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Exercise Physiology Final Exam
Undergraduate 3

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1. Define Exercise Physiology.


Basic and applied science that describes body's response to exercise and adaptation to training in an effort to maximize physiological performance

  • response is more acute, adaptation is prolonged
1.Describe the 4 factors that are used to describe an acute response to exercise.

1. mode or modality (aerobic vs. anaerobic*, intermittent vs. continuous, dynamic vs. isometric)

2. exercise intensity (maximal vs. submaximal)

3. characteristics of the exercises-patter of response is always similar but magnitude of the response will differ (training status, diet, health status, age, gender)

4. exercise task-exercise task must match physiological system being assessed

1. Describe the 8 training principles that are used to guide programs.

1. specificity- "SAID"-specific adaptations to imposed demands

2. overload: frequency, intensity, duration (change these factors to improve fitness)

3. adaptation

4. progressioin

5. reversibility or staleness

6. maintenance

7. individualization

8. warm up/cool down

2. Define physical fitness from a broad perspective.

Physiological state of well being that provides sufficient energy for:

1. carrying out normal daily activities

2. provide some protection from diseases associated with inactivity (hypokinesis)-sedentary like diabetes, hypertension, obesity

3. and enough energy in reserve to engage in physical activity

2. Contrast health related fitness vs sport specific fitness.  

health related: prevention or rehabilitation from disease with a focus on improved functional ability

sports related: depends on sport and position

2. What is periodization and provide an example of how a year might be divided to maximize a sport performance

training cycle to maximize performance.


mesocycle: pre-training, in season, active rest, post season

macrocycle: increased cardiovascular fitness, increased speed, increased endurance

microcycle: running, swimming, biking

3. Describe the structure of ATP.

composed of a carbon nitrogen base--> adenine

composed of a five carbon sugar-->ribose

adenine + ribose = adenosine

adenosine + 3 phosphates = ATP

3. Ways ATP can be regenerated from ADP.

1. immediate energy system (aka alactate energy system or ATP/PC system or ATP/PC system): dominates energy system in ~10 sec.

-ADP + CP + H2O ---->ATP + creatine


2. anaerobic metabolism (anaerobic respiration): dominates energy system in ~2-4 minutes; occurs in cytoplasm;without sufficient oxygen

3. aerobic respiration: dominates in > 5 minutes; occurs in mitochondria

3. General overview of cellular respiration.

1. all 3 energy nutrients are involved (carbohydrates, fat, protein)

2. primary substrates are glucose, free fatty acids, amino acids

3. *the most important central converting intermediate is referred to as acetyl coenzyme A:AcoA

4. process of beta oxidation (fat metabolism), oxidative deamination and transamination are primarily for the production of acetyl coA

5. krebs cycle, electron transport sytem and the process of oxidative phosphorylation are common to all three substrates


4. Describe each of the 4 stages (substrates and key enzymes) involved in the complete breakdown of a CHO. Make sureyou show where ATP is used or resynthesized, how and where hydrogen ions are transported, and provide a summary of the critical events.

 (refer to notes for pictures)



1. glycolysis-in the cytoplasm

2. formation of acetyl coA

3. krebs cycle

4. electron transport sytem (where most of the ATP is produced)

5. Discuss how a stored TG can be released from an adipocyte, transported, and eventually used for the production of ATP.

TG (hormone sensitive lipase-substrate)

/                         \

         glycerol                   3 FA        

                                          [travels in blood bound to albumin]


[FATP-moves FA into cell]                              cytoplasm                          FA

^carnitine shuttle: moves FA from mito.       mitochondria                         FA                 

**FATP:fatty acid transporter protein


5. Discuss the process of beta oxidation (provide a summary)


**beta oxidation: cleaving off 2C units


               mitochondria                          FA                                                              

                                                                |        -2ATP      ATP-->AMP + Pi + Pi


  activated FA  

                                                                 |              NAD-->NADH + H+ = 3 ATP

                                                                |                   FAD--> FADH2 = 2 ATP


                                                           acetyl coA (2c)                            5 ATP


5. Show how many ATP can by synthesized from palmiticacid (16C FA)




# of acetyl coA (2c units) = n/2 =16/2 =8 acetyl coA x 12 ATP= 96 ATP


# beta oxidation = n/2 -1 =16/2 -1 = 8-1 =7 cycles x 5 ATP = 35 ATP

Total: 96 ATP + 35 ATP = 131 ATP - 2ATP (from beginning) =

129 ATP

6. Describe the reasons and the production of ketones.

-there's a limited amount of carbs in the body (they are the only fuel used by the anaerobic system & the preferred fuel of the body)

