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FAR part 1
definitions and abreviations
46
Aviation
Undergraduate 1
02/09/2020

Additional Aviation Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Alert Area.
Definition

 

established to inform pilots of a specific area wherein

a high volume of pilot training or an unusual type of aeronautical activity is conducted.

Term

 

Category:

Definition

Category: 

certification of airmen,

broad classification of aircraft.

Ex incl:

airplane; rotorcraft; glider; lighter-than-air;

 

certification of aircraft,

group based on intended use or operating limitations.

Ex incl:

transport,normal,utility,acrobatic,

limited,restricted, provisional.

Term
Ceiling
Definition

 

means the

height above the earth's surface of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena that is reported as “broken”, “overcast”, or “obscuration”, and not classified as “thin” or “partial”.

Term

 

Class:

Definition

 Class:

 

for cert of airmen - aircraft w/in a category w/

similar operating characteristics. Ex incl

 

(airplane cat) single engine land/ single engine water  multiengine land / multiengine water

 

(rotocraft cat) gyroplane / helicopter;

 

(L.T.A. cat) airship / free balloon;

 

for cert of aircraft, - broad group of aircraft w/

similar char of propulsion, flight, or landing. Ex incl airplane; rotorcraft; glider; balloon; landplane / seaplane.

Term

 

Controlled airspace

Definition

 means an airspace of

defined dimensions within which ATC service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification.

 

Note: Controlled airspace is a generic term that covers Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E airspace.

Term

 

Controlled Firing Area.

Definition

 

A controlled firing area is established to

contain activities, which if not conducted in a controlled environment, would be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft.

CFAs are set up so people (military or civilian) can explode things on the ground or test rockets without having to limit the movement of aircraft with a TFR or permanent Restricted Area.

  • They are never found in NOTAMs
  • There are no dimensions
  • They are not charted
  • There is no controlling agency to contact (unlike Restricted Areas, Warning Areas, and MOAs)
  • The most common uses are: ordnance disposal, blasting, and static testing of large rockets
  • CFAs are not used for “aircraft ordnance delivery activities” (ie. shooting rockets off an Apache helicopter)

The best part:

All activity stops when the user spots an aircraft.

So really, in practical terms, you’ll never know if you are flying through or near a CFA.

 

Term

EAS

Definition

 

Equivalent airspeed - the calibrated airspeed (indicated AS corrected for instrument error) of an aircraft corrected for adiabatic compressible flow for the particular altitude.

 

(lower density of air at higher altitude reduces pressure in the pitot tube and so decreases the indicated airspeed.)

 

Equivalent airspeed is equal to calibrated airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level.

 

IAS depends on impact pressure - qc,  at pitot tube

qc (impact pressure) = 1/2pV^2 ( where p = air density)

p - air density decreases at higher altitude

as p decreases, impact pressure qc decreases so also does calculated airspeed. EAS corrects for decrease in p.

Term

ETOPS  (plus additional equip required?)

Definition

Extended over-water operation means—

(1) With respect to aircraft other than helicopters, an operation over water at a horizontal distance of more than 50 NM from the nearest shoreline;

 

additional equip required-

ELT

life preserver w/ light

raft that can accommodate all occupants

pyrotech signal device per raft

 

survival kit per raft

Term
Flight level
Definition

Flight level means a level of constant atmospheric pressure related to a reference datum of 29.92 inches of mercury. Each is stated in three digits that represent hundreds of feet. For example, flight level 250 represents a barometric altimeter indication of 25,000 feet; flight level 255, an indication of 25,500 feet.

Term
Flight visibility (def)
Definition

Flight visibility means the average forward horizontal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight, at which prominent unlighted objects may be seen and identified by day and prominent lighted objects may be seen and identified by night.

Term
Light-sport aircraft
Definition

Light-sport aircraft means an aircraft,  has

(1) max takeoff wt < 1,320 pounds (1,430 pounds  water ops.

