Shared Flashcard Set


FAR Part 61 ACE
Certification of pilots
Undergraduate 1

Additional Aviation Flashcards





Requirement for certificates, ratings, and authorizations


What items must a flight crew member have in their physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft?


For sport pilots in a LSA?


FAR 61.3 Required pilot flight crew member must have in physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft

1) A pilot certificate

2) A photo ID

3) Medical certificate Except student pilot cert w/ glider, balloon, sport pilot cert wt-shift-cntrl or a powered parachute AND holds a U.S. driver's license;


(Or Under BasicMed: carries a Driver's License

and has available in the logbook the medical checklist and course completion certificate)


4) Sport pilots and student pilots on solo flights must also have logbooks containing appropriate endorsements


A person who has applied for or held a medical certificate may exercise the privileges of a sport pilot certificate using a U.S. driver's license only if that person was found eligible for at least a 3rd class medical and recent medical certificate not suspended or revoked.


Certificates must be presented upon a request from:

(1) The Administrator;

(2) NTSB

(3) law enforcement officer; or

(4) TSA


ARROW - Airworthiness certificate, Registration, Radio cert for international flights, operating limitations (AFM/POH), Weight and balance document


Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.


What must be done following a motor vehicle action?


What penalty does a motor vehicle action incur?


Are there additional penalties?


 §61.15   Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.


A conviction for drugs; or a conviction, cancellation, suspension, revocation or denial of an application involving DUI of alcohol or drugs;


OR An additional motor vehicle action within 3 years following a previous motor vehicle action;


is grounds for: denial of an application, suspension or revocation for any certificate, rating, or authorization for up to 1 year after the date of conviction.


Written report within 60 days - One must provide a written report of each motor vehicle action to the FAA (Civil Aviation Security Division), not later than 60 days after the motor vehicle action. Failure to grounds for: denial of an application, suspension or revocation for any certificate, rating, or authorization for up to 1 year after the date of conviction.


Temporary certificate.

For how long is a temporary certificate valid?




 A temporary pilot certificate is issued for up to 120 days [4 months] , and expires upon expiration date,  receipt of the permanent certificate OR Upon receipt of a notice of denial or revocation


Duration of pilot privileges.



How long are pilot certificates valid?





Student pilot certificate issued prior to April 1, 2016: for less than 40 years old: expires 60 months (5 yrs) / for  40+ years old: expires 24 months (2 yrs) after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate.


Student glider, balloon, sport pilot: 60 months [5 yrs] after the month of the date issued, regardless of age.


Pilot certificates AND student pilot certificates  issued after April 1, 2016 no expiration date.


Temporary certificates - 120 days?


 Return of certificates. If suspended or revoked, must return that certificate to the FAA when requested to do so by the Administrator.


Medical certificates:


What medical certificates are required for different situations and how long is each valid?


(types of pilot certificates and flight situations)

(also: alternatives)




practical test for a rec pilot, private pilot, commercial, or ATP- min req'd 3rd Class (or 2nd or 1st)

ATP; 1st -class rqd

< 40 ATP / PIC or SIC - 12 months             

40 or older ATP / PIC or SIC - 6 months


commercial Cert - min rqd 2nd class (or 1st)

/ every 12th months


Private, etc. - at least a 3rd class (or 2nd or 1st)

< 40 yrs old = 5 years (60 months)

> 40 yrs old = 2 years (24 months)

note: Medical Certificate validity depends on pilot certificate being utilized (e.g. a 1st class med cert is valid for 5 yrs for private pilot under 40, but is only valid for 12 months for ATP or commercial)


No medical cert required:

Student pilot certificate seeking a sport pilot certificate in a light-sport aircraft - U.S. driver's license

pilot cert exercising glider rating,


Alt to Medical certificates:


- lmt'd; 6 occpnts/6000 lb aircrft, < 18,000ft , <250kts, not for hire.

