Shared Flashcard Set


FAR Part 61 ACE
Certification of pilots
Undergraduate 1

Additional Aviation Flashcards





FAR 61.3 Requirement for certificates, ratings, and authorizations


What items must a flight crew member have in their physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft?


For sport pilots in a LSA?


Required pilot flight crew member must have in physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft

1) A pilot certificate

2) A photo ID

3) Medical certificate Except student pilot cert w/ glider, balloon, sport pilot cert wt-shift-cntrl or a powered parachute AND holds a U.S. driver's license;


(Or Under BasicMed: carries a Driver's License

and has available in the logbook the medical checklist and course completion certificate)


4) Sport pilots and student pilots on solo flights must also have logbooks containing appropriate endorsements


A person who has applied for or held a medical certificate may exercise the privileges of a sport pilot certificate using a U.S. driver's license only if that person was found eligible for at least a 3rd class medical and recent medical certificate not suspended or revoked.


Certificates must be presented upon a request from:

(1) The Administrator;

(2) NTSB

(3) law enforcement officer; or

(4) TSA


ARROW - Airworthiness certificate, Registration, Radio cert for international flights, operating limitations (AFM/POH), Weight and balance document


 §61.15   Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.


What must be done following a motor vehicle action?


What penalty does a motor vehicle action incur?


Are there additional penalties?


 §61.15   Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.


A conviction for drugs; or a conviction, cancellation, suspension, revocation or denial of an application involving DUI of alcohol or drugs;


OR An additional motor vehicle action within 3 years following a previous motor vehicle action;


is grounds for: denial of an application, suspension or revocation for any certificate, rating, or authorization for up to 1 year after the date of conviction.


Written report within 60 days - One must provide a written report of each motor vehicle action to the FAA (Civil Aviation Security Division), not later than 60 days after the motor vehicle action. Failure to grounds for: denial of an application, suspension or revocation for any certificate, rating, or authorization for up to 1 year after the date of conviction.


§61.17   Temporary certificate.

For how long is a temporary certificate valid?


 A temporary pilot certificate is issued for up to 120 days [4 months] , and expires upon expiration date,  receipt of the permanent certificate OR Upon receipt of a notice of denial or revocation


§61.19  Duration of pilot privileges.



How long are pilot certificates valid?




Student pilot certificate issued prior to April 1, 2016: for less than 40 years old: expires 60 months (5 yrs) / for  40+ years old: expires 24 months (2 yrs) after the month of the date of examination shown on the medical certificate.


Student glider, balloon, sport pilot: 60 months [5 yrs] after the month of the date issued, regardless of age.


Pilot certificates AND student pilot certificates  issued after April 1, 2016 no expiration date.


Temporary certificates - 120 days?


 Return of certificates. If suspended or revoked, must return that certificate to the FAA when requested to do so by the Administrator.


 §61.23   Medical certificates:


What medical certificates are required for different situations and how long is each valid?


(types of pilot certificates and flight situations)

(also: alternatives)


practical test for a rec pilot, private pilot, commercial, or ATP- min req'd 3rd Class (or 2nd or 1st)

ATP; 1st -class rqd

< 40 ATP / PIC or SIC - 12 months             

40 or older ATP / PIC or SIC - 6 months


commercial Cert - min rqd 2nd class (or 1st)

/ every 12th months


Private, etc. - at least a 3rd class (or 2nd or 1st)

< 40 yrs old = 5 years (60 months)

> 40 yrs old = 2 years (24 months)

note: Medical Certificate validity depends on pilot certificate being utilized (e.g. a 1st class med cert is valid for 5 yrs for private pilot under 40, but is only valid for 12 months for ATP or commercial)


No medical cert required:

Student pilot certificate seeking a sport pilot certificate in a light-sport aircraft - U.S. driver's license

pilot cert exercising glider rating,


Alt to Medical certificates:


- lmt'd; 6 occpnts/6000 lb aircrft, < 18,000ft , <250kts, not for hire.

