# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Exambusters Study Cards 16 Acids and Bases
Acids and Bases Cards 300-330
43
Chemistry
10/17/2012

Term
 Ionization Constant
Definition
 Kw = 1 X 10-14 at 25 °C
Term
 pH
Definition
 pH = -log[H+]
Term
 For what pH values is a solution acidic?
Definition
 < 7
Term
 For what pH values is a solution neutral?
Definition
 = 7
Term
 For what pH values is a solution basic?
Definition
 > 7
Term
 pOH
Definition
 pOH = -log[OH-]
Term
 For what pOH values is a solution acidic?
Definition
 > 7
Term
 For what pOH values is a solution neutral?
Definition
 = 7
Term
 For what pOH values is a solution basic?
Definition
 < 7
Term
 How are pH and pOH of a solution related?
Definition
 The sum of the two values = 14 pH + pOH = 14
Term
 How are the concentrations of [H+] and [OH-] related in a solution?
Definition
 The product of the concentrations = 1 x 10-14 [H+][OH-] = 1 x 10-14
Term
 Match pH value to distilled water. a.) pH=2 b.) pH=7 c.) pH=12
Definition
 b.) pH = 7
Term
 Match pH value to lye. a.) pH=2 b.) pH=7 c.) pH=12
Definition
 c.) pH= 12
Term
 Match pH value to stomach juice. a.) pH=2 b.) pH=7 c.) pH=12
Definition
 a.) pH=2
Term
 For a solution with a pH of 3, find pOH
Definition
 pOH = 11
Term
 For a solution with a pH of 3, find [H+]
Definition
 [H+] = 1 x 10-3
Term
 For a solution with a pH of 3, find [OH-]
Definition
 [OH-] = 1 x 10-11
Term
 Solubility Product Constant - Ksp
Definition
 An equilibrium exists in a saturated solution between dissolved and undissolved solute. "Ksp" is the equilibrium constant for this reaction.
Term
 Write the solubility product expression for AgCl double arrow Ag+ = Cl-
Definition
 Ksp = [Ag+][Cl-]
Term
 In a saturated solution of BaSO4, [Ba2+] = 2 x 10-5. Find Ksp.
Definition
 Each molecule of BaSO4 that ionizes produces equal concentrations of ions; therefore; [Ba2+] = [SO42-] Ksp = [Ba2+][SO42-] Ksp=[2 x 10-5][2 x 10-5] Ksp = 4 x 10-10
Term
 Common Ion Effect
Definition
 When an ionization reaction is at equilibrium, and additional ion is added, the reverse reaction rate increases to consume the added ion.
Term
 NaCl ↔ Na+ = Cl- What happens when Cl- is added to this system at equilibrium?
Definition
 According to the common ion effect, the reverse reaction will speed up, consuming Na+ and Cl-, and more NaCl will be formed.
Term
 Six common characteristics of ACIDS
Definition
 form H2O solutions conduct electricity react with active metals turn blue litmus red neutralize bases sour taste
Term
 Seven common characteristics of BASES
Definition
 form H2O solutions conduct electricity turn red litmus blue feel slippery caustic neutralize acids bases + fats form soap
Term
 Strong Acids
Definition
 nitric hydrochloric sulfuric hydriodic hydrobromic perchloric
Term
 Weak Acids
Definition
 hydrofluoric acetic carbonic and most others
Term
 Moderately Strong Acids
Definition
 oxalic phosphoric sulfurous
Term
 Strong Bases
Definition
 hydroxides of: potassium sodium barium s trontium calcium   also: KOH NaOH
Term
 Hydronium ion
Definition
 H3O+ ion found in water solutions of acids. Water molecule with a proton attached.
Term
 Neutralization Reaction
Definition
 acid + base → salt + water
Term
 Write the equation for hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.
Definition
 HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O
Term
 Arrhenius Theory
Definition
 An acid yields protons in solution. (H+ ions) A base yields hydroxide ions in solution. (OH- ions)
Term
 Bronsted-Lowry Theory
Definition
 An acid is a proton donor. A base is a proton acceptor.
Term
 Lewis Theory
Definition
 An acid is an electron pair acceptor. A base is an electron pair donor.
Term
 Conjugate Base: Write conjugate base of HCl.
Definition
 When a Bronsted acid donates a proton, it becomes its conjugate base. Conjugate base of HCl is Cl-.
Term
 Conjugate Acid: Write conjugate acid of I-
Definition
 When a Bronsted base accepts a proton, it becomes its conjugate acid. Conjugate acid of I- is HI.
Term
 Indicator
Definition
 A substance which changes color along the pH scale. e.g. litmus, phenolphthalein, methyl orange, bromthymol blue
Term
 Titration
Definition
 A process of finding the unknown concentration of a solution by allowing it to react with another solution of known volume and concentration.
Term
 Endpoint
Definition
 The point during a titration at which the acid reacts completely with the base. The indicator changes color.
Term
 Write the equation to calculate concentrations and volumes in titration reactions.
Definition
 MA X VA = MB x VB   molarity = M volume = V acid = A base = B
Term
 Calculate the volume of 10 M NaOH needed to titrate 5L of 2M HCl
Definition
 MA X VA = MB X VB 2M X 5L = 10M X VB 1L = volume of base
Term
 Buffer Solutions
Definition
 Equilibrium systems which resist changes in pH upon the introduction of acids or bases (due to the common ion effect). e.g. a weak acid (acetic acid) and its salt (sodium acetate)
Term
 Electrolysis
Definition
 The passage of a direct electric current through an ionic solution, producing chemical changes at the electrodes.
Supporting users have an ad free experience!