# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Exam III, Dr. Hasel, Chapters 8-12
Exam III, Dr. Hasel, Chapters 8-12
87
Criminology
12/03/2012

Term
 population
Definition
 The entire set of individuals of interest
Term
 sample
Definition
 Set of individuals selected from a populationIntended to represent the population
Term
 sampling frame
Definition
 Actual list of units to be selected
Term
 study population
Definition
 Where the sample is selected from
Term
 parameter
Definition
 Summary description of a given variable in a population
Term
 sample statistic
Definition
 Summary description of a given variable in a sampleUsed to make estimates or inferences about population parameters
Term
 sampling error
Definition
 Difference between the characteristics of a sample and characteristics from which it was drawn
Term
 true
Definition
 There is always some degree of sampling error. True or false?
Term
 representative sample
Definition
 Distribution is similar and not over- or under- representedLooks like the population from which it was selected in all respects that are potentially relevant to the study
Term
 element
Definition
 The who or what being studied
Term
 relationship between sampling error and representativeness
Definition
 The larger the sampling error, the less representative of the population the sample is.
Term
 probability and non-probability
Definition
 Two types of sampling
Term
 probability sampling
Definition
 Method of selection in which each member of a population has a known chance or probability of being selected
Term
 non-probability sampling
Definition
 Method of selection other than probability sample
Term
 confidence interval
Definition
 The range of values within which a population parameter is estimated to lie (i.e. +/- reported in the news or on television)
Term
 confidence level
Definition
 Estimated probability that a population parameter lies within a given confidence intervalTells us the degree of certainty (i.e. 95% or 99%)
Term
 simple random sampling
Definition
 Every member of a population is listed and members are then randomly selected for questioning
Term
 systematic sampling
Definition
 Every member of a population is listed and then the (2nd, 4th, 21st, etc.) member is selectedCause for some concern on selection bias
Term
 stratified sampling
Definition
 The total population is divided into groups (or strata) and then members of each group are randomly selected (i.e. political survey, men vs. women)
Term
 disproportionate stratified sampling
Definition
 Deliberately drawing a sample that over- or under- represents some characteristics of a populationMay do this to ensure that we obtain a sufficient number of uncommon cases in our sample (i.e. violent crime in state, then in rural areas vs. large cities)
Term
 multi-stage cluster sampling
Definition
 Compile a stratified group (cluster), sample it, then sub-sample that setUseful when sampling frame is not available
Term
 non-probability sampling methods
Definition
 SnowballPurposiveAvailabilityQuota
Term
 availability sampling
Definition
 Easy to find, convienentConducting a preliminary studyNo systematic technique Sample not representative of any population
Term
 quota sampling
Definition
 Quotas are set to ensure sample characteristics are proportionate to their prevalence in populationSimilar to stratified probability sampling (but less rigorous and precise in selection)More similar to availability
Term
 purposive sampling
Definition
 Each element selected for a purposeUse of judgment in whom to select (i.e. targeting knowledgeable people ortargeting certain offenders)
Term
 snowball sampling
Definition
 Hard to reach/hard to find populationsInterconnected populationsGaining elements through informants
Term
 surveys
Definition
 Random sampling occurs in
Term
 experiments
Definition
 Random assignment occurs in
Term
 field research
Definition
 Appropriate to topics that seem to defy quantification Verstehen ApproachGrounded Theory
Term
 Verstehen Approach (FAE)
Definition
 Researcher attempts to understand phenomena from the standpoint of the actorsComprehensive perspectiveOften no precisely defined hypothesis
Term
 Grounded Theory
Definition
 Theory that is developed during the data gathering
Term
 characteristics of participant observations
Definition
 Demands on time and personal cost Observer must avoid over-socialization or “going native” Observer must attempt to operate mentally on two different levels (become an insider or remain an outsider)
Term
 complete participant
Definition
 Researcher not only joins in, but actually begins to manipulate the direction of, group activity
Term
 participant as observer
Definition
 Researcher makes presence known and tries to objectively observe group activitiesPart of the group and participates
Term
 observer as participant
Definition
 Researcher makes presence known but does not actively participateNot part of the group but may participate for the sake of undertanding
Term
 complete observer
Definition
 Researcher observes without becoming a participantGroup is unaware that they are being studied
Term
 preparing for the field (field research)
Definition
Term
 ways of recording observation
Definition
 Cameras and sound recordersField notesStructured observations
Term
 cameras and sound recorders
Definition
 Capture actions and conversations
Term
 field notes
Definition
 First, sketchy notes and then rewrite in detailInclude "unimportant details"Mneumonics
Term
 examples of structured observations
Definition
 Close-ended questionnaireEnvironmental surveys
Term
 environmental surveys
Definition
