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Definition
Finding a false effect, probability of a type I error 


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Definition
Not finding an effect when there is an effect, probability of a type II error. 


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Each participant performs in only one of the conditions 


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Statistic does not equal the parameter, a statistic which violates assumptions of the model. 


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Where we expect our population parameter to lie 


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A relationship between two variables or constructs 


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Not to establish causality 


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Minimum size of a significant effect 


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The minimum number of scores that are theoretically free to vary until they must be fixed. 


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The variables that changes due to influence of the independent variables 


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An interaction for which the lines are not parallel, group differences reverse the signs and the lines cross 


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How big the difference is 


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Amount of variability explained by systematic group differences. 


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Similar to DV but can have characteristics of IVs, but may also be caused by another effect. It can be affected or affect another variable. 


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Differences in scores that cannot be accounted for 


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IVs not being caused by another variable, but can have a relationship. 


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Definition


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System of assessing all linear variables at once 


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Testing predictions developed based on theoretical findings through the use of systematic empiricism 


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Effects of IV on DV depend on level of another IV. 


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How likely our statistic has occurred by chance 


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An effect of one independent variable on the dependent variable 


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The variable that explains why an effect occurred 


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A design with between and within subjects factors 


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Definition
The variable that explains when, where and for whom does the effect occur. Talking about interactions. 


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Statement that says there is no effect 


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Nonparallel lines with interaction where the lines don’t cross 


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The effect is not due to chance 


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The degree that the measure measures one thing 


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What the researcher predicts 


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Stands up to violations of the model 


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Distribution of statistics 


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Do the scores clump on extremes 


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Definition


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How likely you are to find a real effect 


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Statistically significant 

Definition


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Measuring what you think you’re measuring 


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When participants participate in all conditions 


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Definition
*Biological Events (hunger) **environmental conditions (aspects of an experimental setting) ***heredity factors (baseline hormone levels, some disabilities) ****Previous training or experience (having taken a quant methods course) *****Maturity (age, social maturity) 


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Definition
* Direction of change **amount of change *** Ease with which change is effected 


Term
Nominal  Ordinal  Interval  Ratio 

Definition
names, characteristics, categories  ranks  can tell how far apart  absolute zero 


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Definition


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correlates things it is supposed to 


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Definition
not confounded with another measure, not correlated with confounding variables 


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Definition
scores on measures are correlated with later important measures 


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Definition
yes or no, does this measure, measure the construct, determined by other four types of validity 


Term
Aristotle's 4 kinds of causes 

Definition
*material (the substance from which something results) **formal (the image or idea that gives meaning to the effect) ***efficient (the activating event that is close in space and time to the effect; often the focus of science is on identifying these, behavioral)****final(the objective toward which the effect is focused) 


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Definition
*covariation rule (a change in a is accompanied by a change in B). **temporalprecedence rule (a must precede b)***internal validity rule (some mechanism can be posited to explain the causal effect of A on B and alternative explanations are ruled out). 


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Definition
Hypothesizing after research is known 


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Definition
*normality (bell like with certain proportions of the scores falling within standard deviations) **modality (how many peaks) ***skewness (which way it leans) ****kurtosis (skinny or fat) 


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Definition
describes the characteristics of many sampling distributions, the population mean of the sampling distribution is the same as the population of the mean of the scores; the variability of the sampling distribution is less than the variability of the scores; the sampling distribution is approximately normal. 


Term
Which error is the biggest error and why? 

Definition
A type I error. disproves established theory and research. alters status quo. to deal with this we set the type I error rate at some level. 


Term
Factors that influence power 

Definition
significance level (alpha); the true difference or relationship between the variables (effect size); sample size (n); population variance; design (and resulting statistical test) used; one or two tails. 


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Definition
comparrisons relevant to hypotheses, be able to defend it, increases power, are usually conducted when hypothesis test require only a few groups, conditions, timepoints, and/or relationships to be compared, but be done a priori 


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Definition
compares all possible combinations of variables 


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General Linear Model (GLM) 

Definition
a general analytic strategy by which sets of variables of any type can be used to predict another set of variables of any type 


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Definition
linearity (pairs of variables are assumed to have a linear relationship with each other)  additivity (the effects of variables in a set are additive in a predictive equation) 

