# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

EVPP 111 Final Review
Final Review for EVPP
156
Environmental Studies
05/15/2011

Term
 The total fertility rate (TFR) for human population is affected by
Definition
 availability of family planning services cultural and religious traditions governmental policies marriage age
Term
 The current population of the earth is approximately
Definition
 6.7 billion
Term
 Zero Population Growth (ZPG) means that
Definition
 Poeple will be born, will die, and will come and go but the size of the population will remain stable because the number of people leaving the population through death and emigration
Term
 I=P x A x T
Definition
 Environmental Impact = Number of People (P) x Affluence per person (A) x environmental effects of technologies (T)
Term
 Consider a country with a stable population and no changes in technology. If that country undergoesa DECREASE in the affluence of each individual, the environmental impact oul be expected to...
Definition
 decrease
Term
 Consider a country with no changes in technology r affluence of each individual. If that country has an INCREASE in population, the environmental impact would be expected to...
Definition
 increase
Term
 Consider country A with a female literacy rate of 83% and country B with a female literacy rate of 56%. All else being equal, which country would most likely have a HIGHER TFR (total fertility rate)?
Definition
 Country B
Term
 Consider country C in which the average age at which women marry is 23 years and country D in which the average at which women mary is 28 years. All else being equal, which country would most likely have a LOWER TFR?
Definition
 Country D
Term
 Birthrates and death rates stabilize at lower levels, leading to a stable, but larger population during which stage of the demographic transition?
Definition
 Post-Industrial
Term
 Birthrates remain high but death rates begin to decline, leading to an overall increase in population during which stage of demographic transition?
Definition
 Transitional
Term
 In 1950, Country X had a population of 1,500,000. By 1967, Country X's population has increased to 3,000,000. Coutnry Y had a population of 650,000 in 1973. In 1988, its population was 1,300,000. Which country had the fastest doubling of its population during the periods indicated?
Definition
 Country Y
Term
 What correctly gives the formula for determining population change
Definition
 (births + immigrations) - (deaths + immigrations) = population change
Term
 The total fertility rate (TFR) is
Definition
 average number of children per woman for a country
Term
 NOT a condition believed to be in place when today's developed countries went through the demographic transition
Definition
 World population was larger than it is now
Term
 Two types of "overpopulation" were discussed. Human (people) overpopulation
Definition
 is a common problem in developing countries   AND   occurs when too many people consume few resources per person
Term
 Two types of "overpopulation" were discussed. "Consumption overpopulation..."
Definition
 is a common problem in highly developed countries   AND   occurs when each individual in a population consumes too large a share of the resources
Term
 The world's most abundant fossil fuel is
Definition
 coal
Term
 What fuel was primarily formed from the remains of ancient terrestrial plants in the great carboniferous forests and swamps
Definition
 coal
Term
 what is NOT true about the formation of oil and natural gas
Definition
 the cap rock (or trap) is a coarse grained, porous rock in which the oil and natural gas accumulates in the pores
Term
 Subsurface mining of coal ______________
Definition
 results in less disturbance of the land then surface mining of coal
Term
 The mining and/or burning of coal produces and/or contributes to
Definition
 acide deposition increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere land disturbance acid mine drainage   (all of the above)
Term
 In __________________, huge amounts of earth are removed by heavy machinery in order to expose and extract the coal
Definition
 surface mining
Term
 Accurate description of primary extraction of oil
Definition
 Primary extraction removes about 1/3 of the total oil deposit below ground
Term
 Approaches mentioned in class to a "cleaner" fuel
Definition
 1.Washing coal pre-combution to remove some impurities. 2. Using fluidized bed technology during combustion to get more thorough combustion at lower temperatures. 3. Using scrubbers post combustion to remove certain substances from the emissions. 4. Converting coal to methane, a cleaner burning fuel, and capturing the carbon dioxide that would be emitted. (all the above)
Term
 Which energy source is used to produce a majority of electricity in the U.S. and world?
Definition
 Coal
Term
 The largest consumer of oil is _______________. Whereas the largest producer of oil is _________________.
Definition
 United States .......... Saudi Arabia
Term
 The fossil fuel that is naturally the "cleanest" to burn is
Definition
 natural gas
Term
 Gas created at shallow depths by the anaerobic decomposition or organic matter by bacteria is called
Definition
 Biogenic gas
Term
 Deposits of moist sand and oil (bitumen) are called
Definition
 Oil sands
Term
 The fossil fuel that is naturally the "dirtiest" to burn is
Definition
 coal
Term
 Which country has the highest per-capita energy consumption
Definition
 U.S.