- have been issued medical in past (post 2006)

-2 yr self certify with online course, carry certificate

- Medical checklist exam with GP every 4 yrs.

-Drivers license carried as certificate





Medical certificates:  sport pilot in LSA


What medical certificate is required for a sport pilot certificate to fly a LSA? Explain.




Using U.S. driver's license for sport pilot LSA privileges

> Must follow restrictions on license.

> Not had a med cert or Spec Iss suspnd or withdrawn

> know of any medical condition that would make person unable to operate safely


Medical certificates: BasicMed

What are the requirements to qualify for BasicMed? (include time limitations of prerequisites)


What limits exists for flying under BasicMed?

(aircraft, altitude, speed limitations)




> U.S. driver's license: (and comply w/ its restrictions )

> post 2006, held some type of medical certificate (may be expired but not withdrawn / may be special issuance)

> Complete education course during the 2 yrs (24- months) previous / hold on to certificate

> Medical exam within past 4 yrs (48 months)

> Under Doctors's care if diagnosed w/ med cond that may impact the ability to fly


 (Airplane max wt 6000 lb, max 6 occupants; US only

<18000 ft msl; ,<250 knts; not for hire


Prerequisites for practical tests.


What must be completed prior to the practical test?


(including duration of prerequisites)






>  Pass knowledge test within past 2 yrs (24 clndr months preceding the month the applicant completes the practical test)

> Logged training time within 2 clndr months (preceding month of application for practical test)

> Endorsement, in the logbook (prepped and demo'd knowledge of deficiencies on knowledge test)

>  Hold at least a third-class medical certificate,

             (and meet the age requirement)

> Application form.

>  Present test report at application for the practical test,



Practical tests: Procedures / Aircraft / Retesting 

How and what happens when a student fails the practical test?


What must a student do prior to retesting?


What aircraft requirements for the practical test?



 §61.43 / §61.45 / §61.49  Practical tests: Procedures / Aircraft / Retesting 

> demonstrating proficiency and sound judgment.

> If an applicant fails any area of operation, that applicant fails the practical test.

>The examiner can discontinue test at any time:

(1) When applicant fails one or more of the areas of operation; or (2) Due to any other safety-of-flight concern (ex weather).


>Applicant is credited for areas passed, if applicant:

(1) Passes rest of the test within the 60-days;

(2) Presents the original notice of disapproval form

(3) Completes additional training needed (if required) and obtains endorsements,

(4) provides completed application.


Aircraft: standard airworthiness certificate and plane with two pilot control seats



Pilot logbooks: Logbook entries:


What details are to be included in a logbook entry?





> Date 

>Total flight or lesson time (hours) /

>Location departed and arrived

(full flight sim - the location) 

>Type and ID of aircraft, (or full flight sim)

>safety pilot name (if required)


(2) Type of experience— Solo, PIC, SIC, training, (or training in a full flight sim)


(3) Conditions of flight:  Day or night / Actual instrument conditions  (or Simulated conditions in flight sim)


Pilot logbooks: Logging Solo time


Under what conditions may a pilot log solo time? (exceptions?)




 §61.51   a pilot may log as solo flight time only that flight time when the pilot is the sole occupant of the aircraft. (Except for a student pilot performing the duties of pilot in command of an airship requiring more than one pilot flight crewmember)



 Pilot logbooks: logging PIC time


Under what conditions can PIC time be logged?



Student pilot?



PIC time may be logged when the pilot is

> Sole manipulator of the controls

> Sole occupant in the aircraft;

> Acts as PIC if additional crewmembers are required (except sport or recreational certificate)

> CFI serving as the authorized instructor


Student pilots may log PIC time only when

> the sole occupant (and has solo endorsement) OR

> performing duties of PIC (if additional crewmembers required)


Pilot logbooks: Logging training time



How is training time logged?

(how are records kept?)


§61.51   Pilot logbooks: Logging training time

> When Receiving training from instructor in an aircraft    (or flight sim)

> must be endorsed by the instructor; and include:

-description of the training,

-the length lesson;

-instructor's signature, cert #, and cert expire date.


