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Ethics
Midterm Review
29
Sociology
Undergraduate 3
10/22/2008

Additional Sociology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
  1. Explain the difference between Mackie’s conceptions of the broad and narrow senses of “morality”.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Broad – source of motivation
    2. Narrow – Test of motives we have already
Term
  1. Explain how Rawls’s notion of the veil of ignorance functions to ensure fair decisions without eliminating selfish motives.
Definition
  1.  
    1. "no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status, nor does anyone know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence, strength, and the like. I shall even assume that the parties do not know their conceptions of the good or their special psychological propensities. The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance."         
Term
  1. What generalization can we make about the moral praiseworthiness of the holy will?
Definition
  1.  
    1. It has no praiseworthiness because only actions done from a sense of duty have moral worth
Term
  1. Are the consequences of negligence obliquely intended?  Explain.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Yes,  oblique intentions are side effects of a direct intention that are known about.  In the case of negligence, an agent should have been aware of the possible side effects that could happen, but does nothing about it.
Term
  1. Explain the difference between Mackie’s second and third stages of universalization.
Definition
2nd law rules out differences of personal characteristics while the 3rd law rules out differences of preference
Term
  1. What difference between law and morality precludes ethics codes from being decisive as a means of resolving ethical issues?
Definition
Ethics must be self directed and not other directed (guided by morals and not laws).  People are supposed to act ethical and morally while laws are what are required
Term
  1. Why does utilitarianism imply negative responsibility?
Definition
By doing nothing even then utility is produced and are responsible for that utility according to utilitarianism.  Utility produced by doing nothing is negative responsibility
Term
  1. Explain Talcott Parsons’s concepts of universalism and disinterestedness as elements of professional conduct.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Toward the client the professional must assume emotional neutrality.  He must provide service to whoever requests it.  All clients must be seen as equals in the eye of the professional, known as universalism.  Disintrestedness is not acting on self interest but more by acting on impulse to perform maximally.
Term
  1. Why does Layton say that professionalism is not democratic?
Definition
  1.  
    1. Because the public doesn’t have the general knowledge to make a professional decision, the public leaves those decisions to the professional and the select few instead of the many.
Term
  1. Rebut the claim that engineering is not a profession because most engineers are employees.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Engineering is still a profession because the title of being an engineer is not given by the company but by the accreditation of the state.  Engineers also have the right to set the rules to which they govern instead of the company.
Term
  1. List what Friedman takes to be the three sources of executive responsibility.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Shareholder interests
    2. Law
    3. Moral custom
Term
  1. What does Kant mean when he says that only actions done from a sense of duty have moral worth?
Definition
  1.  
    1. Because actions done from a sense of duty have no desire behind them and no reward is sought after it is the only right thing to do.  Must do something because it is right many times against what you would normally do.
Term
  1. What is a prima facie right?
Definition
  1.  
    1. Where the burden of proof lies on those claiming the right.
Term
  1. What is the utility monster, and what is the point of the example?
Definition
  1.  
    1. A creature that takes a large amount of pleasure in causing pain and thus a large amount of pain would create the largest utility.  The suffering outweighs the pleasuring for everyone except the monster.  Shows the distribution of the pleasure should also be taken into account.
Term
  1. Explain how rule utilitarianism is intended to answer objections to utilitarianism regarding justice.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Justice based on rule utilitarianism is based on consistency and maximizing utility over the long term by universalizing time saving rules that apply to situations.

 

Term
Explain the difference between purity and fecundity as aspects of actions in utilitarian calculations
Definition
  1.  
    1. Fecundity – doing something to continue that same sensation
    2. Purity – doing something to avoid the opposite sensation
Term
  1. List the four characteristics of states of affairs that Bentham takes to be relevant to utilitarian calculations.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Intensity
    2. Duration
    3. Propinquity
    4. Extent

 

Term
  1. List the three characteristics of actions that Bentham takes to be relevant to utilitarian calculations.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Purity
    2. Fedudity
    3. Certainty
Term
Explain the difference in the moral commitments of engineers and managers
Definition
  1.  
    1. Engineers stress the importance of expert knowledge whereas businessmen stress the role of personal characteristics such as loyalty, drive, initiative and hard work.
Term
  1. Many if not most successful engineers ultimately become managers.  Explain the difficulty this fact supposedly poses for the claim that engineering is a profession.
Definition
  1.  
    1. People stay in professions for their entire life, they don’t’ enter a profession to become another profession.  Engineering can be seen as a stepping stone into a managerial profession.
Term
  1. Are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness positive or negative rights?  Explain.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Negative,  all of them are rights which should not be interfered with.  Positive rights are your rights to something.
Term
  1. Explain the difference between positive and negative rights.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Positive rights – the right to something from someone
    2. Negative right – the right to be left alone in some respect
Term
Explain the difference between the Golden Rule and the Categorical Imperative
Definition
  1.  
    1. Golden rule only looks at only what I would want to be done to me while categorical imperative looks at how society as a whole would want to be treated.
Term
  1. Explain the point of Kant’s “lying promise” example.
Definition
  1.  
    1. If one person is allowed to make a promise that he/she does not intend to keep, that notion would and should be universally accepted and no promises should ever be taken seriously and cannot be promised. Destroys trust in promises.
Term
  1. Provide an example to demonstrate the relevance of the concept of functional specificity to your professional discipline.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Should only offer advice on your specialty and in areas for which qualified.  Fluid power specialty should not advice on machine design.

 

Term
  1. List three ways by which, according to Layton, professional engineering societies have been subject to the influence of business.
Definition
  1.  
    1. Pay expenses for engineers
    2. Pay dues for the societies
    3. Provide funding for research and publications
Term