
Definition
 -1
Term
 what is a binary ionic compound
Definition
 a salt consisting of only two elements in which both elements are ions, a cation and an anion
Term
 what are ternary ionic compounds
Definition
 a compound composed of at least three different types of atoms, usually a metal and a polyatomic ion which are iconically bonded.
Term
 what is a binary molecular compound
Definition
 a combination of two non-metallic compounds
Term
 What is the bohr model of the atom
Definition
 [image]
Term
 what is ment by quantized energy levels
Definition
 there are certain discrete energy levels that an atom can attain, by promoting electrons to higher-energy orbitals.
Term
 what is a valence electron
Definition
 an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules
Term
 what is ionization energy and its general trend in the periodic table
Definition
 ionization energy is the minimal energy required to remove one mole of electrons from gaseous atoms or ions   tend to increase while one progresses across a period because the greater number of protons (higher nuclear charge) attract the orbiting electrons more strongly, thereby increasing the energy required to remove one of the electrons
Term
 what is the general trend in atomic radius in the periodic table
Definition
 atomic radii decreases along a row of elements as the additional electron is added to the same shell and the effective nuclear charge also increases ,which attracts the outermost electrons effectively towards the nuclei
Term
 what is metallic character and its general trend in the periodic table
Definition
 a metal is a chemical element is a good conductor of both electricity and heat and forms cations and ionic bonds with non-metals   decreases as you move across a period in the periodic table from left to right
Term
 what is chemical bonding
Definition
 an atraction between two molecules that allows the formation of chemical compounds
Term
 what is a valence electron
Definition
 and electron in the outer shell of an atom which combine with other atoms to form molecules
Term
 what is an ionic bond
Definition
 chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion the other atom gains an electron from another ion
Term
 why is the radius of a cation always smaller than its parent atom
Definition
 becuase on the removal of an electron the effective charge on the nucleus increases the pull of the nucleus on the remaining electron increases
Term
 why is the radius of an anion always larger than its parent atom
Definition
 becuase anions are formed do to the gain of electrons
Term
 what is a covalent bond
Definition
 a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms and a molecule
Term
 lewis dot structure
Definition
Term
 what is a polar covalent bond
Definition
 a bond between two non-metals with different electronegativity
Term
 what is a nonpolar covalent bond
Definition
 A bond in which electrons are shared between elements having a difference in electronegativity of less than 0.5
Term
 what is electronegativity
Definition
 the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond.
Term
 what is the VSEPR theory
Definition
 are a model in chemistry used to predict the shape of individual molecules based upon the extent of electron-pair electrostatic repulsion
Term
 how to determine molecular polarity
Definition
 Step 1: Draw the molecular strulkcture Step 2: assign the polarity of each of the bonds step 3: adding the bond dipoles to determine the net molecular dipole step 4: decide if the bond dipoles cancle. if they do cancle, the molecule is nonpolar
Term
Definition
 equal to 6.023 × 1023
Term
 what is a mole
Definition
 is the amount of pure substance containing the same number of chemical units as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12.
Term
 what is amu
Definition
 atomic mass unit
Term
 how to calculate the molar mass of a molecule
Definition
 When you look up the atomic weight of oxygen, you find it is 16.00 g. Therefore, the molar mass of oxygen is: 2 x 16.00 g = 32.00 g
Term
 convert the number of particles to moles and mass
Definition
 Mass x MM X Moles X (1mole = 6.022x1023 X # of particles
Term
 stoichiometry involving mass
Definition
 Mass of A x MM of A x Moles of A x coefficients of bal equ. x Moles of B x MM of B x mass of B
Term
 what is limiting reactant
Definition
 limits the amount of product that can be formed.
Term
 what is thoeretical yeild
Definition
 the amount obtained in the reaction     multiply the amount of moles of the limiting reagent by the ratio of the limiting reagent and the synthesized product and by the molecular weight of the product.