--> once carbs gone, we can't perfom normal function

-when carb levels are low, ketones are used

1. oxaloacetic acid (OAA) is converted to glucose --> allows alternate source for central nervous system

2. when OAA is taken away, acetyl coA builds up in the cell --> shuttles to liver to form ketone bodies

**main problem with ketones --> ketosis or ↓ pH (increased acidity)

6. Provide 3 examples of ketone bodies.

1. acetoacetic acid

2. beta-hydroxybutyric acid

3. acetone

6. Describe a protein; which proteins are used in metabolism.

protein: amino acids linked together sharing a common amino group (NH2)


**NH2 cannot be used for metabolic processes!

6. Compare and contrast transamination and oxidative deamination.

transamination: moving the amino group

NH2 -->,,                                                      

AA ' + keto acid --> new AA + new ketoacid

NH2 -->,,                                                       

ex: glutumate ' + pyruvate --> alanine + alpha ketoglutarate

oxidative deamination: getting rid of the amino group

AA + NAD + H2O --> ketoacid + NADH + H+ + ammonia (NH- urea cycle [urine])


ex: glutamate + NAD + H2O --> alpha ketoglumate + NADH + H+ + ammonia

7. Draw the expected oxygen consumption vs. exercise time curve that demonstrates oxygen deficit and EPOC.
7. Describe how energy is supplied during oxygen deficit.

1. oxygen bound to hemoglobin & myoglobin

2. ATP/PC system

3. anaerobic glycolysis

7.  Possible reasons for the fast components of EPOC.

fast component of EPOC:

1. to resupply O2 to hemoglobin and myglobin

2. rephosphorylate ADP --> ATP

3. ↑ cost of ventilation & ↑ cost for increased HR


7. Describe the possible reasons for slow components of EPOC.

slow component of EPOC:

1. during exercise --> catecholamines (epinephrine & norepinephrine) + hormones (cortisol) are increased

-this changes the permeability of cells so that Na+/K+ ATPase pumps have to work harder therefore consumes more O2

2. ↑ body temperature from exercise (for every 1 degree C ↑= 15 x ↑ in metabolism)

3. lactate removal -minimal O2

8. Define the anaerobic or lactate threshold.

lactate threshold: aka ventilatory or anaerobic threshold; based on an incremental test looking at lactate ventilation & O2 consumption

-the exercise intensity above which there is a disporportionate ↑ in lactate or ventilation relative to O2 consumption

8. What causes anerobic/lactate threshold?
8. What problems does excess lactate present?

1. pain: hydrogen ions stimulate free pain nerve endings in the muscle

2. metabolic fatigue:

-reduce the effectiveness of enzymes like PFK which affects CHO metabolism

-membrane transport mechanics are affected like GLUT4-CHO, FATP-fat

-affects substrate availibity

--> phosphorylase-glycogen inhibit

--> HSL-TG metabolism

3. muscular fatigue:

-affects myosin ATPase:inhibits effectiveness of contraction

-inhibits actomyosin crossbridge formation

-inhibit calcium release from the SR (contraction) & Ca2+ uptake (relaxation)

8. What are possible fates for lactate?

1. non-working skeletal muscle


LA --> pyruvate --> mitochondria + kreb cycle

2. cori cycle -- gluconeogenesis (20%)

3. LA broken down + carbons used to form AA (10%)

4. stays as LA (2%)


9. Define maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max)
maximal oxygen consumption: maximum volume of air taken in, transported, and utilized by the body
9. Describe the criteria used to determine if max. oxygen consumption has been reached.

1. max HR (220-age)

2. [LA] > 8 mmol/ L

3. RER (respiratory exchange ratio) > 1.1

4. RPE (rate of perceived exertion) > 17 [scale from 6-20]

5. plateau in O2 consumption even with an increase in exercise intensity

9. Explain oxygen drift and its possible causes that may occur during prolonged exercise at steady state.
10. Describe the conductive zone.

conductive zone: nose, nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx, trachea, 1st & 2nd & 3rd bronchioles

-only involved in air movement (first function) **no gas exchange

-where ventilation takes place

-referred to as the anatomical dead space - 1ml/lb ideal BW

-2nd function: to warm and saturate the air

-3rd function: clean the air through ciliated mucosal membrane

10. Describe the respiratory zone.

respiratory zone: includes all bronchiole divisions after the 3rd level, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli

-function: facilitates gas exchange (external respiration)

-physiological dead space: portions of the alveoli are not inflated during rest --> allows for an increase in capacity for gas exchange during exercise

10. Describe the pulmonary and bronchiole circulations of the pulmonary system.

-pulmonary circulation: facilitates external respiration

-R ventricle --> pulmonary a. --> lungs --> pulmonary v --> L atrium

-"perfusion of the lungs"

-bronchiole circulation: small vessels that come from the aortic arch --> lung tissue with venous return into the pulmonary v.