Term
 The world's dominant enery source for the past ~40 years has been
Definition
 oil
Term
 What is considered a NONrenewable resource
Definition
 Coal
Term
 The amount of a ____________ changes only by the amount that is used each year whereas the amount of a ____________ changes as technology advances
Definition
 resource ........reserve
Term
 Exposure to high heat and pressure during formation produces coal that has characteristics of: dry, very compact, high heating value and NOT
Definition
 wet
Term
 Lignite forms under conditions of relatively low heat and pressure. As a result, one would expect is to exhibit what?
Definition
 soft high moisture content brownish color
Term
 Negative environmental impacts from the production and use of oil may occur due to:
Definition
 Subsidence of land Pollution of surface and groundwater Loss, disruption, damage to ecosystems Leaks and spills from pipes, storage tanks, transport vehicles   (all the above)
Term
 What is a demographic transition
Definition
 A model of economic and cultural change used to explain the decling death rates and birth rates that occurred in developed nations as those nations experienced industrialization
Term
 The relationship between population growth and per capita national income ___________________
Definition
 is such that as per capita national income increases, growth rate decreases
Term
 How does the burning of coal contribute to acid rain
Definition
 Burning coal produces emissions containing sulfur and nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide which combine with moisture in the atmosphere to form sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and carbonic acid
Term
 Net energy expresses the difference between energy returned and energy invested. When comparing energy sources it is useful to use a ratio called the EROI. Assume that you have been researching existing and new energy sources and have determined their EROIs. Based only on the EROI, which would be most desirable?
Definition
 10:1
Term
 What is "Hubbert's Peak"?
Definition
 A prediction, based on rates of extraction and new discovery, of when a country's or global oil production will be at a maximum and then start to fall
Term
 Ocean energy sources that can be used to generate electricity include
Definition
 wave energy and tide energy
Term
 what is NOT true about the potential problems associated with using ocean energy
Definition
 It can produce greenhouse gases
Term
 the creation of a reservoir (behind a hydroelectric dam) causes many types of environmental and social damage EXCEPT
Definition
 production of relatively clean, renewable energy
Term
 Hydroelectric power plants do not release CO2 directly into the atmosphere but CO2 and other greenhouse gases can be released from the reservoirs behind dams when
Definition
 organic material submerged when the reservoir formed undergoes decay
Term
 Using hydropower to generate electricity has many advantages. What is NOT an advantage of hydropower?
Definition
 Hydropower dams can disrupt the migration of migratory fish
Term
 True or False: Pumped storage is an example of the "impoundment" approach to taking advantage of hydropower?
Definition
 True
Term
 Of the renewable/alternative sources of energy, which currently produces the largest percent of the United State's electricity?
Definition
 Hydropower
Term
 What is NOT TRUE concerning the combustion of biomass for energy production
Definition
 does not produce any greenhouse gases
Term
 what is NOT considered a strategy for conserving energy in homes and buildings
Definition
 increase the use of incadenscent light bulbs
Term
 True of False: Even if the electricity for electric cars comes from burning fossil fuels, the electric cars are still more energy-efficient than gasoline-powered cars
Definition
 True
Term
 Devices that convert solar energy directly into electricity are called
Definition
 Photovoltaic cells
Term
 One way to get hydrogen for a hydrogen fuel cell is via this reaction: 2H20 --> 2H2 --> O2 . In addition to water, what is required to make this reaction happen?
Definition
 Electricity
Term
 The energy-efficient fo buildings can be improved by: use of energy-efficient appliances, use of energy-efficient fluorescent light bulbs, use of energy-efficient windows, fixing air leaks and NOT
Definition
 use of less-efficient insulation
Term
 If one were to create electricity to run your appliances, which form of solar energy should they use
Definition
 Photovoltaic cells
Term
 What is NOT a source of biomass for fuel
Definition
 Wind
Term
 Renewable/alternative energy sources do not include
Definition
 fossil fuels
Term
 In class we identified four of the least energy-efficient devices. What is not one of them?
Definition
 Fluorescent light bulb
Term
 Theodore Roosevelt made many contributions to environmentalism. What is NOT one of his contributions?
Definition
 He wrote, "Silent Spring"
Term
 ______________ founded the Sierra Club
Definition
 John Muir
Term
 ________________ was not only the first national park in the United States, it was also the first national park in the world.