(2) A max airspeed <120 kts CAS

(4) A maximum stalling speed (VS1)  < 45 kts CAS

(5) seating capacity of no more than two

(6) A single, reciprocating engine

(7) A fixed propeller

(10) A nonpressurized cabin,

(11) Fixed landing gear,

Term
Load factor
Definition
Load factor means the ratio of a specified load to the total weight of the aircraft. The specified load is expressed in terms of any of the following: aerodynamic forces, inertia forces, or ground or water reactions.
Term
Manifold pressure
Definition
Manifold pressure means absolute pressure as measured at the appropriate point in the induction system and usually expressed in inches of mercury.
Term

Military operations area.

Definition

Military operations area.

 

(MOA) is airspace established outside Class A airspace to separate or segregate certain nonhazardous military (flight) activities from IFR Traffic and to identify for VFR traffic where theses activities are conducted.

 

VFR pilots do need to exercise “extreme caution while flying within a MOA when military activity is being conducted.” (AIM 3-4-5).

 

Unlike Restricted, Prohibited Areas or TFRs,

MOAs do not prohibit the operation of GA aircraft. You can fly through a MOA even when it’s “active.” But figure out if they are active and if  active, call the controlling agency as you get close to the MOA and let them know your intention.

 

Three questions: when are they open? (usually weekdays), what altitudes? Who to contact (FSS or sectionals give frequencies to monitor?)

 

 

Term

FAR part 1

Night

Definition

Night means the

time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in the Air Almanac, converted to local time.

Term
Pilotage
Definition
Pilotage means navigation by visual reference to landmarks.
Term
Preventive maintenance
Definition

Preventive maintenance means simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations.

Term
Prohibited area
Definition

Prohibited area. A prohibited area is airspace designated under part 73 within which no person may operate an aircraft without the permission of the using agency.

Term
Restricted area.
Definition

Restricted area. Airspace designated under Part 73 within which the flight of aircraft, while not wholly prohibited, is subject to restriction.

 

(Can't enter during "hot" times - published - without permission of controlling agency; but can enter when "cold")

 

Should contact controlling agency regardless.

Term
True airspeed
Definition

True airspeed means the airspeed of an aircraft relative to undisturbed air. True airspeed is equal to equivalent airspeed multiplied by (ρ0/ρ) 12 .

 

For every 1,000 feet of altitude gain, True Air Speed (TAS) increases approximately 2% over Indicated Air Speed (IAS).

 

For example, if you were flying 10,000 feet above sea level, with an Indicated Air Speed of 100 knots, your True Air Speed (TAS) would be approximately 120 Knots.

Term
Warning area.
Definition

Warning area. A warning area is airspace of defined dimensions,

 

extending from 3 nautical miles outward from the coast of the United States,

 

that contains

 

activity that may be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft.

 

The purpose of such warning areas is to warn nonparticipating pilots of the potential danger. A warning area may be located over domestic or international waters or both.

Term
AFM
Definition

airplane flight manual

 

The AFM is a document developed by the airplane manufacturer and approved by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

 

It is specific to a particular make and model airplane by serial number and it contains operating procedures and limitations.

Term
CAS
Definition

Calibrated Airspeed

means the indicated airspeed , corrected for position and instrument error. (due to incorrect pressure at the static port caused by airflow disruption)

 

for navigation, CAS calculated as step b/n indicated airspeed (IAS) and true airspeed (TAS);

 

for aircraft control, CAS is a primary reference pt - describes the dynamic pressure acting on aircraft surfaces regardless of of temp, press alt or wind.

 

CAS is equal to true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level.

 

The Airspeed Indicator (and IAS) is subject to slight errors. Factors such as the placement of the Pitot Tube and Static Sources and flying configuration such as the degrees of flap extended.

 

At a given weight, an aircraft will rotate and climb, stall or fly an approach to a landing at approximately the same calibrated airspeeds, regardless of the elevation, even though the true airspeed and groundspeed may differ significantly.

 

POH used to determine the amount of ‘Correction’ you need to calculate your calibrated Airspeed.

Term
IAS
Definition

indicated airspeed.

 

Indicated airspeed means the speed of an aircraft as shown on its pitot static airspeed indicator calibrated to reflect standard atmosphere adiabatic compressible flow at sea level uncorrected for airspeed system errors.

 

For every 1,000 feet of altitude gain, True Air Speed (TAS) increases approximately 2% over Indicated Air Speed (IAS).

