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Fashion Trends 120 - Midterm #1
Terms & Info Early Costume-Medieval Era
146
Art/Design
Undergraduate 2
02/29/2012

Additional Art/Design Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Zeitgeist
Definition
The spirit of the times or the many factors of an era that influence the clothing styles.
Term
As Fashion Changes..... so does
Definition
figure emphasis e.g. bosom, genitals, waist

pose patterns e.g. debutante slouch

movement e.g. hobble skirt
Term
Why Clothing Varies
Definition
1. differences in purpose for wearing clothes
2. differences in materials available for making clothes
3. difference in ways of making clothes
4. differences in clothing customs
5. social and political influences
Term
Draped clothing
Definition
Created through the arrangement of material around the body. It may be pinned, pleated, draped and belted in different ways. This tended to be common in warmer climates
Term
Tailored clothing
Definition
Is cut, sewn and shaped. Generally, these were warmer clothes and were more common/necessary in colder climates
Term
The basic garments of the ages
Definition
loincloth, skirt, tunic, cape
Term
Prehistoric Clothing
Definition
~Silhouette - rectangular
~Unfitted coverings made of animal furs and hides, plant materials (bark cloth), also felted wool.
~at first it was just draped and tied (belted)
Term
Prehistoric Yarn
Definition
was made from threadlike parts of plants or from fur or the hair of animals. Also, sinew. Later, it was made from cotton or wool
Term
Sewing began...
Definition
sewing began probably around 30,000 BC, when bone needles were developed.
Term
Tunic
Definition
this garment was made of a length of woven material or animal skin. It was typically folded in half, sewn up the sides with a slit for a neck opening.
Term
Loincloth
Definition
This was made of cloth or fur and designed to cover the genital areas.
Term
Cape
Definition
This was a piece of fabric or fur, thrown or arranged around the shoulders.
Term
Girdle
Definition
This was a tie or belt-like article worn to support and/or arrange the design of the garment. It was also used for utilitarian purposes, e.g. to hold a knife. Often the girdle could be very decorative.
Term
Ancient Egypt
Time & Location
Definition
~5,000 B.C. - 332 B.C.
~period ended when Alexander the Great conquered Egypt in 332 B.C.
~located in the NE corner of Africa, centering around the Nile River in a valley with cliffs and desert
~ Mediterranean Area
Term
Ancient Egypt
Social Structure
Definition
A. Theocracy
B. Pharaoh
~Dynasties & kingdoms

A. Classes were divided as follows: (compare this to a pyramid)
1. royalty, priests and nobles
2. scribes (managers, bureaucrats)
3. artisans, craft workers and merchants
4. workers
5. slaves (foreign captives)
Term
Ancient Egypt
Economy & Commerce
Definition
~Agriculture, Manufacturing, Craftsman, Mining
~Exports/Imports: Barter system
Term
Ancient Egypt
Religion
Definition
Pharaoh
Afterlife
Re and Osiris
Term
Ancient Egypt
Literature and Art
Definition
~The Book of the Dead
~Paintings
~Sculpture - statues e.g. sphinx
~Painting
~Architecture -pyramids, temples,tombs, palaces and homes of the upper class.
Term
Ancient Egypt
Intellectual
Definition
hieroglyphics
papyrus (paper made from the reeds along the nile)
astronomy
medicine
math
Term
Egyptian Motifs
Definition
the scarab
the hawk,
the cobra
the vulture (Upper Egypt)
The Eye of Horus
Term
Egyptian Clothing Creation
Definition
Linen , a very fine see-through fabric from flax plant
Other fibers
Colors
Embellishments
Goffering (similar to ironed pleats)
Term
Egyptian Silhouette
Definition
Tubular or Triangular.
Draping
Term
Egypt body culture
Definition
body conscious

cleanliness.