Definition
 Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
Term
 According to the conservation ethic:
Definition
 national resources should be put to use but man has a responsibility to manage wisely
Term
 ______________is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws
Definition
 Environmental Justice
Term
 The publication of __________________________ by Rachel Carson was a landmark environmental event of the 1960's
Definition
 Silent Spring
Term
 Who helped raise public awareness of the environment through his paintings of wildlife in natural positions and settings
Definition
 John Audobon
Term
 What is NOT a true statement about the consequences associated with the use of geothermal energy
Definition
 Geothermal technologies receive little attention because the amount of energy potentially available from this source is very small and would only meet our energy needs for a very short period of time
Term
 Geothermal can be used for heating space, producing electricity, and producing high-temperature heat for industry but NOT
Definition
 liquid transportation fuel
Term
 The majority of the United State's geothermal energy is currently produced in what state?
Definition
 California
Term
 Methods of using geothermal energy
Definition
 1. making use of the stable ground temperatures to heat or cool the interiors of buildings 2. using steam, produced by pumping water from the surface into cracks in hot-rocks below the surface, to turn a turbine to generate electricity 3. making direct use of hot water, to heat water or space, from hot springs near the surface
Term
 The amount of solar energy hitting the earth from any particular location depends on
Definition
 the amount of cloud cover the distance the location is from the equator the time of day the season of the year   (all the above)
Term
 Converting solar energy DIRECTLY into electricity requires
Definition
 Photovoltaic Cells (or photovoltaics)
Term
 what would NOT correctly complete this statement, "Difficulties or concerns associated with the use of/reliance on solar energy include that..."
Definition
 using it will upset the energy balance of nature
Term
 The use of overhangs that block sunlight from entering a building in the summer but allowit to enter in the winter is an example of
Definition
 Passive Solar Heating/Lighting
Term
 Solar parabolic trough power generation is an example of what solar energy utilization method?
Definition
 Solar Concentration (concentrated solar power)/solar thermal
Term
 Wind is considered an indirect form of solar energy because...
Definition
 Uneven heating of the earth by the sun results in differences in atmospheric temperatures and pressures which in turn cause wind
Term
 What does NOT apply to wind power
Definition
 causes no noise
Term
 True of False: Using wind to generate electricity has a lower EROI than when using nuclear energy or coal to generate electricity
Definition
 False
Term
 Bat deaths associated with wind turbines are believed to be caused by ____________________ rather than by impacting the blades
Definition
 drops in air pressure near the blades that leads to the explosion of the bats' delicate lungs
Term
 "Wind Turbine Syndrome" is a name that some researchers are using to refer to the collection of symptoms that some people who live near wind turbines are claiming to be suffering from as a result of the wind turbines. These symptoms DO NOT include
Definition
 Bright light from the solar concentration mirrors
Term
 What renewable/alternative energy source is currently the fastest growing
Definition
 Wind
Term
 Which of the following is NOT a water pollution category: Municipal Industrial Agricultural Groundwater Domestic
Definition
 Agricultural
Term
 Conventional wastewater treatment (primary and secondary treatment) does NOT remove what pollutant from wastewater?
Definition
 Phosphorus
Term
 What are NON-CONSUMPTIVE uses of water?
Definition
 Using water to generate power at a hydroelectric plant along a river   Using waterways for commercial navigation
Term
 What are potential sources for groundwater pollution
Definition
 Runoff from animal feed-lots Poorly designed and maintained septic systems Application of fertilizers to agricultural lands Leaks from underground storage tanks containing gasoline and other hazardous substances   (all the above)
Term
 Renewable fossil fuels include all of the following except: Fossil Fuels, Geothermal, Sun, Wind, Biomass
Definition
 Fossil Fuels
Term
 The amount of solar energy hitting the earth depends on
Definition
 the amount of cloud cover, the distance an area of the earth is from the equator, the time of day, the season of the year   (all the above)
Term
 What does NOT complete this statement, "Difficulties with solar energy include..."
Definition
 "using it will upset the energy balanceof nature"
Term
 Approximately ____ percent ofthe earth's surface is covered by water yet the total amount of freshwater available for human use is approximately ______ percent.