 Structured observations in the field Records what an observer sees in the field (on specially designed forms)
Term
Definition
 Provides great depth of understandingLess prejudgement, more flexibleHigh validityMore appropriate (than surveys) for measuring behavior
Term
Definition
 Low reliabilityLow generalizabilityTime consumingTypically can't use probability samplingEthical dilemmasObserver bias
Term
 examples of methods for data collection
Definition
 Counting crimeSelf-reportsPerceptions and attitudesPolicy proposalsTargeted victim surveysOther evaluation uses
Term
 reasons for popularity of survey research
Definition
 Versatile, efficient and generalizable
Term
 conducting survey research
Definition
 Establish the goals of the projectDetermine the sampleChoose survey methodologyCreate questionnairePre-test questionnaireConduct interviewsEnter dataAnalyze the data
Term
 examples of questionnaire construction
Definition
 Open-endedRestricted (close-ended, ranked scale)Partially open-endedRating scale
Term
 contingency questions
Definition
 Uses filter questions and a skip patternRelevant only to some respondents (answers based on their previous responses)
Term
 matrix questions
Definition
 Same set of answer categories used by multiple questions
Term
 maximizing validity in survey research
Definition
 Write clear, meaningful questionsResponse choices should be mutually exclusiveResponse categories should be exhaustiveRespondents must be willing and able to answerShort items are bestAvoid biased items and terms
Term
 potential issues with survey research questions
Definition
 Question-order effectAssumption of knowledgeLeading questionsDouble-barreled questionsResponse sets
Term
 assumption of knowledge
Definition
 Use of specialized jargon in questions
Term
 double-barreled questions
Definition
Term
 elements for gaining cooperation of survey research
Definition
 Cover letterTimingInterviewer
Term
 cover letter (for optimal research cooperation)
Definition
 Increase response rate and honestyMake it credible and personalized
Term
 timing (for optimal research cooperation)
Definition
 Avoid holiday seasonsHousehold v. business surveys
Term
 interviewer (for optimal research cooperation)
Definition
Term
 five aspects of interviewer behavior
Definition
Term
 low validity of survey research
Definition
 Hard to get the real content you're afterNot as accurate as observing directly
Term
 high reliability of survey research
Definition
 Same survey goes out to everyoneEspecially true for computer-assisted interviewing
Term
 approaches to data analysis
Definition
 Analyzing previously collected dataContent analysis
Term
 previously collected data
Definition
 Data from agency recordsData from other researchers (secondary data)
Term
 content analysis
Definition
 Learn about a society by analyzing it's social artifacts
Term
 primary data source
Definition
 Data collected first-hand
Term
 secondary data source
Definition
 Data that has already been collected
Term
 secondary data analysis
Definition
 The reanalysis of data that was originally gathered or compiled for other purposes
Term
 Freedom of Information Act
Definition
 Unless essential to national security, data should be available for legitimate research (concerning general access to secondary data)
Term
Definition
 Cheap and fastBenefit from work of skilled researchersTypically no IRB
Term
Definition
 Data might not be appropriate to your research questionLeast useful for evaluation studiesCAN NOT make causal inferences
Term
 data that has been gathered for agency purposes, not research (as a limitation of agency records)
Definition
 Record keeping is a social processIncomplete dataMisinterpretation of codes
Term
 reliability and validity issues (as a limitation of agency records)
Definition
 Changes in operational definitions of key terms over timeChanges in procedures over timeData entry errors
Term
 unit of analysis (in agency records)
Definition
 Be aware of match or mismatch between units of analysis You can go from individual to aggregate BUT YOU CAN NOT go from aggregate to individualOtherwise, risk committing an ecological fallacy
Term
 content analysis
Definition
 Systematic study of messagesMethod for quantifying behavior must be definedWell suited to answer “who said what, to whom, why, how, and with what effect?”
Term
 performing a content analysis
Definition
Term
 things to remember when choosing research participants
Definition
 Not everyone can participateInterpretation of the data depends on how participants were selected
Term
 survey research
Definition
 Collection of information from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions
Term
 examples of survey research
Definition
Term
Definition
 Can get a large sample sizeGood for sensitive issuesLow cost
Term
Definition
 InflexibleLow response rateElectronic (acquiring a sampling frame)
Term
Definition
 High response rateGood if literacy is an issueHigh completion rate
Term
Definition
 High costReliability issues (interviewer training is a must)
Term
Definition
 Interviewer convenienceAbility to monitor interviewersGood if literacy is an issueLow cost
Term
Definition
 Ease of "hang up" for intervieweeReliability issues (interviewer training is a must)
Term
 quantitative data analysis
Definition
 Conducting experiments Evaluating policy innovationsData in the form of numbers, can be statistically analyzed
Term
 qualitative data analysis
Definition
 Theory- or hypothesis- generating activityData is in the form of words, pictures or objects
Term
 4:1
Definition
 Ratio of a) time working on field notes to b) actual time in the field
Supporting users have an ad free experience!