Term
 what is percent yeild
Definition
 amount of product obtained in a reaction   Percentage Yield =     mass of Actual Yield       x   100%                                      mass of Theoretical Yield
Term
 what is acutal yeild
Definition
 amount of chemical that you actually make
Term
 what is a solution
Definition
 a homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes dissolved in a solvent.
Term
 what is a solute
Definition
 he minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.
Term
 what is a solvent
Definition
 The liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution.
Term
 what does "like dissolve like" mean
Definition
 polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents. Nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents.
Term
 how can pressure and temperature effect the solubility of gas in a liquid
Definition
 as the temp increased the solubility of gas decreases and pressure increases the solubility of the gas
Term
 what are miscible liquids
Definition
 two or more liquids that can be mixed and will remain mixed under normal conditions
Term
 what are immiscible liquids
Definition
 when two liquids so not mix with each other
Term
 what happens when ionic solid molecules get dissolved in water
Definition
 the water molecules pull the ions apart
Term
 what are some ways to speed up dissolving solid in liquid
Definition
 heat up the mixtrure stire the mixture add more solute than, filter out the excess crushn the solute to give it a greater surface area
Term
 what does unsaturated mean
Definition
 contains carbon-carbon double bonds
Term
 what is saturated mean
Definition
 containing max amount of solute   has no carbon-carbon bonds
Term
 what is supersaturated
Definition
 increase of concentration beyond saturation point
Term
 what is dilute
Definition
 Make (a liquid) thinner or weaker by adding water or another solvent to it.
Term
 what is concentrated
Definition
 A substance made by removing water or other diluting agent; a concentrated form of something, esp. food.
Term
 what is mass percent concentration
Definition
 %(m/m)
Term
 what is voume percent concentration
Definition
 %(v/v)
Term
 what is mass by volume percent concentraion
Definition
 %(m/v)
Term
 what is molariity
Definition
 concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
Term
 what is dilution
Definition
 McVc=MdVd
Term
 stoichiometry involving solutions
Definition
 M orV of A x (mol=MV(L) x Moles of A x coefficients of bal eq. x Moles of B x mol=MV(L) x Mor V of B
Term
 what are four evidences for a chemical reaction
Definition
 1. temperature change 2.precipitate is observed if possible 3. formation of bubble or gas 4. color change
Term
 general format of a chemical reaction
Definition
 reactant1 + reactant2 + … → product1 + product2 + …
Term
 what are reactants
Definition
 A substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction.
Term
 what are products
Definition
 A substance produced during a natural, chemical, or manufacturing process
Term
 what are the labels for physical states
Definition
 (g) gas (l) liquid (s) solid (aq) dissolved in water
Term
 what are seven elements that occur naturally as diatomic molecules
Definition
 Iodine (I), Bromine (Br), Chlorine (Cl), Florine (F), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), and Hydrogen (H)
Term
 what are some driving forces of chemical reactions
Definition
 heat enery entropy equilibrium shift
Term
 combination synthesis
Definition
 A + B ---> AB Metal + nonmental ---> ionic compound
Term
 decomposition
Definition
 AB ---> A + B Metal carbonate ---> metal oxide + carbon Dioxide
Term
 single replacement
Definition
 A + BC ----> AC + B   Metal1 + aq solution1 ---> metal2 + aq solution2
Term
 double replacement
Definition
 AB + CD ---> AD + CB aq solution1 + aq solution2 --> aq solution3 + precipitate
Term
 what is oxidation
Definition
 The process or result of oxidizing or being oxidized.
Term
 what is reduction
Definition
 , is any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen)
Term
 combustion reaction
Definition
 O2(g) is a reactant and heat is given off.
Term
 solubility rule for ionic compound in water
Definition
 NO3- - All nitrates are soluble. Cl- - All chlorides are soluble except AgCl, Hg2Cl2, and PbCl2. SO42- - Most sulfates are soluble. Exceptions include BaSO4, PbSO4, and SrSO4. CO32- - All carbonates are insoluble except NH4+ and those of the Group 1 elements. OH- - All hydroxides are insoluble except those of the Group 1 elements, Ba(OH)2, and Sr(OH)2. Ca(OH)2 is slightly soluble. S2- - All sulfides are insoluble except those of the Group 1 and Group 2 elements and NH4+.
