# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

ES 2020 Final
terms and formulas
36
Other
12/05/2008

Term
 Inferential Statistics
Definition
 when tests are used to relate the characteristics of a small group (sample) to those of a larger group (population)
Term
 Scientific Method
Definition
 -uses inferential statistics for obtaining knowledge- requires both the development of a hypothesis and an inferential stats test
Term
 Hypothesis
Definition
 statement of a presumed association b/t at least 2 variables in a population
Term
 research hypothesis
Definition
 what hte researcher actually believes will occur
Term
 null hypothesis
Definition
 statement that there is no relationship b/t variables-This is what you use in inferential stats
Term
 what is assumed about the relationship b/t variables?
Definition
 that there is no relationship untill there is evidence to the contrary
Term
 alternative hypothesis
Definition
 a statement that there is a relationship
Term
 alpha level
Definition
 probability
Term
 probability (alpha level) is established at?
Definition
 A level that is considered significant-this level is set at p<.05 to reject null hypothesis
Term
 p<.05 means
Definition
 that null hypothesis is rejected- 95% of time same results are expected
Term
 the probability of making an incorrect conclusion is the same as...
Definition
 the alpha level (p<0.5)
Term
 type 1 error:
Definition
 to conclude there is a correlation or difference b/t two variables when there is not
Term
 type 2 error:
Definition
 to conclude there is no relationship b/t variables when there is a true relationship
Term
 independent varibles:
Definition
 x, presumed cause, manipulated, predictor, antecedent
Term
 Dependent varibles:
Definition
 y, presumed effect, outcome, criterion, consequence
Term
 Chi-square (X^2) test
Definition
 determines if there is an association b/t two "nominally" scaled variables
Term
 t-test
Definition
 to examine the difference b/t two variables (w/ continuous interval or ratio type datea)
Term
 t-tests for independent groups
Definition
 groups not related in any way
Term
 t-tests: dependent test for paired group
Definition
 matched on some characteristics
Term
 two types of t-tests:
Definition
 independent and dependent test for paired groups
Term
 ANOVA is
Definition
 analysis of variance-parametric statistic for continuous interval or ratio type data- used to determine if sig differences exist among means from 3 or more sets of data
Term
 F-ratio
Definition
 compares variability among group means(b/t group) w/ the variability of scores w/in groups= avg. var. b/t group / avg. var. w/in groups
Term
 why not perform mult t-tests to determine diff b/t means?
Definition
 alpha lever becomes inflated w/ mult t-tests on samples taken from same population-greater chance of making type 1 error
Term
 single t-test's findings are compared to...
Definition
 the probability of chance
Term
 with multiple t-tests conducted on samples randomly drawn from the same population...
Definition
 the odds of finding the one deviant conclusion that would occur by chance alone increase
Term
 ANOVA eliminates what and how?
Definition
 What? familywise error ratehow? by making all possible comparisons among the means in a single test
Term
 when mult t-tests are made on samples from same population what must happen to alpha level?
Definition
 the alpha level must be adjusted
Term
Definition
 -divide the single test alhpa level by the number of t-tests to be performedEx: for 5 t-tests to be made at p<.05 then .05/5 =.01. This doesn't reject Hypothesus because its not lower than p<.01
Term
 t-test bases info on ____ groups onlyANOVA employs ___________ on all groups ______
Definition
 2.-all information, simultaneously
Term
 when a sig F-ratio is found than additional what must be performed?
Definition
 post hoc (after the fact)
Term
 ANOVA (one-way) each participant has scores on two variables:
Definition
 -a factor (independent variable) and a dependent variable
Term
 the factor(independent variable) divides individuals into....
Definition
 two or more groups or levels
Term
 dependent variable differentiats individuals on what?
Definition
 quantitative dimension
Term
 ANOVA (two-way) how many scores does participant have?
Definition
 3 variables: two factors and a dependent variable
Term
 factor divides cases into....1dependent variable defines cases on 2)
Definition
 1) two or more levels2) a quantitative dimension
Term
 higher way ANOVA's have more than two factors in design:
Definition
 1) each participant must have scores on at least 4 variables (3 or more factors and a dependent variable)2) F-tests are performed on multiple effects
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