- have been issued medical in past (post 2006)

-2 yr self certify with online course, carry certificate

- Medical checklist exam with GP every 4 yrs.

-Drivers license carried as certificate





§61.23   Medical certificates:  sport pilot in LSA


What medical certificate is required for a sport pilot certificate to fly a LSA? Explain.




Using U.S. driver's license for sport pilot LSA privileges

> Must follow restrictions on license.

> Not had a med cert or Spec Iss suspnd or withdrawn

> know of any medical condition that would make person unable to operate safely


 §61.23   Medical certificates: BasicMed

What are the requirements to qualify for BasicMed? (include time limitations of prerequisites)


What limits exists for flying under BasicMed?

(aircraft, altitude, speed limitations)


> U.S. driver's license: (and comply w/ its restrictions )

> post 2006, held some type of medical certificate (may be expired but not withdrawn / may be special issuance)

> Complete education course during the 2 yrs (24- months) previous / hold on to certificate

> Medical exam within past 4 yrs (48 months)

> Under Doctors's care if diagnosed w/ med cond that may impact the ability to fly


 (Airplane max wt 6000 lb, max 6 occupants; US only

<18000 ft msl; ,<250 knts; not for hire


§61.39   Prerequisites for practical tests.


What must be completed prior to the practical test?


(including duration of prerequisites)




>  Pass knowledge test within past 2 yrs (24 clndr months preceding the month the applicant completes the practical test)

> Logged training time within 2 clndr months (preceding month of application for practical test)

> Endorsement, in the logbook (prepped and demo'd knowledge of deficiencies on knowledge test)

>  Hold at least a third-class medical certificate,

             (and meet the age requirement)

> Application form.

>  Present test report at application for the practical test,



 §61.43 / §61.45 / §61.49  Practical tests: Procedures / Aircraft / Retesting 

How and what happens when a student fails the practical test?


What must a student do prior to retesting?


What aircraft requirements for the practical test?



 §61.43 / §61.45 / §61.49  Practical tests: Procedures / Aircraft / Retesting 

> demonstrating proficiency and sound judgment.

> If an applicant fails any area of operation, that applicant fails the practical test.

>The examiner can discontinue test at any time:

(1) When applicant fails one or more of the areas of operation; or (2) Due to any other safety-of-flight concern (ex weather).


>Applicant is credited for areas passed, if applicant:

(1) Passes rest of the test within the 60-days;

(2) Presents the original notice of disapproval form

(3) Completes additional training needed (if required) and obtains endorsements,

(4) provides completed application.


Aircraft: standard airworthiness certificate and plane with two pilot control seats



 §61.51   Pilot logbooks: Logbook entries:


What details are to be included in a logbook entry?



> Date 

>Total flight or lesson time (hours) /

>Location departed and arrived

(full flight sim - the location) 

>Type and ID of aircraft, (or full flight sim)

>safety pilot name (if required)


(2) Type of experience— Solo, PIC, SIC, training, (or training in a full flight sim)


(3) Conditions of flight:  Day or night / Actual instrument conditions  (or Simulated conditions in flight sim)


 §61.51   Pilot logbooks: Logging Solo time


Under what conditions may a pilot log solo time? (exceptions?)




a pilot may log as solo flight time only that flight time when the pilot is the sole occupant of the aircraft. (Except for a student pilot performing the duties of pilot in command of an airship requiring more than one pilot flight crewmember)



 §61.51   Pilot logbooks: logging PIC time


Under what conditions can PIC time be logged?



Student pilot?


PIC time may be logged when the pilot is

> Sole manipulator of the controls

> Sole occupant in the aircraft;

> Acts as PIC if additional crewmembers are required (except sport or recreational certificate)

> CFI serving as the authorized instructor


Student pilots may log PIC time only when

> the sole occupant (and has solo endorsement) OR

> performing duties of PIC (if additional crewmembers required)


§61.51   Pilot logbooks: Logging training time



How is training time logged?

(how are records kept?)


§61.51   Pilot logbooks: Logging training time

> When Receiving training from instructor in an aircraft    (or flight sim)

> must be endorsed by the instructor; and include:

-description of the training,

-the length lesson;

-instructor's signature, cert #, and cert expire date.


