# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

EPSY L 17 Decision Making Choice of Action
Exam 2 Review
14
Other
12/07/2015

Term
 What is the benefit of Heuristics in Decision Making versus Normative Model?
Definition
 They reduce cognitive costs. Sastisficing/Elimination by aspects involves eliminating low options on most important dimension, then consider the next dimension
Term
 What is the Expected Value Model of Normative Approach to Decision Making? Why don't people always follow a Normative Model?
Definition
 •Choose among options with different values for hypos varying in probability   •Optimum choice: Maximize expected value by choosing option with largest Sum (Prob X Value) Hard to assign values to outcomes      (safety)  -Subjective values don’t = objective       values…  -Subjective probabilities don’t = objective     probabilities…
Term
 Why was the Expected Utility Model created instead of Expected Value Model?
Definition
 Utility not linearly related to value Diminishing returns of changes in value for utility Loss perceived as more costly than same gain
Term
 How do people estimate small and large probabilities?
Definition
 People overestimate small probabilities.   People underestimate large probabilities.
Term
 What are Framing Effects? What are the implications of this in terms of risk?
Definition
 The same information presented in different forms can lead to different actions Choices involving gains (lives saved) are usually risk averse. *  Choices involving losses (lives lost) are usually risk taking.
Term
 In terms of Framing effects in Warnings, if you think of adherence as a sure loss and nonadherence as only possible loss, what will happen? If you think of adherence as a gain and nonadherence as a only a possible gain, what will happen? What does this imply in terms of how to fram a warning?
Definition
 1.–You’ll go with the riskier alternative (nonadherence) 2.You’ll go with the riskier alternative (nonadherence) 3. don't just emphasize potential costs of nonadherence but also benefits of adherence
Term
 What is Naturalistic Decision Making?
Definition
 Deals with experienced decision makers working in complex,  uncertain environments   Decision makers face personal consequences for their actions   Describes rather than prescribes how decisions are made   Addresses situation awareness and problem solving  as part of the decision making process.
Term
 What are the important predictions of Recognition Primed Decision Model?
Definition
 Decision makers use experience to generate a plausible option as the first one they consider (direct retrieval) 2. TIme pressure does not decrease performance for those who have considerable expertise, they use pattern-matching 3. Experienced decision makers can pick course of action wihtout comparing and contrasting possible courses of aciton
Term
 Describe Type 1 of Dual Process Theory
Definition
 Intuitive, fast, unconscious, automatic,  emotion-driven (“snap judgment”)  Rapid processes that make sense of information …   similar to preattentive processing in visual attention  DM:  RPD; heuristics
Term
 Describe Type 2 of Dual Process Theory
Definition
 Analytical/deliberate, slow, conscious, effortful/controlled • Processes that review/integrate info in terms of goals… similar to effortful search in attention; executive function • DM:  Normative models; some IP models   (expected utility model)
Term
 What is a way to improve decision making
Definition
 Immediate, relevant (not selective) and focused feedback about all important aspects of the decision making process .... and its outcomes!
Term
 How can display/automation help in cue estimation and integration?
Definition
 1. Cue estimation and integration (proximity compatibility principle!!) Reduce need to mentally compute parameters (e.g., proportions, variance, etc)
Term
 How can display/automation help with situation/revise hypothesis?
Definition
 (reduce WM demands) Automate process of updating prior odds Reduce tendency to sequentially process (anchoring/recency effects) Present disconfirming as well as confirming evidence (confirmation bias)
Term
 How can display/automation help with Choice of Action?
Definition
 Choice of action Automated advice about potential course of action. But User overtrust of aidloss of situation awareness; User undertrustnonuse of aids   Alternatively, can “turn the table”, so that the aid critiques users’ choice of action (Interactive critiquing as a form of decision support for blood typing technicians; Guerlain et al., 1999)
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