Cones of scented wax were set on the heads of guests at parties, and as the evening progressed, the wax would melt over the wigs and perfume the air with myrrh or cinnamon. (Tortora: 24 )

Cosmetics e.g. Kohl

Jewelry and head dresses e.g. Jeweled Collars
Term
[image]
Definition

Shenti

Egyptian "skirt" for males worn multiple ways. Often goffered.

 

 

Term
[image]
Definition

shendot

Egyptian. Strip of hanging fabric worn by males to indicate status & manhood

Term
[image]
Definition

Egyptian.

sheath gown

 

 

Term
[image]
Definition

kalasiris

Egyptian. Tunic-like

 

Term
[image]
Definition

procardium

Egyptian. "tunic" for females. Often worn below breasts with "suspender" straps.

 

 

Term
Goffering
Definition
Egyptian pleating.
Term
[image]
Definition

Gala Gown or Gala Skirt.

Egyptian. Male or female.

 

 

Term
[image]
Definition

postiche

Egyptian. Fake goatee held on by straps.

Term
Ancient Mesopotamia Time & Location
Definition
~5,000 B.C. - 539 B.C. ~The period ended with the takeover by the Persians in 539 B.C ~Located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the part of the world that today forms much of the mideast. (Iraq, eastern Syria and SE Turkey). Surrounded by desert.
Term
Ancient Mesopotamia
Groups of people
Definition
1. Sumerian (cultural),
2. Babylonian (not much progress),
3. Assyrian (Military) and
4. Chaldean or Neo-Babylonia (restored some of the culture).
King Hammurabi (Babylonian) and Nebuchadnezzar (Chaldean)
Term
Ancient Mesopotamia
Social Classes
Definition
Classes were divided as follows:
1. Patricians or aristocrats (land holders)
2. Burghers or common citizens
3. serfs (own land) and slaves
Term
Ancient Mesopotamia
Economy
Definition
Agriculture
Chief Products
Barter System for Imports & Exports
Term

Ancient Mesopotamia

Religion

Definition
Polytheistic Sha-Mash and Ishtar present world belief
Term
Ancient Mesopotamia
Literature/Art
Definition
Depicted scenes of daily life and events around them.
Ziggurat







Royal Standard of Ur



Used cylinders to imprint motifs on tiles.
Term
Ancient Mesopotamia
Intellectual
Definition
Cuneiform
Commerce related systems
Law
Water clock and lunar calendar -
Math - used in building, area, volume, etc.
Astronomy
Medicine


Personalitites

Sumerian - Sargon I

Babylonians - Hammurabi (Code of Hammurabi)

Assyrians - Ashurbanipal

Chaldeans - Nebuchadnezzar (built the terraced roof known as the Hanging Gardens ,one of the 7 wonders of the world).
Term
Mesopotamian Clothing
Definition
Plant-life motifs and geometrics.
Motifs were used on fabrics.
Wool
Cotton
Linen and Silk through trade
Term
Mesopotamian Silhouette
Definition
Tubular or Triangular (through tiering).
Fringing
Draping
Term
[image]
Definition

Syrian and Phoenician Cape/Wraps

a meld of Egyptian and Asian

Term
[image]
Definition

Kuanakes

Sumerian: Men and Women

Term
Sumerian: Men and Women
Definition
Tunic, Skirt, Capes, Girdles, Belts Men were clean shaven but wore beads
Term
[image]
Definition

Assyrians and Babylonians Clothing

Tunic or Candys 
Skirt
Cloak Like Overgarment
Stole or Scarf

Term
Persians
Definition
War-fare, militaristic, hunters and horsemen. These were the first people to cut and sew clothing (as opposed to drape) Anaxiride - trousers tightly fitted at the ankles.
Term
[image]
Definition

Ephod

Hebrew. Pancho-like overgarment

Term
[image]
Definition

Aba

Hebrew. Hood/viel

Term
[image]
Definition

caftan

Hebrew tunic/dress. Loose flowing.