Pilot logbooks: Presentation of required documents


What documents must be made available for inspection (and by whom)?


vs. What documents must be carried in the aircraft?





§61.51   Pilot logbooks: Presentation of required documents


Persons must present their                 for inspection by—

>pilot certificate,                           (i) The Administrator;

>medical certificate,                      (ii) NTSB

>logbook                                      (iii) Law enforcement.


student pilot solo XC flights as evidence of endorsements

(i) Pilot logbook;

(ii) Student pilot certificate


So, what must be carried (I surmise):

Photo ID (doesn't need to be Dr Lic)

Pilot certificate

Medical cert (Or Dr Lic for sport / Ops under BasicMed)

Logbook (for student solo's or sport w/ endorsements)


>>>These are in addition to the A.R.R.O.W. documents (Airworthiness cert, aircraft Registration, Radio cert for int'l travel, and Operating limitations & Weight and balance info - in the AFM/POH)



Pilot logbooks: instrument


  Under what circumstances can instrument time be logged? (by whom and for what purposes?)


§61.51   Pilot logbooks: instrument

instrument time can ONLY be logged for that time operating solely by reference to instruments (actual or simulated instrument conditions)


For recency experience, record—

> Location and type of each inst. approach accomplished;

> The name of the safety pilot


a Full flight sim may be used for instrument experience;

> for a pilot certificate / rating if instructor present & signs logbook to verify the time / content of the training.


> for recency if logbook is maintained of the device, time, and the content.


Flight review.


What occurs during a flight review?


How frequently must flight reviews occur?


Are there alternate methods to the flight review?


§61.56   Flight review.

A flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour of flight training and 1 hour of ground training. Includes:

>  Operating and flight rules of part 91

>  Maneuvers and procedures that demonstrate the safe exercise of the pilot certificate.


To act as PIC a pilot must (1) had a flight review and (2) logbook endorsed since the beginning of

24th calendar month prior

OR (1) A pilot proficiency check or practical test


Except: A student pilot undergoing training for a certificate and has a current solo endorsement


OR  A flight sim used in accordance with an approved course


Change of address.

What must a certificate holder do if their permanent address changes?


§61.60   Change of address.

The holder of a pilot  certificate who has made a change in permanent mailing address may not, after 30 days from that date, exercise the privileges of the certificate unless the holder has notified in writing the FAA,


Eligibility for student pilot


Requirements for a student pilot certificate?


How does one obtain a student pilot certificate?


 §61.83 / 61.85   Eligibility for student pilot


To be eligible for a student pilot certificate,

> Be at least 16 years of age

> Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English


> Submit application


Note: you do not need a student pilot certificate to receive flight training - (so you can solo immediately upon 16th birthday once student certificate is obtained?)


Solo requirements for student pilots.


What knowledge / training must be acquired prior to soloing?


(Incl duration of privileges)



§61.87   Solo requirements for student pilots.

Prior to solo student must pass a knowledge test

> Applicable sections of parts 61 (pilot privileges and limitations) and 91 (operations/flight rules)

> Airspace rules and procedures

> Flight characteristics and  limitations for model of aircraft to be flown.

> Instructor review of incorrect answers

> proficiency and safety, for the maneuvers and procedures appropriate to the model of aircraft

> endorsement in the logbook for the model aircraft to be flown, within the 90 days preceding the flight.

>a separate endorsement is required to solo at night.


Solo requirements for student pilots. Night solo.


What additional knowledge/training is required for a student pilot to night solo?


(also duration of privileges?)


§61.87   Solo requirements for student pilots. Night solo.

Solo flight at night:

> Training at night on night flying procedures at the airport where the solo flight will be conducted;

> Navigation training at night

> Endorsement in the student's logbook within the 90-day period preceding the date of the flight.


General limitations on student pilots - private pilot


What limitations are placed on student pilots flying solo?  (weather/visibility D vs.N)


In what situation may a student pilot carry passengers as PIC?


