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Exercise science
Exercise
45
Fitness
06/03/2013

Term
 Biomechanics
Definition
 examines the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.
Term
 Quantitative analysis
Definition
 involves measurment of variables that are thought to optimize and maximize performance (deals with numbers)
Term
 Qualitative analysis
Definition
 Involves obtaining information visually or auditorilly to assess performence
Term
 Kinematics
Definition
 The study of time space factors of a body in motion
Term
 Ergonomics
Definition
 Sometimes called human factors engineering/biotechnology find the relationship between humans and machines to make us as efficient as possible
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 rate of change of velocity a=v/t
Term
 Displacement
Definition
 Length and direction of the path an athlete takes from start to finish
Term
 Velocity
Definition
 displacement per unit time v=d/t
Term
 Angular velocity
Definition
 angular displacement per unit of time
Term
 First class lever
Definition
 Applied force and resistance are located on opposite sides ex (touching chin to neck. spine=fulcrum, chin=applied force, neck muscles=resistance) [image]
Term
 Second Class Lever
Definition
 The applied force and the resistance are on the same side of the axis (plantar flextion) [image]
Term
 Third Class lever
Definition
 When the applied force and the resistance are on the same side of the axis but the applied force is closer to the axis  [image]
Term
 Scalar Vs. Vector
Definition
 Scalar: just the magnitude (number) Vectore: magnitude + direction
Term
 Linear Motion Vs. Angular Motion
Definition
 Linear: Requires a force which all parts of the body move in the same direction at the same time,caused by forces which act through a bodies center of mass Angular: The body moves along a circular path through the same direction at the same time, Caused by forces that do not act through the bodies center of mass.
Term
 Methods of increasing stability
Definition
 Static equilibrium: increase base of support, imcrease intertia of the body, decrease vertical distance between center of mass and base of support Dynamic equilibrium: Enlarge body base of support in direction of external horizontal forces, adopt a starting position in which the center of pressure is close to the edge of the base of support wherever a quick acceleration is important
Term
 Newtons laws of motion
Definition
 Inertia: an object will not change its state of motion unless acted upon by a net external force 2) acceleration f=ma 3) action/reaction fnet=0
Term
 Projectiles
Definition
 ASK ABOUT HOW TO MAXIMIZE HORIZONTAL/VERTICAL RANGE
Term
 Chronological vs. Skeletal vs. Develpmental
Definition
 Chronological: age measured in days,months,years skeletal: age by bone date developmental: age is expressed by ability to preform tasks
Term
 Cephalocaudal vs. Proximal-distal development
Definition
 Cephalocaudal: "head to tail", posture lift head-->lift chest/stomach Proximal distal: learning to move (roll over--> crawl)
Term
 Somatotypes
Definition
 Endomorphs: more fatty tissure, thick body parts mesomorph: mature early, stocky/heavily muscled/broader bodies Ectomorph: late to reach maturity, thinner body, narrow hips,longer arms/legs
Term
 Piagets 4 stages of cognitive development
Definition
 Sensorimotor -demonstrates intelligence by means of motor activity w/o symbols -knowledge based purly off immediate experience -ability to use memory to recall objects Pre-operational -intellegince through use of symbols -considerable language development -significant growth in memory+imagination Concrete operational -logical thinking -empathy develops -solve problems ligically -use emmory to recall objects/events Formal operational -solve increasingly complicated problems w/ logiv -return to egocentric thinking -think about societal issues+own identity and appearance
Term
 Stages of learning
Definition
 Cognitive: come to basic understanding of a task; learner commits large errers and needs specific instruction on how to improve Associative stage: learner begins to refin/develop awareness of mistakes + effort becomes more consistent Autonomous stage: skill becomes automatic, not much time spent thinking about fundementals, aware of mistakes and how to correct them
Term
 Factors affecting physical growth/development
Definition
 Glandular/Hormonal activity -hormones affect metabolism -glands can suffer from disease Heredity -difficult to predict many areas of genetically inherited growth nutrition/diet -inadequet/unbalanced diet can lead to physical development issues physical activity -Lack of activity harmful, excessive also bad -balance is key sociocultural factors -can be difficult to assess -depends on opprotunity/values
Term
 Motor Learning
Definition
 Process by which a person develops, through a combination of physical and psychological factors. the ability to preform a task.
Term
 Factors affecting movement intelligence
Definition
 Be able to expound -Inherited ability -stimulus at an early age -practice -feedback -Expert instruction -et...