Term
Mesopotamian hats
Definition
Turbans Assyrians= brimless hat
Term
Mesopotamian Hair
Definition
Assyrian= small curls
Term
Ancient Crete and the Aegean
Definition
~Time Period: 3000 - 1400 B.C.
~An island off the coast of Greece, in the Mediterranean Sea
~Minoan (Crete), Helladic Mycenaeans (mainland), Cycladic (islands) and Troadic (Troy)
~The Aegean Sea, Crete
Term
Ancient Crete and the Aegean
Clothing
Definition
Plant-life motifs and geometrics.
Motifs were used on fabrics.
Wool
Cotton
Linen and Silk through trade
Metal and Leather
Term
Ancient Crete and the Aegean
Silhouette
Definition
Tubular or Triangular (through tiering).
Term
bolero jacket
Definition
Crete/Aegean. The shrunken jacket (as worn by snake goddess statue). Exposed breast & mid-length sleeves.
Term
[image]
Definition

Creten & Aegean Skirt/Tunic/girdle

 

Women wore multi-tiered skirts, double sided apron & a girdle/belt.

Term
Ancient Greece
Time/location
Definition
~Time Period: 3,000 B.C. - 323 B.C.
~This period extended from the Aegean civilizations through Hellenic Greece (there are many periods, each given names, Homeric, Dark Ages, Hellenic, etc.)
~Greece is located on the Mediterranean Sea which sits to the south. The Aegean Sea is on the east side, between Greece's mainland and Asia Minor. The country is composed of a mainland and various islands
~
~
Term
Ancient Greece
Culture/Social
Definition
peace loving
beauty of the body
belief in equality of man
Classes were divided as follows:
* the Citizens
* the Metics
* Slaves
Term
Ancient Greece
Economy
Definition
Agriculture
Industry
Trade- Import/export
Term
Ancient Greece
Literature and Art
Definition
Homer's Epic poems, the Odyssey and the Iliad
Tragic Drama
Art - Statues Pottery
Architecture - Doric: rather heavy, sharply fluted columns, and Ionic: more slender, graceful columns
Term
Ancient Greece
Intellectual
Definition
Olympic Games -
Philosophy of Thought -
Math -
Biology -
Math -
Medicine -
Term
Ancient Greece
Wars/periods
Definition
1. Persian War, 479 - 439 B.C.
2. Peloponnesian War, 431 - 404 BC Athens vs. Sparta
3. Rise of Macedonia and Alexander the Great 404 - 323 B.C.
4. Hellenistic Age, 323 BC to 31 BC
Term
Ancient Greek Clothing
Definition
A. Motifs

Greek Key
Geometric
Plant life
B. Materials



Spinning and weaving
Wool and linen
purpura shellfish.

Other Information

simple design

use of draping
Term
Ancient Greek Silhouette
Definition
Ancient Greek Clothing
Term
[image]
Definition

Chiton

The tunic of Greek women. Long draped dress tied at shoulder w/ fibula (pins). Doric= 1 pin; Ionic= multiple pins along arms (more detailed architecture too)

Term
fibula
Definition
Pins (looked like safety pins).
Term
[image]
Definition

chlamys


Greek. Cape draped around shoulder and open at "sword arm"

Term
[image]
Definition

Greek girdle

 

Women. Wrapped/tied around waist and breasts

Term
[image]
Definition

himation

 

Greek. Man or woman. Piece of rectangular cloth draped over shoulders/head as a hood/viel. (Draped like a scarf, not tied like medieval veil.)

Term
[image]
Definition

peplos

 

Greek. Overgarment shirt. Rectangle cloth pinned at shoulders & open on one side.

Term
[image]
Definition

petasos

 

Greek. Brimmed hat (like straw hat)

Term
[image]
Definition

Phrygian Cap

 

Greek. Strapped on cap with curl @ top. "Liberty Cap"

Term
[image]
Definition

tholia

 

Greek hat. Looks like a witch hat that is balanced/pinned on head.