§61.89   General limitations on student pilots - private pilot

A student pilot may not act as PIC of an aircraft:

> carrying a passenger; (another w/ PP Cert. may if PIC)

> for comp or hire; or in furtherance of a business;

> with visibility < 3 SM day or < 5 sm at night;

> When the flight cannot be made with visual reference to the surface; or

> Contrary to any limitations placed in the logbook by the instructor.


 limitations on student pilot. sport pilots

 What limitations are placed on student pilots following solo?        (weather/visibility)




§61.89   limitations on student pilot.

A student pilot may not act as PIC of an aircraft:

> w/ passengers; or for hire or business;

> visibility < 3 statute miles day, <5 miles night

> without visual reference to the surface; or

> Contrary to limits placed in the logbook by instructor.


(note: another PP may act as PIC even if student manipulates controls)


Sport student pilots may not;

> At night;

> Altitude > 10,000 ft MSL or > 2,000 ft AGL, (whichever is higher)

> In Class B, C, and D airspace, only if received the training and endorsement from instructor;

> Of a light-sport aircraft with VH speeds < 87 kts must receive training and endorsement


Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.


What are the recent flight experience requirements in order to carry passengers? (tricycle gear, tail wheel, at night)


How late in day can a pilot who is not night-current carry passengers?


§61.57   Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.


PIC to carry passengers:

3 takeoffs and 3 landings w/in 90 days (3 months) , and—

>  pilot is sole manipulator of the flight controls; and

>  same category, class, (and type if type rating req'd),

> tailwheel aircraft, the T&L's to full stop.

> for night currency, T&L's completed at night

(1 hour after sunset to 1 hour before sunrise)


(So if not night current passengers can be carried up to 1 hr after sunset or 1 hr before sunrise?)


Once outside the 90 day window you must:

> Solo ("no persons or property on board")



Solo cross-country flight requirements.


Can a student pilot fly solo cross country?


(records?, for currency?)


What requirements for the solo XC flight prior to the practical test?





§61.93 Solo cross-country flight requirements.

For any flight to another airport:

> received training and demonstrate proficiency appropriate (to make and model of aircraft flown)

> Accomplished the pre-solo flight maneuvers and procedures required

> previous part 61.87 solo endorsement - certificate & logbook (w/in 90 days)

>separate endorsement required for each flight


Except: student receives training / endorsement for solo flight to another specific airport < 25 miles specifically to practice takeoffs and landings


Or Specific solo b/t airports <50 miles may also be endorsed (must include cross country operations training).


For long solo XC: 150NM total distance with full stop landings at 3 locations and one segment is at least 50NM ...distance b/t the takeoff and landing airports."


[Note: For night privileges a dual training flight of at least 100 miles with 10 to's and landings is required]


Instructor who reviews the cross-country planning must make an endorsement in the logbook after reviewing planning, includes;

> Specify the make and model of aircraft to be flown;

> State that the student's preflight planning and preparation is correct and student is prepared

> Reviewed the forecast weather and determined that flight can be completed VFR;

> State that any limitations are met.




Sport pilot student certificate: Operations at Class B, C, and D airspace, or at airports with control tower in other airspace.



What are the requirements for student sport pilots to operate in class b,c, or d airspace?


 §61.94   Sport pilot student certificate: Operations at Class B, C, and D airspace, or at airports with control tower in other airspace.


Ground and flight training at the specific Class B, C, or D airspace / airport for which the solo flight is authorized, within 90-day period preceding the date of the flight; and logbook endorsement


Operations in Class B airspace / airports within Class B

Is a student pilot allowed to fly solo within class B airspace / airport? Explain.


(scope and duration of privileges)


§61.95   Operations in Class B airspace / airports within Class B

For a student pilot to solo in class B airspace / airport;

> received ground and flight training on/in that Class B airspace area,  

> The logbook has been endorsed within the 90-day period.