§61.51   Pilot logbooks: Presentation of required documents


What documents must be made available for inspection (and by whom)?


vs. What documents must be carried in the aircraft?





§61.51   Pilot logbooks: Presentation of required documents


Persons must present their                 for inspection by—

>pilot certificate,                           (i) The Administrator;

>medical certificate,                      (ii) NTSB

>logbook                                      (iii) Law enforcement.


student pilot solo XC flights as evidence of endorsements

(i) Pilot logbook;

(ii) Student pilot certificate


So, what must be carried (I surmise):

Photo ID (doesn't need to be Dr Lic)

Pilot certificate

Medical cert (Or Dr Lic for sport / Ops under BasicMed)

Logbook (for student solo's or sport w/ endorsements)


>>>These are in addition to the A.R.R.O.W. documents (Airworthiness cert, aircraft Registration, Radio cert for int'l travel, and Operating limitations & Weight and balance info - in the AFM/POH)



§61.51   Pilot logbooks: instrument


  Under what circumstances can instrument time be logged? (by whom and for what purposes?)


§61.51   Pilot logbooks: instrument

instrument time can ONLY be logged for that time operating solely by reference to instruments (actual or simulated instrument conditions)


For recency experience, record—

> Location and type of each inst. approach accomplished;

> The name of the safety pilot


a Full flight sim may be used for instrument experience;

> for a pilot certificate / rating if instructor present & signs logbook to verify the time / content of the training.


> for recency if logbook is maintained of the device, time, and the content.


§61.56   Flight review.


What occurs during a flight review?


How frequently must flight reviews occur?


Are there alternate methods to the flight review?


§61.56   Flight review.

A flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour of flight training and 1 hour of ground training. Includes:

>  Operating and flight rules of part 91

>  Maneuvers and procedures that demonstrate the safe exercise of the pilot certificate.


To act as PIC a pilot must (1) had a flight review and (2) logbook endorsed since the beginning of

24th calendar month prior

OR (1) A pilot proficiency check or practical test


Except: A student pilot undergoing training for a certificate and has a current solo endorsement


OR  A flight sim used in accordance with an approved course


§61.60   Change of address.

What must a certificate holder do if their permanent address changes?


§61.60   Change of address.

The holder of a pilot  certificate who has made a change in permanent mailing address may not, after 30 days from that date, exercise the privileges of the certificate unless the holder has notified in writing the FAA,


 §61.83 / 61.85   Eligibility for student pilot


Requirements for a student pilot certificate?


How does one obtain a student pilot certificate?


 §61.83 / 61.85   Eligibility for student pilot


To be eligible for a student pilot certificate,

> Be at least 16 years of age

> Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English


> Submit application


Note: you do not need a student pilot certificate to receive flight training - (so you can solo immediately upon 16th birthday once student certificate is obtained?)


 §61.87   Solo requirements for student pilots.


What knowledge / training must be acquired prior to soloing?


(Incl duration of privileges)



§61.87   Solo requirements for student pilots.

Prior to solo student must pass a knowledge test

> Applicable sections of parts 61 (pilot privileges and limitations) and 91 (operations/flight rules)

> Airspace rules and procedures

> Flight characteristics and  limitations for model of aircraft to be flown.

> Instructor review of incorrect answers

> proficiency and safety, for the maneuvers and procedures appropriate to the model of aircraft

> endorsement in the logbook for the model aircraft to be flown, within the 90 days preceding the flight.

>a separate endorsement is required to solo at night.


§61.87   Solo requirements for student pilots. Night solo.


What additional knowledge/training is required for a student pilot to night solo?


(also duration of privileges?)


§61.87   Solo requirements for student pilots. Night solo.

Solo flight at night:

> Training at night on night flying procedures at the airport where the solo flight will be conducted;

> Navigation training at night

> Endorsement in the student's logbook within the 90-day period preceding the date of the flight.