Term
tiara/stephane
Definition
Greek. Evolved into metal crown.
Term
[image]
Definition

Buskin

 

Greek boot made of fur wrapped and tied around foot.

Term
Ancient Rome Time/Location
Definition
~Time Period: 12th C. BC to 476 AD ~Tiber river ~Its history is divided into Early Inhabitants (till 6th C) the Republic (6th C - 27 BC) and the Roman Empire (27 BC to 476 AD).
Term
Ancient Rome
Social
Definition
Classes were divided as follows:
1. Citizens - ( the patricians, plebeians and citizens without the vote)
2. the rest of the population - slaves and non-citizen foreigners.

Women became educated and important in the running of daily affairs.
the paterfamilias.
Citizenship
Emperor was the top of the social structure
Term
Ancient Rome
Economy
Definition
Agriculture was the #1 economic activity.
Warfare was the other.
As Rome conquered countries it set up plantation farming.
Trade extended to all parts of the known world, e.g. India, China.
Manufacturing of pottery, textiles, metal and glass.
Agriculture
Term
Ancient Rome
Religion
Definition
Religion was Polytheistic
Their Gods and Goddesses resembled Greek gods, but were not quite as human.
Stoicism
Term
Ancient Rome
Literature and Art
Definition
Literature was very related to philosophy. Horace and Virgil were two philosopher/writers.
Art - influenced by the Greeks. Became more original in the Empire period.
Architecture
Sculpture, Fresco
Term
Ancient Rome Clothing
Definition
A. Motifs

many types of motifs
decorations were embroidered, woven

B. Materials



Weaving, spinning etc. was carried out in business establishments, rather than the home... 50 - 100 people. (although some was performed in the home by the women)
Wool, then linen were the primary fibers.
Silk and Cotton
Dyeing

use of draping
Indutus - garments that were 'put on'.
Amictus - garment that were wrapped
Term
Ancient Rome Silhouette
Definition
Rectangular
Draping
Term
[image]
Definition

Tebenna (Etruscan) (ta' ben-a)

 

Roman. Draped/Wrapped Hood.

Term
[image]
Definition

Tunic (Men), Tunica (Women)

 

Roman.

Term
[image]
Definition

Stola

 

Roman. Overgarment. Woman. Rectangular cloth draped over shoulders and wrapped around body.

Term
Clavus (plural) Clavi (singular)
Definition

Roman. Stripe down front of clothing for status.

 

[image]

Term
[image]
Definition

Dalmatica

 

Roman. Male Overgarment. Tunic with sleeves, but not wrapped like tunic/tunica.

Term
[image]
Definition

Toga

 

Roman. Made from Rectangular cloth wrapped around body.

Term
[image]
Definition

Palla - (Women)

 

Roman. Woman. Rectangular cloth drapedover 1 shoulder and wrapped around body once. Could be pulled over head as a hood for modesty.

Term
[image]
Definition

Paludeamentum (pa-lu-da-men'-tum)

 

Roman. Male. Cape draped over one should. Similar to Greek chlamys.

Term
[image]
Definition

Paenula - (pie-new'-la)

 

Roman. Male. Semi-circle cloth draped around shoulders & could be used as a hood.

Term
Strophium - Women
Definition
Roman. bra
Term
Pagne
Definition
Roman. Women's underwear/swimwear.
Term
[image]
Definition

Cuirass

 

Roman. Armor Breastplate

Term
diadem
Definition
Roman. Headband/crown.
Term
[image]
Definition

Calceus

 

Roman footwear. Sandal-like w/ open toes.