10. Compare, contrast, and discuss the integration of the two respiratory centers located in the medulla oblongata.

I. inspiratory center (dorsal respiratory group)

-most important! ****

-spontaneous, cyclic depolarization of the phrenic n -->diaphragm

II. expiratory center (ventral respiratory group)

-two main functions:

1.maintain muscle tone for inspiratory mm

2. during exercise --> actualization of the expiratory mm

10. Compare, contrast, and discuss the two neural centers located in the brain stem (pons).

**primary function of the 2 centers is to ensure a smooth transition between inspiration/expiration

1. apneustic center: constant stimulation of the inspiratory center ("get ready to breath!") unless inhibited by the pneumotaxic center

2. pnemotaxic center--two functions:

-constantly inhibit the inspiratory center

-occasionally inhibit the apneustic center

11. Discuss the 5 factors affecting control of pulmonary ventilation.

1. hypothalamus-involuntary control-involves activation of sympathetic nervous sytem

-either stimulate ventilation (anger, nervousness) or inhibit (fear, pain, shock)

2. cerebral cortex: through motor cortex; allows for some voluntary control

3.systemic receptors-two sets;both located in lungs

i. irritant receptors: located in conductive zone; reflex actions like sneezing & coughing

ii. stretch receptors: located in respiratory zone; inhibit apneustic and inspiratory centers; deep fast breathing sets up hering breur reflex

4.mechanoreceptors: propriorecptors located in joints and muscle

5. chemoreceptors: two sets:

i. central chemoreceptors:responsive to ↑ Pco2, pH

ii. peripheral chemoreceptors:↑ PCO2, pH, PO2, ↑[K+]

11. Discuss influence of PO2, PCO2, pH, and [K+] on respiration.

1.PO2: small changes in x axis = large changes in y axis


2. ↑PCO2: small changes in x axis = large changes in y axis


3. pH= H+ + NaH2CO3 --> H2CO3 --> ↑CO2 & H2O

4. ↑ [K+]: ↑ activity, K+ leaks from muscle cells --> ↑ VE

12. Discuss the factors affecting the diffusion rates of O2 and CO2.

1. solubility coefficients: Henry's law-when a gas comes into contact with a liquid, it will diffuse into that liquid based on a: 1)solubility coefficient 2) partial pressure of the gas

and continue to diffuse until it reaches equilibrium

2. diffusion gradients:

O2   104 mm Hg--> 95 mm Hg --> 40 mm Hg

              lung -->       blood -->       tissue

CO2   45 mm Hg --> 40 mm Hg --> 40 mm Hg

        tissue -->       blood      --> lung

3. membrane thickness: fluid build up or thicker lungs - lower diffusion rates (esp. O2)

4. alveolar surface area: if it decreased, then diffusion rates decreas

12. Explain how O2 and CO2 are transported.

-O2 transport:

a. 3% dissolved in plasma

b. 97 % bound to 'heme' portion of hemoglobin

-CO2 transport:

a. 10% dissolved in plasma

b. 20 % bound to 'globin' portion of Hb-->carbamino Hb

c. 70% is in the form HCO3 (bicarbonate)

13. Draw, carefully label the oxyhemoglobin curve.
13. Discuss the factors that can cause a right or left shift in the oxyhemoglobin curve.