Term
 what is an electrolyte
Definition
 The ionized or ionizable constituents of a living cell, blood, or other organic matter.
Term
 what is a strong electrolyte
Definition
 a solute that completely, or almost completely, ionizes or dissociates in a solution
Term
 what is a weak electrolyte
Definition
 an electrolyte that does not completely dissociate in solution.
Term
 what is a nonelectrolyte
Definition
 is a substance that will not dissociate into charged ions when dissolved in water. will not conduct electricity
Term
 what is a molecular equation
Definition
 s the equation where each compound the sum of oxidation numbers is 0.
Term
 what is a complete ionic equation
Definition
 used to describe the chemical reaction while also clearly indicating which of the reactants and/or products exist primarily as ions
Term
 what is a net ionic equation
Definition
 a chemical equation for a reaction which lists only those species participating in the reaction
Term
 what is intermolecular force
Definition
 are forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighboring particles (atoms, molecules or ions)
Term
 what are van der waals forces
Definition
 relatively weak electric forces that attract neutral molecules to one another in gases, in liquefied and solidified gases, and in almost all organic liquids and solids
Term
 what are dipole-dipole forces
Definition
 are attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule
Term
 what are hydrogen bonds
Definition
 the electromagnetic attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine,
Term
 what is the london dispersion force
Definition
 a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles
Term
 what are the general properties of a liquid
Definition
 has definite volume takes shape of its container not compressable not in fixed position
Term
 what is boiling point
Definition
 The temperature at which a liquid boils and turns to vapor.
Term
 what is vapor pressure
Definition
 The pressure of a vapor in contact with its liquid or solid form.
Term
 what is surface tension
Definition
 The tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of the liquid,...
Term
 what is viscosity
Definition
 The state of being thick, sticky, and semifluid in consistency, due to internal friction.
Term
 properties of gas
Definition
 easy to compress expand to fill their containers occupy more space than liquids
Term
 boyles law
Definition
 PV =constant P1V1 = P2V2
Term
Definition
 V = constant x T V1T2 = V2T1
Term
 Gay lussacs law
Definition
 P = constant x T P1T2 = P2T1
Term
 combined gas law
Definition
 P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Term
 daltons partial pressure law
Definition
 Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + ....
Term
 what is kinetic theory of gases
Definition
 gases consist of small particles in random motion
Term
 ideal gas law
Definition
 PV = nRT
Term
 what is an ideal gas
Definition
 A hypothetical gas whose molecules occupy negligible space and have no interactions, and that consequently obeys the gas laws exactly.
Term
 stoichiometry involving gas
Definition
 V of A (gas) x PV = nRT / stp 22.4 L/mol x moles of A x coeficients of bal eq. x mole of B x PV = nRT/ stp 22.4 L/mol x V of B
Term
 general properties of acid
Definition
 taste sour turns blue litmus red destroys chemical property of bases conducts an electric current evolve hydrogen gas
Term
 general properties of a base
Definition
 bitter taste does not change color of litmus paper destroy chemical properties of acids conduct an electri current feel slippery
Term
 what is arrhenius acid
Definition
 a substance which releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. Eg hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissociates to give H+ ions and Cl- ions and so is an acid
Term
 what is arrhenius base
Definition
 is a substance that when added to water increases the number of OH- ions in the water
Term
 what is a bronsted lowry base
Definition
 is defined as anything that accepts H1+ ions.
Term
 what is bronsted lowry acid
Definition
 anything that releases H1+ ions
Term
 what is conjugate acid-base pair
Definition
 refers to acids and bases with common features
Term
 what is ionization constant of water
Definition
 Kw = 1 x 10-14
Term
 what is pH
Definition
 measures how acidic or basic a substance is and ranges from 0 to 14.
Term
 what is POH
Definition
 is a measure of hydroxide ion (OH-) concentration.