Term
Byzantine Time/Location
Definition
~Time Period: 330 AD to 1453 AD ~Constantinople is located at the entrance of the Black Sea, and it became the focal point of many trade routes between the East and West. Thus, it became a metroplolis and the focal city of Europe until 1200. The influences of east and west became intermixed. Byzantium was constantly at war Crusaders sacked the city in 1204 and destroyed much of its art and culture.
Term
Byzantine
Religion
Definition
~Religion was Christianity, split from Roman Catholic Church = Eastern Orthodox
~Christianity spread within the Roman Empire between the 1st and 4th centuries AD
Why?
Romans opposed Christianity
Christianity in Western Europe was centered in Rome, with the Roman Catholic Church (Pope or Bishop). An Eastern Europe the Greek Orthodox Church (Patriarch) centered in Constantinople. These two powers vied for control, and in 1054 the church split to become two entities.
Term
Byzantine
Social
Definition
The head of the state was the Byzantine Emperor.
The class of nobility became the main force of government.
Term
Byzantine
Economy
Definition
Trade
Development of silk production and woven fabrics
Silk production
Manufactured patterned fabrics, damasks, brocades, etc.
Term
Byzantine
Literature and Art
Definition
Mosaics
Term
Byzantine Clothing
Definition
Many of Persian influence, as well as Eastern influence.
Decorations were embroidered, woven.
Two major contributions to the world were:
1. Development of patterned woven fabrics, (using a shuttle), e.g. brocade and damask
2. establishment of a silk industry.
Wool and linen were the primary fibers.
Fabrics were adorned with semi-precious stones, enamel medallions, embroidery and appliqu├ęs.

D. Other Information

more fitting

patterned fabrics

layering
Term
Byzantine silhouette
Definition
Early silhouette - Roman influence
Later silhouette - more fitted, with influence of the Orient.
Term
[image]
Definition

Tunic/Gunna

 

Byzantine. Gunna=Female. Fitted. Looks pre-medieval.

Term
[image] [image]
Definition

Dalmatique/Dalmatica

 

Byzantine. Female. Decorated, loose, long-sleeve tunic. (like kimono.)

Term
[image]
Definition

Juppe

 

Byzantine. Sewn shirt with baggy sleeves in under arms.

Term
Paludamentum/Mantle
Definition
Byzantine. Male= cape like greek/roman. Female= wrapped around shoulders.
Term
Tablion
Definition
Byzantine. Patch sewn usually onto the Paludamentum/Mantle
Term
Segmentae
Definition
Byzantine. Design/patch sewn onto tunic/clothing.
Term
Trousers
Definition
Byzantine. fitted pants for men.
Term
Lorum
Definition
Byzantine. Male. Long, rectangle strip of fabric wrapped around body in an X pattern.
Term
Clavus (Byzantine)
Definition
Similar to Roman status stripe, but now more decorative and not only for status.
Term
Byzantine headwear
Definition
Veils, Turban-like Headwear, Diadem Crowns
Term
Byzantine Hair
Definition
Clean-shaven men




Women, soft flowing wavy hair, parted in center, or pulled back.
Term
samples
Definition
Byzantine Footwear. Open sandal or wrapped sandal.
Term
Middle Ages (Medieval)
Time/Location
Definition
~Time Period: approx. mid 5th C. to 1500
~About 1000 yrs between Roman Empire & Renaissance.
~All countries of Western Europe at that time. e.g. Italy, France, England, Spain, Germany, Portugal, Netherlands, etc.
~Feudalism
Islam
Dark Ages vs. Later Middle Ages,
Charlemagne
Term
Middle Ages
Social
Definition
Social Structure: Nobles (land holders) and Serfs (masses)
King - Powerful Lords- Lessor Lords, Knights, Serfs
Term
Middle Ages
Economy
Definition
Feudal System
The Crusades
By approx. 10th C trade increased and towns began to grow.
Bourgeoisie or townspeople. - a new Middle Class
Trade Fairs
Merchant Guilds
By 13th C. the church owned 30% of the land in Western Europe.
In early Middle Ages, the decline of Trade and Industry... merchants stopped shipping, roads deteriorated.
In general, as feudalism increased, trade decreased.
Term
Middle Ages
Religion
Definition
Two major religions: Christianity (2 orders) and the Moslem's Islam (Mohammed the prophet, and Allah their God).
Crusades: 1095 - 1291, the Holy Wars - between the Christians and Moslems.
Holy Inquisitions
Term
Middle Ages
Literature and Art
Definition
Latin became broken down into local languages, e.g. French, Italian and Spanish in the making.
The Church preserved Roman-Greco culture (copying books and manuscripts), and influenced literature with religious themes and architecture (cathedrals)
Music - Gregorian Chant
Architecture was first Romanesque (thick walls, few windows, rounded arches) and later Gothic (thin walls, pointed arches, tall spires, gargoyles, stained glass) e.g. Notre Dame and Westminster Abbey.
Term
Middle Ages
Intellectual
Definition
Universities were founded, e.g. Oxford, Cambridge
Invented magnifying lenses, glass windows, mechanical clocks.
Term
Middle Ages Clothing
Definition
A. Motifs

