Shared Flashcard Set


Exam 3
Undergraduate 1

Additional Advertising Flashcards




What are the three types of consumer decision making?

1- routine response behavior: Choices we make with little to no conscious effort.  Make choices without conscious control = automaticity

2- limited problem solving: Not as motivated to search for information and evaluate each alternative

3- extended problem solving: Correspond most closely to the traditional decision-making perspective. Try to collect as much info as possible from internal search (memory) and external search (Google/search engines)

What are the stages in consumer decision making?

1. problem need/recognition

2. search for information

3. pre-purchase evaluation of alternatives

4. product choice

5. purchase/consumption

What is the first step in the consumer decision making? How does it occur?

Problem recognition:

-occurs when consumer sees difference between current state and ideal state

- consumers recognize needs and seek to fulfill them, or a product to solve it

-opportunity recognition & need recognition

What are the different types of information search?

-internal: retrieving knowledge from memory or genetic tendencies

-external: collecting information from peers, family, and the marketplace

-deliberate: existing product knowledge obtained from previous information search or experience of alternatives

-accidental: mere exposure over time to conditioned stimuli and observations of others

Why don't we always search rationally?

-some consumers avoid external search, especially with minimal time to do so and with durable goods (autos)

-symbolic items require more external search

-variety seeking: desire to choose new alternatives over more familiar ones

What is the relationship between product knowledge and amount of information search?

-Upside-down parabola

- search is greatest for those moderately knowledgeable

What is an evoked set? What is a consideration set?

-evoked set: alternatives consumers know about

-consideration set: alternatives consumers actually consider

What is an evaluative criterion? What is a determinant attribute? How are they used for product choice?

-evaluative criterion: standards and specifications used to compare different products and brands

-determinant attributes: features actually used to differentiate among the choices & the criteria on which products differ carry more weight

-Pepsi freshness date stamp 


What are heuristics? What are the common heuristics we use in evaluating and choosing brand alternatives?

-the mental rules of thumb that lead to a speedy decision

-product signal: communicates an underlying quality of a product through the use of aspects that are only visible in the ad

-market beliefs: a consumer's specific beliefs or decision rules pertaining to marketplace phenomena

-country of origin:original country from which a product is produced

Explain the noncompensatory decision rules.

1. Lexicographic: select the brand that is the best on the most important attribute

2. Elimination-by-aspects rule: establish minimum cutoffs for each attribute. Select the most important attribute and eliminate all alternatives that do not exceed the cutoff level. Continue until one alternative remains

3. Conjunctive rule: entails processing by brand, not by attribute. Establish a minimum acceptable level for each attribute. Accept an alternative only if every criterion equals or exceeeds the cutoff

Explain the compensatory decision rules.

-Simple additive rule: The consumer merely chooses the alternative that has the largest number of positive attributes

- Weighted additive rule: The consumer also takes into account the relative importance of positively related attributes, essentially multiplying brand ratings by importance weights

Why do we shop? 
-While consumers may shop "to acquire something" but there are many other personal and social reasons
What are the benefits and limitations of e-commerce?

- benefits: good customer service, more options, more convenience

-limitations: lack of security, fraud, actual shopping experience, shipping charges

What is (retail) store image? What factors shape or influence it?

- personality of the store

-involves both functional and emotional attributes ( interior design, return policies, credit availability)

-the perceived level of crowding within the store may also affect shopping behavior, reducing shopping for some consumers while appealing to other segments


What does POP stimulus stand for? What types of spontaneous shopping take place on the store environment?

-Point-of-Purchase stimuli

-impulse buying & unplanned buying 

-salesperson influence

What is the expectancy disconfirmation model? How do we understand consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction? When does it occur?

-Postpurchase satisfaction or dissatisfaction is determined by attitude about a product after purchase

When occurs:

1. Negative disconfirmation: when product delivers less than expected

2. Positive disconfirmation: when product delivers more than expected

3. Confirmation: product matches expectations



What could consumers do when they are dissatisfied?


-complain and lawsuits

-Regret: when consumers believe that an alternative course of action other than the one chosen would have produced a better outcome

-Rage: when consumers are extremely upset

-Word-of-mouth and word-of-mouse= talk about how bad it is in person and on computer

What are product disposal issues? 

-Strong product attachment = painful disposal process

-Ease of product disposal is now a key product attribute to consumers

-Disposal options

What is lateral cycling? What are the three types of divestment rituals?

-A process in which already-purchased objects are sold to others or exchanged for other items

-divestment rituals:

1. Iconic= taking pictures and videos of objects before we sell them

2. Transition-place= putting items in an out-of-the way location such as a garage or attic before we dispose of them

3. Ritual cleansing= washing, ironing, and/ or meticulously wrapping the item

What does a reference group refer to? How do reference groups influence consumers?

