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Evangelical Theology - Part 1
Final Exam
Bible Studies
Undergraduate 3

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John Tetzel
was a German Dominican preacher accused for selling indulgences and for a couplet attributed to him, "As soon as a coin in the coffer rings / the soul from purgatory springs." He was trying to raise money for the ongoing reconstruction ofSt. Peter Bisilica and it is believed that Martin Luther was inspired to write his Ninety-Five Theses in part, due to Tetzel's actions during this period of time. [2] He was sent to Rome to implant his new belief which was SELL OF INDULGENCES, in which people had to pay to be saved. The sinner became cleaner than Adam before the fall.
Frederick the Wise
He protected Luther, who was told that if he didn’t stopped he was going to have to be excommunicated from the church. ( he was going to hell)
Charles V
A good catholic who did not allowed them to get divorced.
Theology of the Cross
By LUTHER God who is Creator coming and dying.
God acts in radically different ways than we would have expected.
But to realize that the cross was where God had most completely revealed himself was then to realize that any hope of the self would involve a secondary crucifixion of the sinful self. It would involve an existential awareness of how infinitely impure the sinner was before the holiness and purity of the living God. It meant, also, that the way to the one true God who revealed himself at Calvary would lead to intellectual humility and a confession of the gross ignorance of all humanity before the mystery of God’s wisdom displayed at the cross.
A town in Germany. Luther begins debating with others there. He placed the 95 Thesis on the Wittenberg door.
Theology of Glory
By LUTHER Seeks to know Go in those things that humans consider most valuable and praiseworthy. God’s nature is what we would like it to be.
Act of Supremacy
The first Act of Supremacy granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy which is still the legal authority of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Royal Supremacy is specifically used to describe the legal sovereignty of the civil laws over the laws of the Church in England.
All MONEYwas send to King now. All disputes are now handled in house.
Thomas Cranmer
He marries Henry II and Anne
Henry VIII
He is the king and wants to divorce Catherine of Aragon because she never gave him the son he wanted to live him the throne. He wants to get married with Anne Boleyn (one of many mistress he had) because she is pregnant.
Political impact
*Nationalism – power in the Monarchy
*Tumultuous patterns in economic and social life:
Coming off the Plague there is a resurgence of power and financial bases
*Intellectual upheaval: Renaissance and Guttenberg (invented the printing press)
Anabaptist movement
Separated the church and the state.
1.Believed in believers baptism
2.Church should not be confused with the “world” around it
3.Took the Sermon on the Mount literally – passivism
4. They were Egalitarian
5. Disrupted the social order
Church/state issues
Calvin in Geneva saying that the State should submit to the church. It Carried out the will of the church leaders
State over Church – Henry VIII in England. It institutes the church hierarchy
Separation of Church and State was the goal of the Anabaptist movement
Jesuits and Wesley
Ignatius of Loyola: He was a Spanish Soldier who emphasized on Spiritual Exercise dealing with Sinfulness ( our nature), Kingship ( God’s sovereignty), Passion (crucifixion), Risen ( in order to understand salvation we have to understand crucifixion).
The Ignation Method: was his way of studying the Bible. The text becomes supreme
And there must be Immersion in the text in order to understand it.
The monastic orders
There were many reformers transforming the church and the people were tired of it. The monastic order was a reaction to what was happening in the Papacy and in protestant Europe. They called it the Reaction to the call for purity
They also had by 1700:
35,000 Observants
27,000 Capuchins
13,000 Reformed Franciscans.
Counter reformation
It was a commission for Reforming the Church. It Set up Trends:
Called for a colloquium at Regensburg
*Couldn’t get past the Eucharist *Couldn’t get past the authority of the church
Council of Trent
Paul III initiated it
1.Established Roman Catholic Belief
*Counter to the protestant assertions
*Defined the stance
2.Affirmed the dominance of the Pope
* Stressed the need to be pastoral as opposed to political
3. Theological
*Denied humans were passive in the process of justification
*Affirmed Scripture and tradition as coordinate authorities
*Mandated the seven sacraments and defined them as necessary for salvation
*Latin Vulgate and the Latin order of the Mass
4. Structural:
*Tightening church structure
*Put the clergy in a higher plane
*Bishops were to make regular visits to the church
*Set up seminaries for the training of the people
*Stress missionary movement around the world
5.How Trent would be worked out was up to the Pope
Was a movement within Lutheranism.
Wordsmiths of the Church
Very cold and couldn’t connect to the life of people
There was disorganization within the church
Nobody knew how to actually live
Philipp Jakob Spener Strasbourg
He was part of the Pietism movement.
Spiritual decline in Germany
Pious assembly
*Radically different from the norm
*Small groups!
Reconnected with mysticism
6 proposals for reform
o Scripture
o Priesthood of all believers
o Practice of spirituality. Our faith is more than just a mental assent
o Unity within the body even in disagreement
o Education of ministers
o Preach so people can hear
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