# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

EPPP Stats Highlights
Formulas and definitions of nuanced concepts
25
Psychology
12/03/2015

Term
 Chi Square Terms goodness of fit2 kinds
Definition
 for nominal data2 assumptions: 1) independence of observation, 2) mutually exclusive and exhaustive categoriestells whether observed frequencies match expectedcannot use with time series/repeated measures designssingle-sample (one variable) and multiple-sample (multiple variable) versions - number of variables INCLUDES IV and DV
Term
 ANOVA
Definition
 Tests whether means of several groups are different. extends t-test to more than 2 groups.Uses the F-statistic. Significant when > 1F-ratio = MSB/MSW = (Treatment + Error)/Erroruse post-hoc tests to identify where the difference lies (X, Y, XY intxn)- Scheffe, Tukey, Fischers
Term
 single sample t-test
Definition
 compares a single sample to a known population mean to see if sig diff
Term
 two-way ANOVA
Definition
 when have more than one continuous IV w/ on continuous DValso called Factorial ANOVA"it depends" - interaction effects when significant
Term
 MANOVA
Definition
 when have more than one DV (may or may not have more than one IV)
Term
 correlation measure for curvilinear relationships
Definition
 ETA (nonparametric)
Term
 homoscedasticity vs. heteroscedasticity
Definition
 homo - equal scatter around regression linehetero - unequal scatter around regression line (one portion of group might be further away from line while another is clustered around it closely)
Term
 multicollinearity
Definition
 overlap in predictive value of different IVs - you dont want this
Term
 types of data:nominalordinalintervalratio
Definition
 nominal - categories/names (nonparametric)ordinal - rank order (nonparametric)interval - equal distance between data points, e.g., temperature. No absolute zero (parametric)ratio - equal distance between data points, can be add, sub, mult, divide. has an absolute zero(parametric).
Term
 central limit theorem states
Definition
 as sample size increase, distribution of scores become a normal curve
Term
 Standard Error of the Mean
Definition
 Standard deviation of the population mean --> tells error in your prediction of population mean from your sample. "the extent to which any one sample randomly drawn from the population can be expected to vary from the population mean...it is a measure of variability due to random error" calculated by dividing SD of population by square root of sample size (N)
Term
 Maximize power by
Definition
 increasing alphaincreasing sample sizedecrease extraneous variables (control for or covary out)increase ES (maximize intensity of IV)1-tailed testparametric test
Term
 What are the nonparametric siblings of these tests?t-test correlated groupst-test independent sampleANOVA
Definition
 corr t-test = Wilcoxson Matched pairsind samp t-test = Mann Whitney U testANOVA - Kruskall-Wallis
Term
 common assumptions of parametric and nonparametric, differences, and shortcomings
Definition
 Common:random selection of sampleindependence of observationsDifference:Parametric - normal distribution of data and homoscedasticityNonparametric tests are not as powerful
Term
 pearson product coefficient
Definition
 correlation coeff (r)for interval or ratio data, tells straight up correlation
Term
 Spearman Rank-Order (rho)
Definition
 tells correlation of for ordinal or rank data
Term
 Phi/point biserial
Definition
 tells correlation of true dichotomy variable (sex)
Term
 biserial
Definition
 tells correlation of artificial dichotomy (high earners and low earners)
Term
 contingency coefficient
Definition
 tells correlation of NOMINAL data (e.g., DSM diagnosis)
Term
 multiple regression
Definition
 uses multiple continuous or discrete predictors to predict status on a continuous criterion variable.gives a multiple correlation coefficient (R) Types: simultaneous - put all variables in at oncestepwise (add or subtract one variable at a time and see how R changes, stop when R-squared is high enough)
Term
 cross validation
Definition
 using a Mult Reg equation on a new sample. likely to get shrinkage of correlation coeff bc the same random error is not present in the second sample as in the first one
Term
 discriminant function analysis
Definition
 trying to predict an individual's status on a certain category/nominal criterion using 2 or more continuous predictors
Term
 canonical correlation
Definition
 extension of mult reg with 2 or more continuous predictors to predict status on 2 or more continuous criteria
Term
 reject when true is not type II!
Definition
 type 1 - reject a false null hypothesis (say there is an effect when there is not)- determined by alphatype II - retain a false null hypothesis (say there isnt an effect and there is)- beta, cannot be known or controlled for. inverse relationship with alpha
Term
 types of ANOVAs
Definition
 • Multiple Analysis of variance (MANOVA)– used to control for Type I error• Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)– using your statistical analysis to control for a compound variableo Take out effect of a variable that is going to impact the study. (Ex.30 students in reading class, can take out a subject whose IQ will impact the testing)• Randomized Blocked ANOVA (Block Design) – using a variable by classifying in your groups and in your studyo Three groups classified by reading aptitude (blocking part), want to improve reading aptitude (variable)• Split-plot ANOVA – split design, works with between and within study. o Mixed-design – within group and between group
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