Shared Flashcard Set

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Exam 2 Prep
Grade Aide & Vocabulary
41
Physiology
Undergraduate 1
10/12/2010

Additional Physiology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 

On average, about _______________ of college students experience sleep paralysis, accompanied by feelings of anxiety or terror, feeling vibrations, or hearing humming noises.

Definition
33% to 50%
Term

 

show that on average, college students only sleep about __________ hours per night, accumulating a 3-hour per night sleep deficit.

Definition
6
Term

 

Sleep deprivation can lead to

Definition

poor learning in school.

Term

 

Hypnagogic imagery refers to

Definition

 

the dream-like images of stage 1 sleep.

Term

 

The most important sleep stage, so you wake up feeling rested the next day, includes

Definition

 

stages 3 and 4.

Term

 

The most important sleep stage, from another perspective seems to be

Definition

 

stage 5 (REM)—when animals or people are sleep-deprived they get into REM sleep more quickly and spend more time in REM sleep than they would otherwise.

Term

 

Many dreams have negative and aggressive themes, so researchers train people to control dream content during times that they are aware of dreaming. This awareness of dreaming is called

Definition

 

lucid dreaming

Term

 

Milana recently traveled to a wedding 7 time zones from her home, and when she got back her boyfriend broke up with her. She is now having trouble sleeping. Because you are her good friend you advise her to

Definition

 

get up and sit in a chair and read a novel until she really can’t stay awake any more.

Term

 

REM dreams differ from non-REM dreams in that non-REM dreams

Definition

 

are more thought-like and repetitive.

Term

 

Jose’s wife complains that his snoring and frequent turning over in his sleep are keeping her awake at night. Yet Jose insists that he sleeps well, despite often feeling tired in the morning. Jose probably suffers from

Definition

Jose’s wife complains that his snoring and frequent turning over in his sleep are keeping her awake at night. Yet Jose insists that he sleeps well, despite often feeling tired in the morning. Jose probably suffers from

Term

According to Freud, dreams have two aspects. The actual content of the dream is called _____________ content, and the hidden, underlying meaning is called the ____________ content.

Definition

 

manifest; latent

Term

 

While asleep, Kendra’s brain is busy. As acetylcholine surges, and activates brain stem areas, random messages are sent to the thalamus and relayed throughout the cortex. As she enters Stage 5 sleep, Kendra has a dream of talking to friends in class. This process reflects the ____________ theory of dreaming.

Definition

 

activation-synthesis

Term

 

Near-death experiences (NDEs) are not a purely biological phenomenon because evidence shows that

Definition
they are influenced by culture
Term

John was in an accident and was seriously injured. He tells his friends that he felt his consciousness leave his body, and he watched from above as the doctors worked on him. He saw his deceased grandparents were there, smiling at him and the pain went away. Then, as the doctors finished working on him his consciousness returned to his body. John experienced a(n)

Definition

near-death experience.

Term
Reports of déjà vu experiences are
Definition
more common than not, about 65%.
Term

 

You are a movie reviewer for a local newspaper and just saw a film in which stage show volunteers were given specific posthypnotic suggestions to rob jewelry stores and mail the jewels to the hypnotist. You title your review,

Definition

“Entertaining, But Goes Against the Known Facts.”

Term

 

      One problem for sociocognitive theories of hypnosis is that they

Definition

 

fail to account for why some people are simply not responsive to hypnotic suggestions.

Term

 

Alcohol is primarily a

Definition

 

depressant.

Term

The most powerful natural stimulant is

Definition
cocaine.
Term

Jasmine says she will never smoke marijuana because it leads to the use of other stronger and more addictive drugs. You tell Jasmine that

Definition

 

she might be right, but the direction of cause and effect has not been established; and other reasons perhaps explain why some people start out with marijuana and move on to more potent drugs.

Term

 

Learning results from

Definition

experience.

Term

 

Habituation occurs to

Definition

stimuli we conclude are safe.

Term

Learning, as the association of one stimulus with another, was first systematically studied by

Definition

the British Associationists.

Term

Brandi feeds her dog, Spot, canned food every day. Whenever Brandi’s mom opens a can, Spot comes running. Spot has been conditioned to

Definition

      expect dog food to be in every can that is opened.

Term

 

Jane wants to use classical conditioning to teach her dog to wag his tail whenever he hears the house phone ring. She plans to pet her dog, which always makes his tail wag, and then immediately call the house phone with her cell phone. How successful will she be?

Definition

Very successful; this is a correct pairing of events.

Term

Carina is trying to get over her fear of large spiders, starting with tarantulas. To do this, she has successfully trained herself to breath deeply and relax whenever she sees a tarantula. However, yesterday Carina saw a scorpion and became very fearful. This is probably due to

Definition

stimulus generalization.

Term
Operant conditioning is also called
Definition

 

instrumental conditioning.

 

Term

When a behavior occurs as an automatic reflex, it is called _____________ but when it occurs as a voluntary behavior it is called ____________.

Definition
elicited; emitted
Term