Term
 Knowledge od results
Definition
 Internal: you can tell if you hit a ball or missed a basket -outome External: coach telling you what was right/wrong
Term
 Knowledge of performance
Definition
 Internal: you know that as soon as you release, a shot will  or wont go in External: You don't understand why your preformance is wrong so you ask for correction from coach
Term
 Feedback
Definition
 Summary -generates movement consistency -avoids overlearning learner ex) newplayer give feedback every 3 shots, pro every 10 Bandwidth: -eventually faded feedback occurs -lack of feedback=positive reinforcement -movement consistency develops, learner not encouraged to change movement each trial Faded: -teacher can tailor feedback to respect individual differences
Term
 Open Vs. Closed skill
Definition
 Open: preformed in an unpredictable environment, requores participants to adopt their movements to changing nature of environment,environmental conditions are in motion Closed: Predictable environment, permits participants to plan movement in advnace, environmental conditions are stationary
Term
 Arousal vs. anxiety
Definition
 Arousal: Being "psyched up" athlete feels ready physically Anxiety: general sense of uncertanty, muscular tenstion "butterflies"
Term
 Imagery
Definition
 tools used to assist oneself succeed
Term
 Stress reduction strategies
Definition
 Meditation: Imagery:"seing is believing" if athlete see's themself in successful situation, they will be sucessful.Recall past experiences of triumphs. script their own story Hypnosis: state of intense concentration. body blocks out all external unnecessary stimuli. willingness of an athlete to respond to suggestions. 3 stages: induction(relaxation), hypnotic(capable of carrying out suggestion) and wake phase(suggestion given).  Mescle relaxation: Self talk:"getting psyched up" sometimes self talk is negative, "competition is more talented that me". psychologists ceate scripts to potray positive self talk
Term
 N.C.C.P(ask if M.c or S.A)
Definition
 National coaching certification program -five levels 1-3: geared towards coaching community, regional and provincial sports levels focus on 3 aspects: Theory, technical, practical
Term
 Types of coaches
Definition
 Autocratic: -coaches way only -Coaches game plan -business like -may use lots of technology -little input from players -disciplined Democratic: -take input from other players -listen to suggestions -open to other ideas/strategies (thanks moo)
Term
 Violence in sport (make chart)
Definition
 Hostile -intent is to cause harm -goal is to cause suffering -preformed outside rules of the game Instrumental violence: -intent is to cause harm -goal is to gain external reward -no anger involved -preformed within rules of game Assertive behaviour -Confused w/ agression -increased energy + effort xpenditure -no anger involved -may result in harm, not incidental to game
Term
 The sports ethic, How could it lead to cheating?
Definition
 1)Athlete makes sacrifices for the game 2) Strive for distinction 3) accepts risks and plays through pain 4)an athlete accepts no limit in the pursuit of possibilities ex) karrie strug cheating: need for distinction, equipment tampering, ineligable equipment, drugs.
Term
 Causes of aggression in sport
Definition
 -Parents/coaches: demonstrating interest through televised sporting events Outcome of event: agression occurs after losing, low league standing teams demonstrate more ag  Point spread: large point gap causes ag. nothing to lose winning out of reach -Physical contact:result in more aggression, if player believes another is trying to cause harm, agression increses. Fan Reaction: aggression occurs when team plays away from home, linked to fan reaction(unfriendly crown angers team)
Term
 Title 9
Definition
 american legislation passed in 1972 -prohibits discrimination of any kind -allows woman and girls same sports + physical opprotunities as men -Canadian chater of R+F sets similar laws
Term
 Progression made by women
Definition
 -Increased coverage in sport -expanding health and fitness movement -global womans rights movemnt -political + equal rights movement -increased opprotunities
Term
 Hold backs of women in sport
Definition
 1)society: gender roles of men and women 2) school: segregated class + activities(sewing class) and the athletic program (girls less teams, poor coaches) 3) mass media: advertisement continue to how women in passive roles(washing floor, child care) sports coverafe 5% compared to males
Term
Definition
 1) eating disorders 2) omenorhea 3) osteoperosis
Term
 Discrimination in sports
Definition
 Race: Gender: Homophobia: Ageism: Native:
Term
 Ergogenic aids
Definition
 -improve physical appearance -prevent/treat injuries,illniesses or disease -cope w/stress -increase athletic potential -bridge genetic gap
Term
 Anabolic steroids
Definition
 -increase muscle mass -increase strength -increase organ damage (liver/kidney) increase chlesterol, blood pressure, agression -Decrease body fat
Term
 EPO
Definition
 erythropoiten -increase level of hemoglobin (more o2 to tissues) -higher red cell count, causes heart to pump harder -increase risk of cardiac fatigue and heart failure -discuss issues in cycling.
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