Definition
 75% ........ <1%
Term
 Most freshwater is present in the form
Definition
 ice caps and glaciers
Term
 The upper limit of an unconfined aquifier of water is termed the
Definition
 water table
Term
 What accounts for the major consumptive use of water in most parts of the world
Definition
 agriculture (irrigation)
Term
 What is NOT one of the 4 board use categories for water
Definition
 Nuclear Energy
Term
 What are the 4 braoad use categories for water
Definition
 Domestic Agricultural  Industrial In-Stream
Term
 What is NOT a water pollutant category
Definition
 Phosphorus
Term
 Water pollutant categories
Definition
 Toxic Chemicals Dissolved Organic Matter Nutrients Physical Particles
Term
 What does NOT apply to wind power
Definition
 Causes no noise
Term
 NOT true about the consequences associated with the use of geothermal energy
Definition
 Geothermal technologies receive little attention because the amount of energy available from this source is very small and would meet our needs for a very short period of time
Term
 what is NOT considered a strategy for conserving energy in homes and buildings
Definition
 Increase the use of incandescent light bulbs
Term
 __________ is a pollutant in the lower atmosphere that resultsfrom human activities but is a natural and beneficial gas in the stratosphere that prevents much of the solar ultraviolet radiation from penetrating to the earth's surface
Definition
 Ozones
Term
 Chemical formula for ozone
Definition
 O3
Term
 The use of overhans that block sunlight in summer but allow the sunlight in winter to warm up the building is an example of
Definition
 passive solar heating/lighting
Term
 The "ozone hole" originally was used to refer to the large area over _______________ in which there is a very significant seasonal thinning of ozone in the stratosphere
Definition
 Antarctica
Term
 True of False: Ozone constantly forms, breaks down, and reforms in the stratosphere in a series of natural reactions involving molecular oxygen and ultraviolet light that occur in the stratosphere
Definition
 True
Term
 Chloroflurocarbons were initially considered "dream chemicals" because of all of the following characteristics: chemically stable, nonflammable, nontoxic, odorless EXCEPT:
Definition
 Long lag time between their release at ground level and their arrival in the stratosphere
Term
 No new commercial nuclear reactors have been built in the United States in a number of years. This is because...
Definition
 There is negative public and political sentiment and uncertainty over reactor safety
Term
 _____________ occurs when neutrons impact and split the nuclei of certain atoms
Definition
 Nuclear Fission
Term
 What is NOT a concern associated with nuclear energy
Definition
 Low cost of building nuclear power plants
Term
 True of False: Despite the nuclearscares at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, nuclear power plant building projects increased by 200% over what was projected during the 1980's
Definition
 False
Term
 True of False: The United States Department of Energy oversaw the production of nuclear weapons in such a way that there is little, if any, residual radioactive waste that now needs to be disposed of in the nuclear laboratories
Definition
 False
Term
 True of False: In a nuclear reactor, the control rods are made from fissionable material and they increase the speed of the reaction
Definition
 False
Term
 What is NOT one of the primary air pollutants
Definition
 Ozone
Term
 Primary air pollutants
Definition
 Volatile Organic Compounds Carbon Monoxide Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides
Term
 what DOES NOT result in the production of particulates
Definition
 interaction of CFCs with ultraviolet radiation
Term
 What processes result in the production of particulates
Definition
 Farming Construction Volcanoes Desertification
Term
 Which of the following is NOT a greenhouse gas?   Carbon Dioxide Sulfur Dioxide Methane Chlorofluorocarbons Nitrous Oxide
Definition
 Sulfur Dioxide
Term
 What activity is responsible for the largest percentage of human-made carbon dioxide emissions
Definition
 Burning Fossil Fuels
Term
 Nuclear fusion
Definition
 is the process in which 2 lightweight atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus, releasing a large amount of energy
Term
 The period of time required for one-half of a radioactive substance to decompose (change into a different material) is known as its...
Definition
 half-life
Term
 The greatest problem with the use of nuclear power (to generate electricity) is its production of
Definition
 Radiation that is released into the surrounding region
Term
 Air pollution results in all of the followin except:   damage to structures damage to ecosystems reduced value of aesthetic scenery improved water quality human health effects
Definition
 improved water quality
Term
 All of the following are factors that contribute to extremely poor air quality in megacities of developing countries except:   extremely small human populations heavy use of open fires large numbers of poorly maintained autombiles poor regulated industrial plants large human populations
Definition
 extremely small human populations
Term
 what greenhouse gas is more abundant in the atmosphere
Definition
 Carbon Dioxide
Term
 What greenhouse gas enters the atmosphere primarily as a waste product produced by microorganisms living in rice fields, wetlands, and the guts of termites
Definition
 methane
Term
 The difference between primary and secondary air pollutants is that primary air pollutants
Definition
 enter the atmosphere directly, whereas secondary pollutants result from the interaction of primary pollutants in the atmosphereinthe presence of sunlight
Term
 The creation of a reservoir (behind a hydroelectric dam) causes significant environmental and social damage EXCEPT:
Definition
 loss of farmland
Term
 Which of the following names the form of energy that can be succesfully used in buildings, is relatively cheap to construct, and simply uses the sun to heat a surface, which warms the inside of the building.