§61.89   General limitations on student pilots - private pilot


What limitations are placed on student pilots flying solo?  (weather/visibility D vs.N)


In what situation may a student pilot carry passengers as PIC?


§61.89   General limitations on student pilots - private pilot

A student pilot may not act as PIC of an aircraft:

> carrying a passenger; (another w/ PP Cert. may if PIC)

> for comp or hire; or in furtherance of a business;

> with visibility < 3 SM day or < 5 sm at night;

> When the flight cannot be made with visual reference to the surface; or

> Contrary to any limitations placed in the logbook by the instructor.


§61.89   limitations on student pilot. sport pilots

 What limitations are placed on student pilots following solo?        (weather/visibility)




§61.89   limitations on student pilot.

A student pilot may not act as PIC of an aircraft:

> w/ passengers; or for hire or business;

> visibility < 3 statute miles day, <5 miles night

> without visual reference to the surface; or

> Contrary to limits placed in the logbook by instructor.


(note: another PP may act as PIC even if student manipulates controls)


Sport student pilots may not;

> At night;

> Altitude > 10,000 ft MSL or > 2,000 ft AGL, (whichever is higher)

> In Class B, C, and D airspace, only if received the training and endorsement from instructor;

> Of a light-sport aircraft with VH speeds < 87 kts must receive training and endorsement


 §61.57   Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.


What are the recent flight experience requirements in order to carry passengers? (tricycle gear, tail wheel, at night)


How late in day can a pilot who is not night-current carry passengers?


§61.57   Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.


PIC to carry passengers:

3 takeoffs and 3 landings w/in 90 days (3 months) , and—

>  pilot is sole manipulator of the flight controls; and

>  same category, class, (and type if type rating req'd),

> tailwheel aircraft, the T&L's to full stop.

> for night currency, T&L's completed at night

(1 hour after sunset to 1 hour before sunrise)


(So if not night current passengers can be carried up to 1 hr after sunset or 1 hr before sunrise?)


Once outside the 90 day window you must:

> Solo ("no persons or property on board")



§61.93 Solo cross-country flight requirements.


Can a student pilot fly solo cross country?


(records?, for currency?)


What requirements for the solo XC flight prior to the practical test?





§61.93 Solo cross-country flight requirements.

For any flight to another airport:

> received training and demonstrate proficiency appropriate (to make and model of aircraft flown)

> Accomplished the pre-solo flight maneuvers and procedures required

> previous part 61.87 solo endorsement - certificate & logbook (w/in 90 days)

>separate endorsement required for each flight


Except: student receives training / endorsement for solo flight to another specific airport < 25 miles specifically to practice takeoffs and landings


Or Specific solo b/t airports <50 miles may also be endorsed (must include cross country operations training).


For long solo XC: 150NM total distance with full stop landings at 3 locations and one segment is at least 50NM ...distance b/t the takeoff and landing airports."


[Note: For night privileges a dual training flight of at least 100 miles with 10 to's and landings is required]


Instructor who reviews the cross-country planning must make an endorsement in the logbook after reviewing planning, includes;

> Specify the make and model of aircraft to be flown;

> State that the student's preflight planning and preparation is correct and student is prepared

> Reviewed the forecast weather and determined that flight can be completed VFR;

> State that any limitations are met.




  §61.94   Sport pilot student certificate: Operations at Class B, C, and D airspace, or at airports with control tower in other airspace.



What are the requirements for student sport pilots to operate in class b,c, or d airspace?


 §61.94   Sport pilot student certificate: Operations at Class B, C, and D airspace, or at airports with control tower in other airspace.


Ground and flight training at the specific Class B, C, or D airspace / airport for which the solo flight is authorized, within 90-day period preceding the date of the flight; and logbook endorsement


§61.95   Operations in Class B airspace / airports within Class B

Is a student pilot allowed to fly solo within class B airspace / airport? Explain.


(scope and duration of privileges)


§61.95   Operations in Class B airspace / airports within Class B

For a student pilot to solo in class B airspace / airport;

> received ground and flight training on/in that Class B airspace area,  

> The logbook has been endorsed within the 90-day period.





