# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Fallacies
All Fallacies on Wikapedia
21
Law
03/19/2013

Term
 Formal Logic   Appeal to probability
Definition
 Takes something for granted because it would probably be the case (or might be the case)
Term
 Formal Logic   Argument by fallacy
Definition
 Assumes that if an argument for some conclusion is fallacious then the conclusion itself is false
Term
 Formal Logic   Base rate Fallacy
Definition
 Making a probability judgement based on conditional probabilities, without taking into account the effect of prior probabilities   The false negative rate: If the camera scans a terrorist, a bell will ring 99% of the time, and it will fail to ring 1% of the time. The false positive rate: If the camera scans a non-terrorist, a bell will not ring 99% of the time, but it will ring 1% of the time.
Term
 Formal Fallacies   Conjunction fallacy
Definition
 assumption that an outcome simultanieously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outsome simultaneously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outcome satisfying a single one of them   Which is more probable? Linda is a bank teller. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. (Might help to ask, what is least possible)
Term
Definition
 The substitution of identical designators in a true statement can lead to a false one   Premise 1: I know who X is. Premise 2: I do not know who Y is. Conclusion: Therefore, X is not Y.
Term
 Propositional Fallacies   satisfy-----and,or,not, only if, if and only if
Definition
 Affirming the consequent - A or B; therfore not B
Term
 Propositional Fallacies   Affirming the consequent
Definition
 If A, then B; B therefore A
Term
 Propositional Fallacies   Denying the antecedent
Definition
 if A, then B; not A, therefore not B
Term
 Quantification Fallacies   Qualifiers of the premise are in contradiction to the quantifier of the conclusion   Existential Fallacy
Definition
 An argument has a universal premise and a particular conclusion
Term
 Formal syllogistic fallacies   Logical Fallacies that occur in syllogism   Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise
Definition
 when a categorical syllogism has a positive conclusion, but at least one negative premise
Term
 Formal syllogistic Fallacies   Fallacy of exclusive premises
Definition
 A categorical syllogism that is invalid because both of its premises are negative
Term
 Formal syllogistic Fallacies   Fallacy of four terms (quaternio terminorum)
Definition
 a categorical syllogism that has four terms
Term
 Formal syllogistic Fallacies   Illicit major
Definition
 a categorical syllogism that is invalid because its major term is not distributed in the major premise but distibuted in the conclusion
Term
 Formal syllogistic Fallacies   Illicit Minor
Definition
 a categorical syllogism that is invalid because its minr term is not distibuted in the minor premise but distributed in the conclusion
Term
 Formal syllogistic Fallacies    Negative conclusion from affirmative presises (illicit affirmative)
Definition
 when a categorical syllogism has a negative conclusion but affirmative premises
Term
 Formal syllogistic Fallacies   Fallacy fo the undistributed middle
Definition
 the middle term in a categorical syllogism is not distributed
Term
 Informal fallacies   Argument from Ignorance
Definition
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