Term
Chi Square Terms goodness of fit 2 kinds 

Definition
for nominal data 2 assumptions: 1) independence of observation, 2) mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories
tells whether observed frequencies match expected
cannot use with time series/repeated measures designs
singlesample (one variable) and multiplesample (multiple variable) versions  number of variables INCLUDES IV and DV 


Term

Definition
Tests whether means of several groups are different. extends ttest to more than 2 groups. Uses the Fstatistic. Significant when > 1
Fratio = MSB/MSW = (Treatment + Error)/Error
use posthoc tests to identify where the difference lies (X, Y, XY intxn)  Scheffe, Tukey, Fischers 


Term

Definition
compares a single sample to a known population mean to see if sig diff 


Term

Definition
when have more than one continuous IV w/ on continuous DV
also called Factorial ANOVA
"it depends"  interaction effects when significant 


Term

Definition
when have more than one DV (may or may not have more than one IV) 


Term
correlation measure for curvilinear relationships 

Definition


Term
homoscedasticity vs. heteroscedasticity 

Definition
homo  equal scatter around regression line
hetero  unequal scatter around regression line (one portion of group might be further away from line while another is clustered around it closely) 


Term

Definition
overlap in predictive value of different IVs  you dont want this 


Term
types of data: nominal ordinal interval ratio 

Definition
nominal  categories/names (nonparametric) ordinal  rank order (nonparametric) interval  equal distance between data points, e.g., temperature. No absolute zero (parametric)
ratio  equal distance between data points, can be add, sub, mult, divide. has an absolute zero(parametric). 


Term
central limit theorem states 

Definition
as sample size increase, distribution of scores become a normal curve 


Term
Standard Error of the Mean 

Definition
Standard deviation of the population mean > tells error in your prediction of population mean from your sample. "the extent to which any one sample randomly drawn from the population can be expected to vary from the population mean...it is a measure of variability due to random error" calculated by dividing SD of population by square root of sample size (N) 


Term

Definition
increasing alpha increasing sample size decrease extraneous variables (control for or covary out) increase ES (maximize intensity of IV) 1tailed test parametric test 


Term
What are the nonparametric siblings of these tests? ttest correlated groups ttest independent sample ANOVA 

Definition
corr ttest = Wilcoxson Matched pairs
ind samp ttest = Mann Whitney U test
ANOVA  KruskallWallis 


Term
common assumptions of parametric and nonparametric, differences, and shortcomings 

Definition
Common: random selection of sample independence of observations
Difference: Parametric  normal distribution of data and homoscedasticity
Nonparametric tests are not as powerful 


Term
pearson product coefficient 

Definition
correlation coeff (r)
for interval or ratio data, tells straight up correlation 


Term
Spearman RankOrder (rho) 

Definition
tells correlation of for ordinal or rank data 


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Definition
tells correlation of true dichotomy variable (sex) 


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Definition
tells correlation of artificial dichotomy (high earners and low earners) 


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Definition
tells correlation of NOMINAL data (e.g., DSM diagnosis) 


Term

Definition
uses multiple continuous or discrete predictors to predict status on a continuous criterion variable.
gives a multiple correlation coefficient (R)
Types: simultaneous  put all variables in at once stepwise (add or subtract one variable at a time and see how R changes, stop when Rsquared is high enough) 


Term

Definition
using a Mult Reg equation on a new sample. likely to get shrinkage of correlation coeff bc the same random error is not present in the second sample as in the first one 


Term
discriminant function analysis 

Definition
trying to predict an individual's status on a certain category/nominal criterion using 2 or more continuous predictors 


Term

Definition
extension of mult reg with 2 or more continuous predictors to predict status on 2 or more continuous criteria 


Term
reject when true is not type II! 

Definition
type 1  reject a false null hypothesis (say there is an effect when there is not)  determined by alpha
type II  retain a false null hypothesis (say there isnt an effect and there is)  beta, cannot be known or controlled for. inverse relationship with alpha 


Term

Definition
• Multiple Analysis of variance (MANOVA)– used to control for Type I error • Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)– using your statistical analysis to control for a compound variable o Take out effect of a variable that is going to impact the study. (Ex.30 students in reading class, can take out a subject whose IQ will impact the testing) • Randomized Blocked ANOVA (Block Design) – using a variable by classifying in your groups and in your study o Three groups classified by reading aptitude (blocking part), want to improve reading aptitude (variable) • Splitplot ANOVA – split design, works with between and within study. o Mixeddesign – within group and between group 