§61.103   Eligibility requirements: Private pilot


What are the steps / requirements to achieve a private pilot certificate?


§61.103   Eligibility requirements: Private pilot

>  Be at least 17 years of age

>  Be able to read, speak, write, etc.  English language.

>  Hold a student pilot certificate, sport pilot certificate, or recreational pilot certificate.

>  home study or instruction on the aeronautical knowledge and Receive a logbook endorsement:

> Pass the required knowledge test

> Receive flight training and a logbook endorsement

> Aeronautical experience before applying for the practical test.

> Pass a practical test







 §61.109   Aeronautical experience. Private pilot

What aeronautical experience is required of a student pilot to obtain a private pilot certificate?




(Hint: breakdown of training)


  §61.109   Aeronautical experience. Private pilot


For an airplane single-engine rating.

> log at least 40 hours of flight time that includes

   20 hours of flight training from an instructor

   10 hours of solo flight training


The training must include at least—

> 3 hours of XC flight training,

> 3 hours of night flight training with-

- One cross-country flight of over 100 nautical miles total distance;  and

- 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.


> 3 hours of instrument training - straight and level flight, constant airspeed climbs and descents,

turns to a heading, recovery from unusual flight attitudes, radio communications, use of navigation systems/facilities and radar services appropriate to instrument flight;


> 3 hours of prep for practical test w/in 2 calendar months of the test; and

   10 hours of solo flight time in a single-engine airplane, consisting of at least—

- 5 hours of solo cross-country time;

- long solo cross country flight of 150 nautical miles total distance, with full-stop landings at three points,                   - one of a straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and   -- 3  takeoffs and 3 landings to a full stop (in the traffic pattern) at an airport with a control tower.


(2.5 hours of training in a full flight simulator may be credited toward the flight training time required by this section, if received from an authorized instructor)


§61.113   Private pilot privileges and limits: PIC


What limitations exist for private pilot charging for operating expenses?


§61.113   Private pilot privileges and limits: PIC

No person who holds a private pilot certificate may act as PIC of an aircraft that is carrying passengers for hire


 >  The flight is only incidental to business / aircraft does not carry passengers for hire.

>  may not pay less than the pro rata share of the operating/airport expenses of a flight with passengers provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees.

 > may act as PIC of a charitable flight (500 hrs min)

 >  may be reimbursed for expenses related to search and location ops



Type rating , additional training requirements.

For what aircraft is a type rating required?


What are the "other" aircraft" (defined) and what type of training/certificate is required?


§61.31   Type rating , additional training requirements.

a type rating is required for Large aircraft (>12,500 lb; except lighter-than-air), & Turbojet-powered airplanes / may be authorized up to 60 days for ferry flight, training flight, test flight, or practical test for a pilot certificate or rating;


To serve as the PIC of an aircraft, a person must hold the apr category, class, and type rating or received training, and endorsement for solo flight from an authorized instructor.


Add'l trn'g rq'd for ops: grnd / flt train + 1-time endorsement

complex airplane (retractable landing gear, flaps , and controllable pitch propeller)

high-performance airplane (an airplane with an engine of more than 200 horsepower)

pressurized aircraft (flies above 25,000 ft MSL),

tail-wheel airplane


type-specific aircraft

night vision goggle operations


separate class Rating required for

single engine land - SEL

single engine sea - SES

multiengine land (MEL) and multiengine sea MES


§61.69   Glider towing: Experience and training requirements.


(cert req't, experience, recency)


§61.69   Glider and unpowered ultralight vehicle towing:


Required for PIC for towing a glider:

> Private, commercial or ATP cert with a cat rating for powered aircraft;


> Lg'd 100 hours PIC in  category, class and type, used to tow 

OR 200 hours PIC time in any aircraft (pwrd + glider?)


> Rcv'd training in procedures / L.B. endorsement


> Within 12 clndr months 

3 actual or simulated tows accompanied by qualified pilot

OR 3 flights as PIC of a glider towed by an aircraft.


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