Eligibility requirements: Private pilot


What are the steps / requirements to achieve a private pilot certificate?


§61.103   Eligibility requirements: Private pilot

>  Be at least 17 years of age

>  Be able to read, speak, write, etc.  English language.

>  Hold a student pilot certificate, sport pilot certificate, or recreational pilot certificate.

>  home study or instruction on the aeronautical knowledge and Receive a logbook endorsement:

> Pass the required knowledge test

> Receive flight training and a logbook endorsement

> Aeronautical experience before applying for the practical test.

> Pass a practical test







Aeronautical experience. Private pilot

What aeronautical experience is required of a student pilot to obtain a private pilot certificate?




(Hint: breakdown of training)


  §61.109   Aeronautical experience. Private pilot


For an airplane single-engine rating.

> log at least 40 hours of flight time that includes

   20 hours of flight training from an instructor

   10 hours of solo flight training


The training must include at least—

> 3 hours of XC flight training,

> 3 hours of night flight training with-

- One cross-country flight of over 100 nautical miles total distance;  and

- 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.


> 3 hours of instrument training - straight and level flight, constant airspeed climbs and descents,

turns to a heading, recovery from unusual flight attitudes, radio communications, use of navigation systems/facilities and radar services appropriate to instrument flight;


> 3 hours of prep for practical test w/in 2 calendar months of the test; and

   10 hours of solo flight time in a single-engine airplane, consisting of at least—

- 5 hours of solo cross-country time;

- long solo cross country flight of 150 nautical miles total distance, with full-stop landings at three points,                   - one of a straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and   -- 3  takeoffs and 3 landings to a full stop (in the traffic pattern) at an airport with a control tower.


(2.5 hours of training in a full flight simulator may be credited toward the flight training time required by this section, if received from an authorized instructor)


Private pilot privileges and limits: PIC


What limitations exist for private pilot charging for operating expenses?


§61.113   Private pilot privileges and limits: PIC

No person who holds a private pilot certificate may act as PIC of an aircraft that is carrying passengers for hire


 >  The flight is only incidental to business / aircraft does not carry passengers for hire.

>  may not pay less than the pro rata share of the operating/airport expenses of a flight with passengers provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees.

 > may act as PIC of a charitable flight (500 hrs min)

 >  may be reimbursed for expenses related to search and location ops


Type rating , additional training requirements.

For what aircraft is a type rating required?


What are the "other" aircraft" (defined) and what type of training/certificate is required?


§61.31   Type rating , additional training requirements.

a type rating is required for Large aircraft (>12,500 lb; except lighter-than-air), & Turbojet-powered airplanes / may be authorized up to 60 days for ferry flight, training flight, test flight, or practical test for a pilot certificate or rating;


To serve as the PIC of an aircraft, a person must hold the apr category, class, and type rating or received training, and endorsement for solo flight from an authorized instructor.


Add'l trn'g rq'd for ops: grnd / flt train + 1-time endorsement

complex airplane (retractable landing gear, flaps , and controllable pitch propeller)

high-performance airplane (an airplane with an engine of more than 200 horsepower)

pressurized aircraft (flies above 25,000 ft MSL),

tail-wheel airplane


type-specific aircraft

night vision goggle operations


separate class Rating required for

single engine land - SEL

single engine sea - SES

multiengine land (MEL) and multiengine sea MES


Glider towing: Experience and training requirements.


(cert req't, experience, recency)


§61.69   Glider and unpowered ultralight vehicle towing:


Required for PIC for towing a glider:

> Private, commercial or ATP cert with a cat rating for powered aircraft;


> Lg'd 100 hours PIC in  category, class and type, used to tow 

OR 200 hours PIC time in any aircraft (pwrd + glider?)


> Rcv'd training in procedures / L.B. endorsement


> Within 12 clndr months 

3 actual or simulated tows accompanied by qualified pilot

OR 3 flights as PIC of a glider towed by an aircraft.


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