 

For example, if you were flying 10,000 feet above sea level, with an Indicated Air Speed of 100 knots, your True Air Speed (TAS) would be approximately 120 Knots.

Term

MEL

 

Definition

minimum equipment list.

 

it allows a pilot to legally fly the aircraft even if something is broken. Normally, if something is installed in an aircraft it’s supposed to work. The MEL provides relief from that requirement.

 

A lot of aviation systems had redundancy built in. The MEL acknowledges even with something broken, flight can continue safely.

Term
RAIL
Definition

Runway Alignment Indicator Lights

 

[image]

 

 

Term
RBN
Definition

  radio beacon.

Term
TAS
Definition

true airspeed.

 

The IAS and CAS are still not your True Air Speed (TAS). To calculate TAS, you will need to factor in the Outside Air Temperature (OAT) and the Pressure Altitude. Some Airspeed Indicators have a moveable ring on the outer scale of the dial to assist with determining your TAS.

Term

VA

 

(what happens above this?)

Definition

design maneuvering speed

 

Velocity (V) of Acceleration (a) or Va.

 

Not on ASI; depends on aircraft wt. loading

 

Abrupt movements below Va results in stalling;

Abrupt movements above Va results in structural damage.

 

 

In turbulence, you should always be at, or below, the Maneuvering Speed (Va).

Term
VFE  
Definition

maximum flap extended speed

 

(highest on White arc on airspeed indicator)

Term
VLE
Definition
maximum landing gear extended speed
Term

VNE

(color range on ASI, what happens above this?)

Definition

Vne = never-exceed speed.

 

The Red Line at the top of the Yellow Arc

 

This is the Red Line of the Airspeed Indicator

 

Maximum Speed the Aircraft should ever be operated in Smooth Air.

 

Exceeding Vne cause uncontrollable and destructive flutter, and cause serious or catastrophic failure of structural components on the aircraft.

 

 

Term

VNO 

 

color/range on VSI, flight limitations

Definition

maximum structural cruising speed

 

Vno - top of green arc

 

 Operation of the Aircraft at the Vno speed, and lower, is within the certified range for operations within gusts.

 

Do not exceed Vno, except in Smooth Air, and only with caution

Term
VR
Definition
rotation speed
Term
VS
Definition

  means the stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable

 

Vs0 - stall speed with flaps out - bottom of white arc

Vs1 stall speed with flaps in - bottom of green arc

Term
VS0
Definition

   means the stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration (flaps "0" or "0ut")

(slower than Vs1 - flaps in speed)

 

Lowest on white arc on airspeed indicator

Term
VS1
Definition

  means the stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed obtained in a specific configuration (flaps "in" - "1n")

(faster than Vs0 - flaps out speed)

 

Lowest on green arc on airspeed indicator (AI)

Term
VX  
Definition
means speed for best angle of climb
Term
VY  
Definition
means speed for best rate of climb
Term
V1  
Definition

means the maximum speed in the takeoff at which the pilot must take the first action (e.g., apply brakes, reduce thrust, deploy speed brakes) to stop the airplane within the accelerate-stop distance.

 

V1   also means the minimum speed in the takeoff, following a failure of the critical engine at VEF, at which the pilot can continue the takeoff and achieve the required height above the takeoff surface within the takeoff distance.

Term
VFR  
Definition
means visual flight rules
Term
VGSI
Definition
means visual Glide slope Indicator
Term
VORTAC  
Definition
means collocated VOR and TACAN
Term
Major alteration / Major repair
Definition

Major alteration - alteration not listed in the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller specifications—

(1) That might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, powerplant operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness; or

(2)  not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations.

 

Major repair means a repair:

(1) That, if improperly done, might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, powerplant operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness; or

(2) That is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations.

Term

CFR 1.1

 

Type

Definition

 

Type "Rating" with respect to the certification of airmen, means specific make and basic model of aircraft

 

a Type rating is required to PIC aircraft >12,500lb and Turbojet-powered

 

with respect to the certification of aircraft, means aircraft which are similar in design.

Term
Complex airplane
Definition

Complex airplane has

retractable landing gear, flaps, controllable pitch propeller,

 

incl airplanes equip w/ engine control system consisting of a digital computer for controlling the engine and propeller, eg. full authority digital engine control;

 

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