many types of motifs
decorations were embroidered, woven
Cotton.
New Fabrics were muslin, dimity, and silk damask.
Trade Guilds were established to develop the manufacture of cloth for export.
Wool
Term
Middle Ages silhouette
Definition
~Early silhouette was based on Roman influence, with simple cuts and styles.
~Later silhouette became more fitted. Fitting was achieved not only by 'cut' but by lacing of garments.
Term
Gonelle/Cottelle/Bliaud/Bliaut/Gunna
Definition
Tunic of Middle Ages. Roman influence.
Term
Kirtle/Chainse/Chemise
Definition
Middle Ages. Female loose dress. Not wrapped.
Term
Cotehardie
Definition
Middle Ages female. 1st version of the signature dress of the era.
Term
Surcoat
Definition
Middle Ages. Male/Female. Sleeveless tunic overgarment.
Term
Houppelande
Definition
Middle Ages. Male. Coat/tunic over-garment. Typically knee-length. Belted for a false belly or not belted (as in marriage painting).
Term
Tippet
Definition
Middle Ages. Long sleeves. Wealth symbol.
Term
Doublet/Pourpoint/Joupon
Definition
Middle Ages. Male. Shirt barely long enough to cover butt. Usually warn w/ belt (to make short skirt shape) & pants.
Term
Chainmail
Definition
Middle Ages
Term
Braies
Definition
Middle Ages. Male underwear that went to knees. Made by wrapping & tying.
Term
Chausses
Definition
Middle Ages. Male. Hose/trousers. Could be knee-high or pants.
Term
Camise or Shert
Definition
Middle Ages. Loose shirt with pleats/scrunching around or below neckline. (like a short night shirt.)
Term
Chaperon
Definition
Middle Ages. Hood.
Term
Liripipe
Definition
Middle Ages. Long strip of fabric hanging from top of hood or cap. (Night cap inspiration)
Term
Parti-color
Definition
Middle Ages. garment that is 2 colors (half & half). Known as Jester's clothing.
Term
Coif
Definition
Middle Ages. Skull cap
Term
Wimple/Gorget
Definition
Middle ages. Female. Wrapped around headdress.
Term
Toque
Definition
Middles Ages. Female headwear. Open, crown-like hat. Often held on by chinstrap.
Term
Escoffion
Definition
Middle AGes. Female. Double-horned headdress
Term
Hennin
Definition
Middle AGes. Single horned headdress
Term
Caul/Reticulated Headdress
Definition
Middle Ages. Female. Wrapped around braid and worn on both side of head.
Term
Poulaine/Cracow
Definition
Middle Ages. Male shoes. Very pointed.
Term
Pattens
Definition
Middle Ages. Strapped onto shoes to walk through mud
Term
Chopines
Definition
Middle Ages. Platform heels.
Term
[image]
Definition
Egyptian sandals
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