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Undergraduate 1

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Appendix A to Part 43—Major Alt's, 'Repairs,  Prev Maint


What are the rules governing preventative maintenance ?


Appendix A to Part 43 Preventive Maintenance

does not involve complex assembly operations:

entry in logbook or record system 

1. A description of the work performed

2. Date of completion.
3. Signature, certificate number, and kind of certificate held by the person performing the work.
signature constitutes approval for return to service ONLY for work performed


(c) Preventive maintenance. limited to the following

(1) Rmvl, instl, rpr of landing gear tires.

(2) Rpl elastic shock absorber cords on landing gear.

(3) Srvcg landing gear shock struts by adding oil, air

(4) Srvcg landing gear wheel bearings; cleaning, greasing.

(5) Rplcg defective safety wiring or cotter keys.

(6) Lub nt rqrg dsmbly o/t rmvl of cvr plates, cowlings, and fairings.

(7) fabric patch not rqr'g rib stitching / rmv'l of str'l prts or cntrl sfcs.

(8) Rplnsh'g hydrlc fluid

(9) Rfnsh'g decorative coat'gs of fuslg, etc. or interior;

(10) App preserv or protective mat'l

(11) Rpr'g upholstery / dec frnsh'gs cabin

(12) smpl rprs to fair'gs, nonstr'l cover plates, nt chg'g contour

(13) Rplc'g side windows

(14) Rplc'g safety belts.

(15) seats/parts with replacement parts

(16) broken circuits in landing light wiring circuits.

(17) bulbs, reflectors, and lenses of pos't'n / lnd'g lts.

(18) wheels /skis - no wt/bal comp involved.

(19) cowling nt rq'g rmvl of prop or disconnect  flt cntrls.

(20) spark plugs and setting of spark plug gap clearance.

(21) hose connection x hydraulic connections.

(22) prefabricated fuel lines.

(23) fuel and oil strainers or filter elements.

(24) servicing batteries.

(26) nonstruct'l std fastnrs incid'l to ops.

(28)  install anti-misfueling devices

(29) chk'g-rplc'g mgntc chip detctrs (attracts metal particles. / used in aircraft engine oil chip detection systems. / provide an early warning of an impending engine failure)

(30) inspect / maint tasks id'd prev maint in primary cat arcft

(31) rplc'g slf-cntn'd, instr pnl-mnt navcom dvcs w/ tray-mnt'd cnctrs (x auto flt cntrl systs, transponders, and mcrwv freq DME's)



830.5   Immediate notification.

What are the rules for notification of the NTSB?


§ 830.5   Immediate notification.

immediately, notify nearest NTSB office,when:

An aircraft accident or serious incidents occur:



P- damage to Property > $25,000

P - Propeller part release (exclude ground strike)

F- in-flight Fire

A – Accident (serious injury/substantial damage; vs incident)

C- Collision in flight; (Or ACAS airbrn collision avoid syst advisory)

T - Turbine engine failure results in debris

I – Inability of crewmember d/t Injury/ Illness;

O - Overdue aircraft / possible accident.

N – No control (Flight cntrl syst malf or fail);

D - cockpit Displays - complete loss of info, from > 50% integrated displays: Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS); a primary flight display (PFD), primary navigation display (PND).


ACAS - Airborne Collision and Avoidance System advisory - when IFR - to avert collision between aircraft.







Sec. 23.3 — Airplane categories.


(for cert of aircraft - description and limitations)

(also - other req'ts, mult certs)


Sec. 23.3 — Airplane categories.


(a) Normal category   seating excluding pilot seats, of 9 or less, < 12,500 lb / for non-acrobatic operation.

(1) Normal flying maneuvers; (2) Stalls (x whip stalls) and (3) Lazy eights, chandelles, and steep turns <  600 bank.


(b) Utility category - excl. pilot seats, of nine or less,

< 12,500 lb, / limited acrobatic operation: 

(1) Spins   

(2) Lazy eights, chandelles, and steep turns, bank is > 60 deg but < 90 deg (but parachute req'd >60 deg bank?)


(c) acrobatic category  excluding pilot seats, of nine or less, a < 12,500 lb / intended for use without restrictions, (parachute req'd for some maneuvers)


(d) Commuter category - propeller-driven, multi-engine  excl pilot of 19 or less, and a max wt < 19,000 lb (same maneuver restrictions as normal category)



(e) airplanes may be type certificated in more than one category if the requirements of each requested category are met.




Appendix A to Part 43

Preventive Maintenance


Appendix A to Part 43 Preventive Maintenance

 (c) Preventive maintenance (does not involve complex assembly operations)


(1) Removal, installation, and repair of tires.

(2) Repl elastic shock absorber cords on landing gear.

(3) Serv landing gear shock struts add oil or air.

(4) Serv landing gear wheel bearings

(5) Replacing defective safety wiring or cotter keys.

(6) Lubrication not req disassembly

(7) Making simple fabric patches

(8) Replenishing hydraulic fluid

(9) Refinishing decorative coating of fuselage, etc

(10) Applying preservative to components

(11) Repairing upholstery and decorative furnishings

(12) Making small simple repairs to fairings, etc

(13) Replacing side windows

(14) Replacing safety belts.