Term
 neutralization reaction
Definition
 Acid + Base ----> salt + water
Term
 what is titration of acid and base
Definition
 the determination of the concentration of an acid or base by exactly neutralizing the acid or base with an acid or base of known concentration
Term
 what is indicator
Definition
 are ways to measure
Term
 what is a buffer
Definition
 is a molecule that tends to either bind or release hydrogen ions in order to maintain a particular pH
Term
 what is an organic compound
Definition
 low melting point, not soluble in H2O, slow reactions
Term
 what is a hydrocarbon
Definition
 contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms
Term
 prefixes associated with the number of carbon atoms in an organic compund
Definition
 1-meth, 2-eth, 3-prop, 4-but, 5-pent, 6-hex, 7-hept, 8-oct, 9-non, 10-dec
Term
 what is a molecular formula
Definition
 name of compounds or atoms
Term
 what is a fully expanded formula
Definition
 [image]
Term
 what is a condensed formula
Definition
 [image]
Term
 what is a bond line formula
Definition
 The skeletal formula of an organic compound is a shorthand representation of its molecular structure   [image]
Term
 structures and names of different funtional groups
Definition
 [image]
Term
 what are primary(1o), secondary (2o), Tertiary (3o) alcohols
Definition
 [image]
Term
 what are primary, secondary, tertirary amines
Definition
 [image]
Term
 what is an alkane
Definition
 a single bond, tetrahedral 109.5o bond angle
Term
 how to name alkanes
Definition
 ass suffix "ane" substiituents end with "yl"
Term
 physical properties of alkanes
Definition
 molecular polarity: larger the alkane the more polar it is boiling and melting points: [image]
Term
 what is an alkene
Definition
 contain one or more carbon double bonds
Term
 how to name an alkene
Definition
 add "ene" at the end of name, arrange alpha order, souble bond to two diffenerent groups use cis-trans     Cis = same trans = opposite
Term
 what is an alkyne
Definition
 one or more triple bonds 180o
Term
 how to name alkyne
Definition
 ass "yne" to end of name
Term
 what is a cyclohycarbon
Definition
 a saturated hydrocarbon that contains carbon atoms bonded to form a ring
Term
 how to name a cycloalkane
Definition
 CnH2n single bonds same sum letter that comes first in the alphabet goes first
Term
 how to name a cycloalkene
Definition
 CnH2n same sum letter that come first in alphabet goes first
Term
 what is an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene)
Definition
 used to classify benzene and its derivatives
Term
 how to name an aromatic hydrocarbon
Definition
 [image]
Term
 what is a chiral or achiral center
Definition
 achiral does not have 4 different substituents
Term
 what is a stereocenter
Definition
 chiral carbon that contains 4 different substituents
Term
 what are isomers
Definition
 a compound displaying isomerism with one or more other compounds
Term
 what are consitutional isomers
Definition
 molecules having the same molecular formula but different arangments of atoms
Term
 what are stereoisomers
Definition
 isomers that have the same connectivity but different orientations of their atoms in space
Term
 determine the maximum possible number of stereoisomers
Definition
 calculate 2n, n =  # of stereocenters
Term
 how many stereoisomers are usually active in biological system
Definition
 onle one found in nature
Term
 what ate configurational isomers
Definition
 a subcategory of stereoisomers that posses the same molecular formula, same connectivity but differ spatially due to internal bond rotation
Term
 what are enantiomers
Definition
 Each of a pair of molecules that are mirror images of each other.
Term
 what is the one property that enantimers differ in
Definition
 they're interacting with other chiral substances.
Term
 what is a racemic mixture
Definition
 is one that has equal amounts of left and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule....
Term
 what are diastereomers
Definition
 stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another and are non-superimposable on one another.
Term
 what are conformational isomers
Definition
 is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted exclusively by rotations...
Term
 what are axial or equatorial groups
Definition
 is axial (straight up or straight down) and the other group is equatorial (at an angle, up or down).
Term
 what is the 1,3-diaxial interaction
Definition
 n interaction (usually repulsive) between two axial substituents on a cyclohexane ring.
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