1. ↑ temperature

2. ↓  pH

3. ↑ PCO2

4. ↑ 2,3 DPG (diphosphoglycerate) --> ↑ RBC metabolism

14. Draw and describe the electrical events associated with the electrocardiogram.

1. P-wave: depolarization of the atria

2. QRS complex: depolarization of the ventricles (masks the repolarization of the atria)

3. T-wave: repolarization of the ventricles

4. P-R interval: depolarization of the bundle of his, R and L bundle branches and purkinje cells

14. Discuss the various aspects of the cardiac cycle.

1. diastole-first phase of the cardiac cycle

-ventricular filling; atrial contraction & gravity moves blood from atria to ventricles

-LVEDV: left ventricular end diastolic volume

-at the end of diastole, both AV valves are still open so that ventricular volume is at its greatest but pressure is at its lowest

2. systole: two phases

a. 1st phase: IVCP: isovolumetric contraction period

-AV valves close and ventricles begin to contract--presure begins to increase

b. 2nd phase: ejection period: when pressure in ventricles exceeds pressure keeping semilunar valves closed

-blood is ejected; LVESV: left ventricular end systolic volume

15. Discuss the central factors affecting control of the cardiovascular system.

I. Brain--> "central command"

a) central cortex-BP, HR, vasodilation

b) motor cortex --> hypothalamus

c) temperature regulation --> hypothalamus

15. Discuss the systemic factors affecting control of the cardiovascular system.

1. baroreceptors: located in aortic arch & carotid arteries

-if there is ↑ MAP, goal is to ↓ Qc

-->↓ HR by parasympathetic innervation & sympathetic innervation

2. stretch receptors: located in R atrium

-senses volume of blood to R atrium

-goal is to Qc by HR (opposite of above)

3. chemoreceptors: senses PCO2, H+, PO2

4. muscle joint receptors: 1)mechanical stress-mechanoreceptors 2) metabolic stress-metaboreceptors; HR, SV, Qc, BP

5. neural-hormonal receptors: involves sympathetic innervation of the adrenal gland

-epinephrine which causes  HR, SV, Qc, BP

16. What is stroke volume and what are the factors that can influence SV?

-stroke volume: volume of blood ejected from the ventricles per beat



-factors affecting size of SV:

1. volume of blood returned to the heart (venous return)--> preload

2. strength of contraction --> contractility

3. forces opposing flow --> afterload


16. What is cardiac output?

cardiac output = Qc(L/min)

Qc = HR x SV

**normal resting Qc = 5 L/min

***at maximal exercise Qc = increased 4-5x = 20-25 L/min

16. What is myocardial oxygen consumption, how can it be estimated, and how can it be influenced?
17. Discuss in detail the 5 major components of the vascular system (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).

1. arteries: receives the highest pressure of blood flow (high pressure causes distention of the vessels → elastic recoil forces blood through the valve → pulsatile flow

-MAP = PP/3 + DPB @ rest;MAP = PP/2 + DPB @ exercise

2. arterioles: "resistance vessels"; vasodilate or vasoconstrict to ensure continuous flow

3. capillaries: exchange of gases (O2 & CO2), nutrients, & waste products

-walls are one cell thick--> epithelial cells; wall is known as endothelium

-vessels are very narrow --> force RBC to line up single file -->faciliates gas exchange

-2 anatomical structures that facilitates thermoregulation:

a)anastamosis: pathway to divert arterial flow to venous flow without going through  capillary bed

b)metaarterial: pathway to divert arterial flow -->venous flow through capillary bed



17. Discuss in detail the 5 major components of the vascular system (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).




-fluid in the capillary moves by 2 pressures:

a) hydrostatic pressure: force fluid out of the vascular system into interstitium

b) osmotic pressure: created by protein; draws fluid from the interstitial space into the vessel --> under normal conditions, 3L ner loss of fluid/day

-->lymphatic system: carries blood & returns through innominate veins near the heart

4. venules: venous side of the capillary bed; some gas & nutrient exchange

5. veins: "capitance vessels"; able to distent and hold large volumes of fluid

-at rest, hold about 60% of blood volume

-has valves that prevent backflow of movement

18. Discuss the 3 major components of cardiovascular dynamics.

1. flow = Δ P/R;    Qc = MAP =mean arterial pressure

                                              TPR=total peripheral resistance

2. resistance (poiseuille's law)

TPR = length x viscosity


3. velocity: the velocity of a fluid through a closed system is inverse

-a single capillary bed is very small; but a capillary bed is very large so velocity through a capillary bed is very slow

18. Discuss basic principles and techniques used to obtain a blood pressure.

-subject's arm is rested

-place cuff on left arm

-inflate cuff to 180-200 to prevent arterial flow through brachial a

-slowly release cuff --> first pulse heard through stethoscope is systolic blood pressure (1st kortokoff sound)

-diastolic blood pressure: no sound because cuff is exerting no pressure (5th kortokoff sound)