-an actual or imaginary individual or group that has a significant effect on an individual's evaluations, aspirations, or behavior 


+Normative: when individuals alter their behaviors or beliefs to meet the expectations of a particular group

- Does normative=utilitarian?

+Informational: when people have difficulty assessing product or brand characteristics by their own observations or contact

+Value-expressive: when a need for psychological association with a group causes acceptance of its values, attitudes, or behaviors

   Any external influence that provides social clues can be a reference group

o   Cultural figure

o   Parents

o   Large, formal organizations

o   Small informal groups

- Exert a more powerful influence on individual consumers

A part of our day-to-day lives

What are the different types of reference groups? 

-Membership: when individuals are recognized as members of a group, the have achieved formal acceptance status in the group--ordinary people

- Aspirational: exhibit a desire to adopt the norms, values, and behaviors of others with whom the individuals aspire to associate--celebrities

- Positive: want to be a part of

-Negative: don't want to be a part of

-Brand Community: a group of consumers who share a set of social relationships based upon usage or interest in a product

- Consumer tribe: share emotions, moral beliefs, styles of life, and affiliated product

-Avoidance reference group

- Anti-brand community: coalesce around a celebrity, store, or brand-- but in this case they're united by their disdain for it

What are the three group phenomena/effects?

- Deindividuation: individual identities become submerged within a group

- Social loafing: people don't devote as much to a task when their contribution is part of a larger group

- Risky shift: group members show a greater willingness to consider riskier alternatives following group discussion than if members made their own decisions

What is an opinion leader? What are their characteristics? How do they influence others? What are the old and new social perspectives?

- The sender of information is often considered an opinion leader--a person who influences the decisions of others

-Experts in one area but not others

-Know more people now

What are market mavens? Surrogate consumers?

- Actively involved in transmitting marketplace information of all types, just into shopping and aware of trends, overall knowledge of how and where to get products

- Act as agents to guide, direct, and conduct activities in the marketplace, interior decorators, consumer relinquishes control over decision-making functions

What does WOM refer to? What influence does it have on consumer perceptions, opinions, opinions, and/or decisions in general? Why do people engage in WOM?

-WOM is product information transmitted by individuals 

-More reliable form of marketing

-Social pressure to conform

-Influences two-thirds of all sales

- We rely upon WOM in later stages of product adoption

-Powerful when we are unfamiliar with product category

How are a subculture and microculture defined? What is an ethnic culture? How is ethnicity taken into account in marketing strategies are used? What is deethnicization?

-Subculture: a distinct cultural group that exists that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex society

-Microculture: share and a strong identification with an activity or art form

-Ethnic culture: Self-perpetuating group of consumers who share common cultural or genetic ties where both its members an others recognize it as a distinct category

-Minorities find an advertising spokesperson from their own group more trustworthy

-Deethnicization: occurs when a product we associate with a specific ethnic group detaches itself from its roots and appeals to other groups as well

What are the three largest ethnic subcultures in the U.S.?

-Hispanic: largest population subculture

-African Americans: household income and education increasing

-Asian Americans: fastest-growing racial group due to immigration

What is acculturation? What types of acculturation agents do influence the process?

- The process of movement and adaptation to one cultural environment by a person from another culture

1. Family

2. Friends

3. Church organizations 

4. Media

What is the influence of age on consumer behavior? What is an age cohort? What implications do they have for marketing?

- Age exerts a significant influence on his/her identity

- Age cohort= My generation

-Our possessions let us identify with others of a certain age/life stage 

What are the general characteristics of the major age subcultures?

- Generation Y: 1/3 of popilation, 1977-1994 (Mine), millenials, computers and TV

- Generation X: 1966-1976, no labels/cynical, stable families, save income, view individuality

- Baby Boomers: 1946-1965, more than 40 percent of population, peak earning years, active, mid-life crisis

- Gray Market: 65 years+, growing group because of good medical care, longer, healthier lives,fastest growing internet users

Why is the youth market important? What does coolhunting refer to? 

- Brand loyalty develops during adolescence, teen influence of family purchase decisions

- Coolhunters= kids in major markets who roam urban streets and report back on cutting-edge trends

What is perceived age? How is it important to recognize perceived age, not chronological age?

- "How you feel" as opposed to real age

- The older we get, the younger we feel relative to actual age 

What is the definition of culture? How is it constituted and evolved? How does it affect the way people think and behave?

- The sum total of learned beliefs, values, meanings, rituals, norms, traditions, and customs that serve to regulate the consumer behavior of members of a particular society

What are the cultural dimensions?

-Power distance: Way members perceive differences in power when they form interpersonal relationships

- Uncertainty avoidance: Degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations

- Masculine vs. Feminine: Degree to which sex roles are clearly dealienated

-Individualism vs. Collectivism: Extent to which culture values the welfare of the individual vs. that of the group

-High context vs. Low context: Extent to which communication is abstract or literal

Supporting users have an ad free experience!