(15) Replacing seats or seat parts

(16) repairing broken landing light circuits 

(17) Repl bulbs, reflectors of pos and land lights.

(18) Replacing wheels and skis (no wt&bal calcs invlvd)

(19) Repl cowling (expt req remov of prop or flight ctrls)

(20) Repl or cleaning spark plugs / setting gap

(21) Repl hose connection (expt hydraulic)

(22) Replacing prefab fuel lines.

(23) Cleaning or replacing fuel and oil strainers

(24) Replacing and servicing batteries.

(26) Repl nonstructural standard fasteners

(28) install anti-misfueling devices to reduce the

(29) check, and repl magnetic chip detectors.

(31) Remov and repl self-contained, frnt inst panel-mnted nav / com devices (excl auto flt cntrl sys, transprs, and DME).





Duration of airworthiness certificates


§21.181   Duration of airworthiness certificates


(1) Standard and special airworthiness certificates—primary category, restricted or limited category

Never expire as long as the preventive maintenance is performed


(2) A special flight permit is effective for the period of time specified in the permit.


(3) A special airworthiness - light-sport category is effective as long as The aircraft conforms to its original configuration, except for those alterations performed in accordance with an applicable consensus standard and authorized by the aircraft's manufacturer


An experimental certificate for research and development, is effective for 1 year after the date of issue


An experimental certificate for operating amateur-built aircraft, exhibition, air-racing, operating primary kit-built aircraft, or operating light-sport aircraft is unlimited,




Difference between the POH and the AFM?



AFM is usually a thinner document, satisfying the CFR/FAR requirements for certification and not much else.


AFM's were produced for aircraft manufactured post 1979.


POH contains these required items plus other info

like system diagrams / GAMA (gen avi manuf assoc) standardized



Parts of the POH (like the Limitations sect) are FAA-Approved, and serve as the AFM, and both documents are typically associated with a specific airframe (by serial #)


Both POH and AFM meet the "Operating Limitations" requirement in the ARROW acronym.



A better explanation might be this:
The AFM is a regulatory document (it's contents are prescribed under the section of the regulations the aircraft was certificated under - Part 23, Part 25, etc).


The POH is a GAMA-defined document whose contents meet the regulatory requirements of an AFM, and present other information in a standardized way so that a pilot can go from a Cessna to a Piper to a Mooney to a Socata and browse the book to learn about the airplane they're about to fly with all the information presented the same way no matter who the manufacturer is.





"Owner's Manual" (which usually goes along with a thinner AFM & provides some of the information found in the newer-style POH)


Pilot Information Manual (PIM) - "generic" version of the POH which many pilots buy so they can study the procedures without removing the regulatory document from the aircraft.


§ 830.2  NTSB Definitions.


For purposes of reporting define the following:

Aircraft accident

Fatal injury


Serious injury
Substantial damage


And, what damages are not considered substantial?


§ 830.2  NTSB Definitions.


Aircraft accident takes place between the time any person boards and all such persons have disembarked, any person suffers death or serious injury /aircraft receives substantial damage.


Serious injury means any injury which results or requires

(1) hospitalization for > 48 hours, w/in 7 days

(2) fracture of any bone (x simple fractures of fingers, toes, or nose);

(3) severe hemorrhages, nerve, muscle, or tendon damage;

(4) any internal organ; or (5) 2nd/3rd deg burns, or > 5 % of body


Substantial damage means damage or failure which adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and which would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component.


Not considered “substantial damage:

> Engine failure or damage limited to an engine if only one engine fails or is damaged,

> bent fairings or cowling, dented skin, small punctured holes in the skin or fabric,

> ground damage to rotor or propeller blades, and damage to landing gear, wheels, tires, flaps, engine accessories, brakes, or wingtips


Fatal injury - injury results in death < 30 days of the accident.


Incident - other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of operations.


§ 830.10   Preservation of aircraft wreckage


Responsibilities for reportable accident/incident?


§ 830.10   Preservation of aircraft wreckage

(a) The operator involved in accident or incident requiring notification is responsible for preserving wreckage, etc.  until the Board takes custody

(b) Prior to NTSB custody the wreckage  may not be disturbed or moved except to: remove injured or trapped; protect the wreckage from further damage; or to protect the public from injury. And then sketches, descriptive notes, and photographs shall be made.


§ 830.15  accident/incident Reports and statements to be filed.


Timing requirements for reporting accidents / incidents?


§ 830.15   Reports and statements to be filed.

Reports. The operator shall file a report within 10 days after an accident or after 7 days if an overdue aircraft is still missing.


(Aircraft accident - any person suffers death or serious injury /aircraft receives substantial damage.)


A report on an incident for which immediate notification is required by § 830.5 shall be filed only as requested by an authorized representative of the Board.


Incident - affects or could affect the safety of operations.


Operator shall file any report with the field office of NTSB nearest the accident or incident.

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