Term
Formal Logic
Appeal to probability 

Definition
Takes something for granted because it would probably be the case (or might be the case) 


Term
Formal Logic
Argument by fallacy 

Definition
Assumes that if an argument for some conclusion is fallacious then the conclusion itself is false 


Term
Formal Logic
Base rate Fallacy 

Definition
Making a probability judgement based on conditional probabilities, without taking into account the effect of prior probabilities
 The false negative rate: If the camera scans a terrorist, a bell will ring 99% of the time, and it will fail to ring 1% of the time.
 The false positive rate: If the camera scans a nonterrorist, a bell will not ring 99% of the time, but it will ring 1% of the time.



Term
Formal Fallacies
Conjunction fallacy 

Definition
assumption that an outcome simultanieously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outsome simultaneously satisfying multiple conditions is more probable than an outcome satisfying a single one of them
Which is more probable?
 Linda is a bank teller.
 Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.
(Might help to ask, what is least possible) 


Term
Formal Fallacies
Masked Man Fallacy 

Definition
The substitution of identical designators in a true statement can lead to a false one
 Premise 1: I know who X is.
 Premise 2: I do not know who Y is.
 Conclusion: Therefore, X is not Y.



Term
Propositional Fallacies
satisfyand,or,not, only if, if and only if 

Definition
Affirming the consequent  A or B; therfore not B 


Term
Propositional Fallacies
Affirming the consequent 

Definition
If A, then B; B therefore A 


Term
Propositional Fallacies
Denying the antecedent 

Definition
if A, then B; not A, therefore not B 


Term
Quantification Fallacies
Qualifiers of the premise are in contradiction to the quantifier of the conclusion
Existential Fallacy


Definition
An argument has a universal premise and a particular conclusion 


Term
Formal syllogistic fallacies
Logical Fallacies that occur in syllogism
Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise 

Definition
when a categorical syllogism has a positive conclusion, but at least one negative premise 


Term
Formal syllogistic Fallacies
Fallacy of exclusive premises


Definition
A categorical syllogism that is invalid because both of its premises are negative 


Term
Formal syllogistic Fallacies
Fallacy of four terms
(quaternio terminorum) 

Definition
a categorical syllogism that has four terms 


Term
Formal syllogistic Fallacies
Illicit major 

Definition
a categorical syllogism that is invalid because its major term is not distributed in the major premise but distibuted in the conclusion 


Term
Formal syllogistic Fallacies
Illicit Minor 

Definition
a categorical syllogism that is invalid because its minr term is not distibuted in the minor premise but distributed in the conclusion 


Term
Formal syllogistic Fallacies
Negative conclusion from affirmative presises (illicit affirmative) 

Definition
when a categorical syllogism has a negative conclusion but affirmative premises 


Term
Formal syllogistic Fallacies
Fallacy fo the undistributed middle 

Definition
the middle term in a categorical syllogism is not distributed 


Term
Informal fallacies
Argument from Ignorance 

Definition