-auscultation: listening to internal sounds of the body usually through a stethoscope

19. Define osteopenia and osteoporosis.

-osteopenia: low bone mineral density without an increased risk for fracture

-osteoporosis: low bone mineral density with an increased risk for fracture

19. Discuss the two primary types of osteoporosis.

1. type I: post-menopausal

          -estrogen deficient

          -osteoclast mediated-larger deficit than normal with normal formation (osteoblast activity)-->basically, osteoblasts are normal & adding the right amount but the hole is already too big from osteoclasts so there's a deficit

2. type II: age related osteoporosis


-osteoblast mediated-the hole is normal from osteoclast but there's not enough osteoblasts so there's a deficit


***essentially, both end up with the same result!

19. Discuss the controllable and non-controllable risk factors for osteoporosis.


-diet --> Ca2+ + vitamin D

-hormonal status-anemoria

-smoking-blunts estrogen

-physical activity (lack of increases risk)

-excess coffee intake (increases Ca2+ excretion)

-excess alcohol consumption (chronic use-alcoholism)


-age (older people > risk than younger people)

-gender (females > males)

-genetics/family history

-race (caucasian/asian > african american)

-frame size (small frame > large frame)


20. Discuss the events that occur at the neuro-muscular junction and then the resultant contraction of a muscle (i.e., the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction).

1. AP travels along the sarcolemma and down the t-tubules

2. AP is sensed by SR and calcium is released into the cytoplasm.

3. Ca2+ released binds to Th-C, changes shape of troponin, so that it moves; it also binds Tm away from the binding sites on actin

4. Once the binding sites on actin are exposed, there is a mutual atraction between actin and mysosin --> so the myosin heads bind to actin and forms the "charged actomyosin complex"

5. this activates m-ATPase and results in ATP --> ADP + energy = heads swivel and drags actin across myosin

6.  in order for myosin to detach from actin, ADP is phosphorylated to ATP

7. myosin heads release and return to original shape; to start the process all over again

8. called 'asyncronous cross bridge cycling'

9. this process continues until AP stops

10. Ca 2+ is taken back into the SR by: Ca2+atpase & calsequestrin

21. Compare and contrast the major muscle fiber types (i.e. contractile, metabolic, structural, and functional difference).
22. Define the various types of muscle contraction.

1. isotonic: constant tension throughout contraction

2. isometric: constant length (no change in length during contraction)

3. isokinetic: constant velocity

-kin cun cybex

4. dynamic: concentric and eccentric

22. Explain the various mechanical factors that can affect the force of a muscular contraction.

1. length-tension relationship (sarcomere)


2. force velocity relationship


3. muscle cross sectional area (larger c.s.a. --> more force)

-specific tension: force/csa

4. muscle architecture or line of pull: bipennate >>longitudinal

5. stretch shortening cyle (css):

-plyometrics: stored elastic energy that contributes to the force of contraction

23. Define proprioreception.

-body awareness

-limb orientation

23. Compare and contrast how the vesibular apparatus, the muscle spindle and the GTO work, their basic anatomy (i.e. what they respond to, receptors, afferents, efferents, etc.), and the reflexes associated with them.
24. What are the assumptions needed to compartmentalize the body?

1. the densities of fat (0.9 gm/cc) and the fat-free body (1.1 gm/cc) are known and additive.

2. the densities of the fat-free body (water, mineral, protein) are relatively constant from person to person.

3. the proportions of the fat-free body are constant from person to person

4. the individual being assessed differs from a standard "reference person" upon which a given equation is based, only in the amount of depot fat possessed.

24. What is the Archimedes principle?

-a body submerged in a fluid will be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the volume displaced

Bd= mass/volume=wt in air/loss of weight underwater=BWa


Bwa-BWw - (RV+VGI)


25. Compare and contrast the two patterns of fat distribution.

android: abdominal; apple shape; more viscreral fat; predominately male; beta receptors (epi easier to mobilize fat)

-***WORSE than gynoid pattern

gynoid: gluteofemoral;pear shape;more subcutaneous;predominately female; alpha receptors (epi difficult to mobilize fat)

25. Discuss the various health risks associated with obesity.

1. cardiovascular disease-independent of age, cholesterol, SBP, smoking, and glucose intolerance

2. hypertension

3. gall bladder disease

4. diabetes-glucose intolerance because of high glucose levels

3. cancer-link for women since adipose tissue is a site for estrogen formation

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