Shared Flashcard Set


FACS 137
Midterm two
Undergraduate 4

Additional Art/Design Flashcards




Ch. 2 How to understand the cognitive perspective?
Appearance perception
A) How people form impression about one another
B) Focus on individual through processes
C) clothing & appearance are viewed as providing clues about what a person is like.
D) One-way
What are the four basic assumptions of cognitive perspective? How to explain each of them?

1. Cues such as clothing and appearance often used to simplify and make sense of social interactions. 

  A. Classifying ppl on the basis of appearance cues could be some mental shortcuts.(ex. seeing someone in scrubs-know they work in the medical field)   

  B.cognitive structure: cluster of traits or attributes used to classify a person into a category.(ex. Flip flops, shorts, tank top-know they are at the beach)

  C)sometimes clear cues verses confusing cues( not following cognitive structure)

2. Ppl strive for some consistency and continuity in their appearance perceptions. 

  A) cognitive consistency -the "fit" among diff pieces of info.  

  B) fashion changes and social situations are often likely to lead perceivers to question and revise their cognitive structures. -keep our cognitive structures up to date

3. Humans seek and use aesthetic situation in their environments.   

   A) Human desire stimulation and fulliment  

   B) Changing fashions causes cognitive inconsistency. (ex: expect same image-when someone always have long hair then suddenly they cut you dont expect to see them with short hair.

4. Humans are motivated to explain social occurrences or outcomes based on their appearance perception.  

  A) attribution-indiv desires determine causality that enable perceivers to evaluate the source(ex. Miss American or homeless people)

Ch. 8 What is stereotyping? How to understanding stereotyping?
1. "pictures in the head" or mental images that receivers used to place others into categories. 2. Stereotypes are not necessary negative in their consequences. 3. They may be viewed as strategies for Simplifying and sorting the complex information
What is prejudice? When does prejudice occur?
1. Does have negative implications for interactions 2. Occurs when (a) the stereotypes held in rigid (b) any info about a person that conflicts with the assigned stereotype in disregarded or incorrectly perceived.
Four steps are included in a process of appearance perception and inference. What are those four steps? How to understand each of them?

A) selection of cues

1. ppl tend to select and focus upon particular appearance cues 2. instead of each part

B)Interpretative inference

1. A perceiver interprets the selected appearance cues 2. Using cognitive structures, perceivers associate the selected cues w/ primary or central personal characteristics

C. Extended inference

1. Perceivers may make additional "cognotive leaps" 2. This process is referred to "halo effects" 3. Perceivers relate other additional personal traits to the primary traits they got from step B.

D. Anticipatory set

1. Involves the perceiver's response toward the other person on the basis of interred traits 2. The response can be either explicit (readily verbalized) or implicit (subtle or almost unconscious)

What is dispositional attribution? What are the examples?What is situational attribution? What are the examples?
A)D.A: it is assumed that the stimulus person is responsible for the outcome in social interaction. B)S.A:It is assumed that external forces, outside the control of observed person, are responsible.
How does a person's character relate to appearance? How does a person's sociability relate to appearance? How does mood relate to appearance?

A. Evaluation-the basic positive or negative component of a person

1. character a) a person may be evaluated as basically goods or bad on the appearance b) adjective scales such as sloppy vs neat, trustworthy vs untrustworthy

2. Sociability a. sociability includes judgements of how a person relates to others, and judgements of that person's likableness and attractiveness as potential friends b. trait scales such as cold vs. warm, pleasant vs Unpleasant, sociable vs unsociable

3. Mood a) whether the sender feel good or bad about the self or situation (ex. casual, dark clothing= mad, sad, etc

What is potency? How does power relate to appearance? How does competence relate to appearance? How does intelligent relate to appearance? What are the examples for each of them?

Potency: potency judgments are linked to the strong and weak dimension of perception

1. Power a) assessment of a senders power related to perceptions of physical strenght, interpersonal power, and perceived control over others and the environment (ex. men: height, physical strenght, ambitious, competitive in workforce; police officer)

2. Competence a) appearance judgement of a senders compentence (ability or expertise) 3. Intelligence a) assessments of basic intelligence, level of edu. or shallowness(ex. uniform:honor badge, glasses, etc.)