Definition
 passive solar
Term
 What is considered among the least energy-efficient devices in widespread use today?
Definition
 incandescent light bulb nuclear power plants producing electricity for space heating or water heating
Term
 What is most responsible for ozone depletion?
Definition
 chloroflurocarbons
Term
 What statement is false?
Definition
 CFCs are heavy molecules that stay in the troposphere
Term
 Increases in ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth as a result of depletion of the ozone layer will cause an increase in everything EXCEPT
Definition
 yields of food crops
Term
 Chlorofluorocarbons are used for many purposes EXCEPT:
Definition
 paints
Term
 What is NOT considered an ozone-depleting compound?
Definition
 carbon dioxide
Term
 How do chloroflurocarbons cause the ozone layer to become depleted?
Definition
 chlorine, released when chlorofluorocarbons breakdown in the presence of ultraviolet light, is very reactive and it reacts with ozone (O3), eventually converting it to molecular oxygen (O2) and atomic oxygen (O)
Term
 What is Love Canal
Definition
 A neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, which became the subject of national and international attention, controversy, and eventual environmental notoriety following the discovery of 21,000 tons of toxic waste that had been buried beneath the neighborhood by Hooker Chemical .
Term
 What purpose does the Love Canal now serve
Definition
 Reminder that we can't just throw things away and that wastes don't stay put
Term
 CERCLA and relationship to the "super fund"
Definition
 Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act   Created in repsonse to the Love Canal issue   Puts a special tax on chemical and petroleum producers
Term
 Solid Waste
Definition
 any unwanted or discarded material that isn’t liquid or gas
Term
 How much of the world's solid waste is produced by the U.S.?
Definition
 33%
Term
 U.S. solid waste comes from what combination of sources
Definition
 mining, oil and gas production, agriculture and industry, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste
Term
 Municipal Solid Waste
Definition
 from homes and businesses in or near urban areas
Term
 Major Components of MSW in the U.S.
Definition
 Paper and Cardboard, Yard Waste, Food Waste
Term
 Hazardous waste
Definition
 any solid or liquid material that contains one or more of 39 compounds at levels that exceed established limits - catches fire easily - reactive/unstable enough to explode to release toxic fumes - capable of corroding metal containers
Term
 Hazardous waste does NOT include
Definition
 radioactive wastes,hazardous and toxic materials discarded by households, mining wastes,oil- and gas-drilling wastes,liquid wastes containing organic hydrocarbon compounds,cement kiln dust, wastes from small businesses and factories that generate less than 100 kilograms (220 pounds) of hazardous waste/month
Term
 ______ percent of the world's hazardous waste is produced in the U.S.
Definition
 75%
Term
 2 methods for dealing with waste
Definition
 Waste Management Waste Prevention
Term
 Aspects of Waste Management
Definition
 High-waste approach Views waste production as unavoidable Attempts to manage waste by: burying, burning, transferring
Term
 aspects of waste prevention
Definition
 low waste approach views waste as potential resources or harmful substances focuses on: discouraging production, encouraging prevention
Term
 How can we reduce waste and pollution
Definition
 1st priority - change industrial processes, purchase different products, redesign products   2nd priority - reuse, repair, recycle, compost   Last priority - treat waste, incinerate waste, bury waste, release waste
Term
 2 types of land water
Definition
 Surfacewater, groundwater
Term
 Types of surface water
Definition
 drainage basin,watershed
Term
 Types of groundwater
Definition
 unconfined aquifer, confined aquifer
Term
 Causes of Global Warming
Definition
 Several gases in atmosphere, absorb infrared  radiation, lead to greenhouse effect, greenhouse gases
Term
 Global Warming prevention strategies
Definition
 cut fossil fuel use improve energy efficiency renewable energy/resources reduce deforestation
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