Ch. 4 What is body image
1. Refers to the mental picture one has of his or her body at a given moment. 2. This picture may or may not be accurate or consistent w/ others perceptions of that body.
Why is body image important? What is looksism?

1.-effects your attitude -impacts social life-dating, job A) looksism: getting to know a person just based on his or her look B) Looksism supports a culture of beauty which implies that is a desirable goal because it reflects goodness, success modernity and fashion C. fight looksism.

2. Body image has a dramatic effects on behavior

How do we form body image?

1. It is now believed that a person's basic body image is determined by age six.

2. The strongest influence on a child's body image is parental body image.

3. The effects of culture

4. The effects of home and school

What is the historic review of body size?

*1890: plump, voluptuous(perfect body size at that time)

*Early 20th century: corseted, hour-glass *1920's: Flapper, flat-chested, slim hipped(boyish look)

*1930-1940's: Esther Williams; Full-bodied, w/ emphasis on legs

*1950s: Marilyn Monroe- voluptuous and curvaceous

*1960s to date: Twiggy, Audrey Hepburn-Thin, un-curvaceous(walf look)

What is schematics? What is aschematics?

*Schematics: the ppl who developed schemas or knowledge structures that are interrelated w/ one another and often activated when they perceived body weight.

*Aschematic: the ppl who are unlikely to evaluate stimuli in relatin to body weight.

What is BMI? What are the categories of BMI? How to measure BMI?
1.A measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to both adult men and women 2. BMI categories: a) underweight = <18.5 b) normal weight = 18.5-24.9 c) overweight = 25-29.9 d) obesity = BMI of 30 or greater
What is a healthy body weight?
The size a person naturally returns to after a longer period of both non-compulsive eating and consistent exercise and the size which matches w/ the person's physical health and condition
What is body cathexis? What is the relationship between body cathexis and body image?
A) The degree of Satisfaction w/ the body
B) Relationship between body image and body cathexis
1. Positive body image-high body cathexis
2. Negative body image- low body cathexis
You need to know the US basic statistic related to body size and body image.
A. Height vs weight
1. The avg American women is 5'4 tall and weigh 140lbs.
2. The avg American model is 5'11 tall and weigh 117lbs
3. Most fashion models are thinner than 98% of American women
B) Children are influenced by their parents, peers and the media
1. 42% of elementary school students between the 1st and 3rd grader want to be thinner
2. 80% of children who are ten years old are afraid of being fat
C) struggle w/ eating disorder
1. Approx. 7 mil girls & women struggle w/ eating disorder
2. Approx. 1 mil boys & men struggle w/ eating disorder
Ch. 5 What is self-concept?
A global perception of who one is.
What is self-schema?
1.Refer to structured thought processes that organize, modify and integrate qualities assigned to self
2. "me" vs "not me"
3. "me" vs "liking"
What is self-indication?
1. A conservation w/in the self, through which one defines and explains to ones self
2. An inner dialogue which leads a person a label a garment as me or not me
What are the relationships among self-concept, self-schema and self-indication?
-self concept
3-self schema
6<-self indication
What are the social factors that influence the perceptions of self and appearance?
A. Social feedback
1. verbal feedback
2. nonverbal feedback
3. considering the source(audience)
-different audience, different appearance
4. Accuracy of reflected appraisals
-the eyes/impressions/comments of others
B. Personal comparison w/ others
1. Appearance is so visible that it becomes an easy target for social comparison
2. Comparison of self w/ others becomes valuable in terms of assessing the self
What is self-esteem?
Evaluate based on self-concept
A) Involves- individual feelings of self-worth
B) High vs low
1. High self esteem: self-accepting, self-tolerant, like the self, and have proper respect for the self-worth
2. Low: self-esteem: associated w/ depression, unhappiness, and anxiety
What is self-definition?
Def: particular statements of self that may vary greatly by the context and person
2. Self definition is more specific evaluation, while esteem is global evaluation of self
What is self-symbolizing?
Def: the use of symbols to build and retain a compute self-definition
What are the relationships among self-esteem, self-definition and self-symbolizing?
-self concept:working hard
6< -self esteem|self worth
3-self definition
-self symbolizing
Supporting users have an ad free experience!